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1.
Journal of Stroke ; : 69-81, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874955

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) occasionally appear on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among initially DWI-negative but clinically suspicious stroke patients. We established the prevalence of positive conversion in DWI-negative stroke and determined the clinical factors associated with it. @*Methods@#This retrospective, observational, single-center study included 5,271 patients hospitalized due to stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) in a single university hospital during 2010 to 2017. Patients without initial DWI lesions underwent follow-up DWI imaging as a routine practice. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for recurrent stroke risk according to positive conversion were determined using Cox proportional hazard regression. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for positive conversion among initially DWI-negative patients were estimated. @*Results@#In total, 694 (13.2%) patients (mean±standard deviation age, 62.9±13.7 years; male, 404 [58.2%]) were initially DWI-negative. Among them, 22.5% had positive-conversion on follow-up DWI. Positive conversion was associated with a higher risk of recurrent stroke (aHR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.56 to 6.26). Early neurologic deterioration (aOR, 15.1; 95% CI, 5.71 to 47.66), atrial fibrillation (aOR, 6.17; 95% CI, 3.23 to 12.01), smoking (aOR, 3.76; 95% CI, 2.19 to 6.63), pre-stroke dependency (aOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.27), objective hemiparesis (aOR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.90 to 10.32), longer symptom duration (aOR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.57 to 3.08), high cholesterol (aOR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.78 to 12.77), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (aOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.91), and high systolic blood pressure (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.02) were associated with a higher incidence of lesions with delayed appearance. Regarding the location of lesions on follow-up DWI, 34.6% and 21.2% were in the cortex and brainstem, respectively. @*Conclusions@#In DWI-negative stroke/TIA, positive conversion is associated with a higher risk of recurrent stroke. DWI-negative stroke with factors related to positive conversion may require follow-up MRI for a definitive diagnosis.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833669

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: The incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) in young adults is increasing, and the associated large socioeconomic impact makes understanding IS in young adults important. We investigated the causes of and risk factors for IS in young adults, and their impact on outcomes. @*Methods@#The Stroke in Korean Young Adults (SKY) study is a standardized multicenter prospective study involving eight medical centers of the Republic of Korea. First-ever IS patients aged 18 years to 44 years were prospectively included in this study within 7 days of stroke onset.Their outcomes at 3 months were analyzed. @*Results@#This study enrolled 270 patients from April 2014 to December 2018, most (67.8%) of whom were male. About 41.5% of the patients had one or more vascular risk factors from among hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. However, only half of them had received regular treatment. Arterial dissection was more common in males, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Moyamoya disease were more common in females. The outcome was favorable (modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1) in 81.9% of the patients at 3 months after stroke onset. More severe initial symptoms, higher initial glucose level, and SLE as a comorbidity were associated with unfavorable outcomes. @*Conclusions@#Young adult IS patients in Korea exhibit low awareness and poor management of their risk factors. Although the short-term outcome was relatively favorable in those patients, having SLE was associated with unfavorable outcomes. More attention needs to be paid for improving awareness and controlling risk factors in this population.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831656

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to describe the current status of acute stroke care in Korea and explore disparities among hospitals and regions. @*Methods@#The 2013 and 2014 national stroke audit data and the national health insurance claims data were linked and used for this study. Stroke patients hospitalized via emergency rooms within 7 days of stroke onset were selected. @*Results@#A total of 19,608 patients treated in 216 hospitals were analyzed. Among them 76% had ischemic stroke; 15%, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); and 9%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Of the hospitals, 31% provided inpatient stroke unit care. Ambulances were used in 56% of cases, and the median interval from onset to arrival was 4.5 hours. One-quarter of patients were referred from other hospitals. Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular treatment (EVT) rates were 11% and 4%, respectively. Three-quarters of the analyzed hospitals provided IVT and/or EVT, whereas 47% of hospitals providing IVT and 67% of hospitals providing EVT had less than one case per month. Decompressive surgery was performed on 28% of ICH patients, and clipping and coiling were performed in 17.2% and 14.3% of SAH patients, respectively. There were noticeable regional disparities between the various interventions, ambulance use, arrival time, and stroke unit availability. @*Conclusion@#This study describes the current status of acute stroke care in Korea. Despite quite acceptable quality of stroke care, it suggests regional and hospital disparities. Expansion of stroke units, stroke center certification or accreditation, and connections between stroke centers and emergency medical services are highly recommended.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using data from a large national stroke registry, we aimed to investigate the incidence and determinants of in-hospital and post-discharge recovery after acute ischemic stroke and the independence of their occurrence. METHODS: In-hospital recovery was defined as an improvement of 4 points or > 40% in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score from admission to discharge. Post-discharge recovery was defined as any improvement in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from discharge to 3 months after stroke onset. Two analytic methods (multivariate and multivariable logistic regression) were applied to compare the effects of 18 known determinants of 3-month outcome and to verify whether in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occur independently. RESULTS: During 54 months, 11,088 patients with acute ischemic stroke meeting the eligibility criteria were identified. In-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 36% and 33% of patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression with an equality test for odds ratios showed that 7 determinants (age, onset-to-admission time, NIHSS score at admission, blood glucose at admission, systolic blood pressure, smoking, recanalization therapy) had a differential effect on in-hospital and post-discharge recovery in the way of the opposite direction or of the same direction with different degree (all P values < 0.05). Both in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 12% of the study population and neither of them in 43%. The incidence of post-discharge recovery in those with in-hospital recovery was similar to that in those without (33.8% vs. 32.7%, respectively), but multivariable analysis showed that these 2 types of recovery occurred independently. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in-hospital and post-discharge recovery may occur independently and largely in response to different factors.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Registries , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients who survive an acute phase of stroke are at risk of falls and fractures afterwards. However, it is largely unknown how frequent fractures occur in the Asian stroke population. METHODS: Patients with acute (< 7 days) ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between January 2011 and November 2013 were identified from a prospective multicenter stroke registry in Korea, and were linked to the National Health Insurance Service claim database. The incidences of fractures were investigated during the first 4 years after index stroke. The cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were estimated by the Gray's test for competing risk data. Fine and Gray model for competing risk data was applied for exploring risk factors of post-stroke fractures. RESULTS: Among a total of 11,522 patients, 1,616 fracture events were identified: 712 spine fractures, 397 hip fractures and 714 other fractures. The CIFs of any fractures were 2.63% at 6 months, 4.43% at 1 year, 8.09% at 2 years and 13.00% at 4 years. Those of spine/hip fractures were 1.11%/0.61%, 1.88%/1.03%, 3.28%/1.86% and 5.79%/3.15%, respectively. Age by a 10-year increment (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–1.30), women (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.54–1.97), previous fracture (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.54–1.92) and osteoporosis (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.27–1.63) were independent risk factors of post-stroke fracture. CONCLUSION: The CIFs of fractures are about 8% at 2 years and 13% at 4 years after acute ischemic stroke in Korea. Older age, women, pre-stroke fracture and osteoporosis raised the risk of post-stroke fractures.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Epidemiology , Female , Hip Fractures , Humans , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Osteoporosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spine , Stroke
6.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 403-413, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wound healing mechanisms is believed to have effects similar to wound healing disorders in diabetic patients, including abnormal inflammatory cells, angiogenesis disorders, and reduced collagen synthesis. Therefore, reestablishment of structural and promoted angiogenesis could be beneficial to promote wound healing process. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, we investigated whether the polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) that was self-production in Korea, could be useful as an intradermal injection for promoting wound healing. Also, we validate for wound healing effect of PDRN using healing-impaired (db/db) mice. METHODS: In this study, we confirmed the effects of PDRN by creating wound models in in vitro and in vivo model. Using an in vitro wound healing assay, we observed that PDRN stimulated closure of wounded monolayers of human fibroblast cells. PDRN (8.25 mg/ml) or phosphate-buffered saline (0.9% NaCl) was injected once daily into the dermis adjacent to the wound for 12 days after skin injury. RESULTS: Time course observations revealed that mice treated with PDRN showed accelerated wound closure and epidermal and dermal regeneration, enhanced angiogenesis. The wound area and depth decreased at 3, 6, 9, and 12 days after skin injury. Histological evaluation showed an increase of vascular endothelial growth factor, CD31, and collagen fibers in the PDRN group compared with the control group, indicating that PDRN was effective in the treatment of delayed wound healing caused by diabetes. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that our PDRN has a wound healing effect in transgenic animal models with cells and diabetes through angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Collagen , Dermis , Fibroblasts , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Injections, Intradermal , Korea , Mice , Models, Animal , Polydeoxyribonucleotides , Regeneration , Skin , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
7.
Journal of Stroke ; : 332-339, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the number and characteristics of patients eligible for endovascular treatment (EVT) determined using three different selection methods: clinical-core mismatch, target mismatch, and collateral status. METHODS: Using the data of consecutive patients from two prospectively maintained registries of university medical centers, the number and characteristics of patients according to the three selection methods were investigated and their correlation was analyzed. Patients with anterior circulation stroke due to occlusion of the middle cerebral and/or internal carotid artery and a National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of ≥6 points, who arrived within 8 hours or between 6 and 12 hours of symptom onset and underwent magnetic resonance imaging prior to EVT, were included. Collateral status was assessed using magnetic resonance perfusion-derived collateral flow maps. RESULTS: Three hundred thirty-five patients were investigated; the proportions of patients who were eligible and ineligible for EVT in all three selection methods were both small (n=85, 25.4%; n=54, 16.1%, respectively). The intercorrelation among the three selection methods was low (κ=0.235). The baseline NIHSS score and onset-to-selection time interval were associated with the presence of clinical-core mismatch, while the penumbra/core volume ratio and onset-to-selection time interval were related to target mismatch; none of these variables were associated with collateral status. The infarct core volume was associated with favorable profiles in all three selection methods. CONCLUSIONS: Although the application of individual selection methods resulted in favorable outcomes after EVT in clinical trials, there is a significant discrepancy in EVT eligibility depending on the selection method used.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Carotid Artery, Internal , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Prospective Studies , Registries , Stroke
8.
Neurointervention ; : 99-106, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760597

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although endovascular treatment is currently thought to only be suitable for patients who have pial arterial filling scores >3 as determined by multiphase computed tomography angiography (mpCTA), a cut-off score of 3 was determined by a study, including patients within 12 hours after symptom onset. We aimed to investigate whether a cut-off score of 3 for endovascular treatment within 6 hours of symptom onset is an appropriate predictor of good functional outcome at 3 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From April 2015 to January 2016, acute ischemic stroke patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy within 6 hours of symptom onset were enrolled into this study. Pial arterial filling scores were semi-quantitatively assessed using mpCTA, and clinical and radiological parameters were compared between patients with favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was then performed to investigate the independent association between clinical outcome and pial collateral score, with the predictive power of the latter assessed using C-statistics. RESULTS: Of the 38 patients enrolled, 20 (52.6%) had a favorable outcome and 18 had an unfavorable outcome, with the latter group showing a lower mean pial arterial filling score (3.6±0.8 vs. 2.4±1.2, P=0.002). After adjusting for variables with a P-value of 2 vs. ≤2. CONCLUSION: A pial arterial filling cut-off score of 2 as determined by mpCTA appears to be more suitable for predicting clinical outcomes following endovascular treatment within 6 hours of symptom onset than the cut-off of 3 that had been previously suggested.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Humans , Logistic Models , Stroke , Thrombectomy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many researchers have sought to identify safe, natural herbal extracts that exert an anti-melanogenesis effect. Cinnamomi cortex has been widely used as a herbal medicine in Asia and Europe. OBJECTIVE: To confirm the inhibitory effects of Cinnamomi cortex extract against melanogenesis and inflammation and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of these actions. METHODS: Effects of Cinnamomi cortex extract on melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16F10 melanoma cells were evaluated using an ELISA reader. Tyrosinase and MITF protein expression was determined using western blotting. Nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells was measured using Griess reaction. PGE₂ was assayed with an ELISA kit. RESULTS: Cinnamomi cortex extracts inhibited melanin synthesis, tyrosinase activity, and MITF and tyrosinase expression through regulation of the ERK and CREB genes in α-MSH-induced B16 melanoma cells. In addition, Cinnamomi cortex extracts inhibited the expression of NO, PGE₂, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells. CONCLUSION: We suggest that Cinnamomi cortex may be a potentially useful agent for treating inflammatory skin diseases such as hyperpigmentation based on its inhibitory effects against melanin synthesis and inflammation response in vitro.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Asia , Blotting, Western , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Europe , Herbal Medicine , Hyperpigmentation , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Melanins , Melanoma , Melanoma, Experimental , Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Nitric Oxide , Skin Diseases
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The development of a safe and convenient agent that can promote hair growth in patients with androgenetic alopecia remains challenging. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a newly developed hair tonic containing a human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (hUCB-MSC)-derived conditioned medium in promoting hair growth. METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study investigated the efficacy of a hair tonic containing an hUCB-MSC-derived conditioned medium in 30 patients with patterned hair loss. Treatment efficacy was determined using phototrichograms to evaluate the density, diameter, and hair growth rate at baseline levels and after 4, 8, and 16 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: The hair density in the group treated with the hair tonic significantly increased from 125.2 to 134.6 hairs/cm2 (p<0.05). In this same group, the thickness of hair also increased from 0.083 to 0.110 mm (p<0.05). Additionally, the hair growth rate increased from 0.285 to 0.338 mm/day (p<0.05). No severe adverse reactions were reported. CONCLUSION: A hair tonic containing an hUCB-MSC-derived conditioned medium could be a new effective alternative to treat patients with androgenetic alopecia.


Subject(s)
Alopecia , Clinical Study , Culture Media, Conditioned , Fetal Blood , Hair Preparations , Hair , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Treatment Outcome , Umbilical Cord
11.
Journal of Stroke ; : 42-59, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740619

ABSTRACT

Despite the great socioeconomic burden of stroke, there have been few reports of stroke statistics in Korea. In this scenario, the Epidemiologic Research Council of the Korean Stroke Society launched the “Stroke Statistics in Korea” project, aimed at writing a contemporary, comprehensive, and representative report on stroke epidemiology in Korea. This report contains general statistics of stroke, prevalence of behavioral and vascular risk factors, stroke characteristics, pre-hospital system of care, hospital management, quality of stroke care, and outcomes. In this report, we analyzed the most up-to-date and nationally representative databases, rather than performing a systematic review of existing evidence. In summary, one in 40 adults are patients with stroke and 232 subjects per 100,000 experience a stroke event every year. Among the 100 patients with stroke in 2014, 76 had ischemic stroke, 15 had intracerebral hemorrhage, and nine had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke mortality is gradually declining, but it remains as high as 30 deaths per 100,000 individuals, with regional disparities. As for stroke risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is decreasing in men but not in women, and the prevalence of alcohol drinking is increasing in women but not in men. Population-attributable risk factors vary with age. Smoking plays a role in young-aged individuals, hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged individuals, and atrial fibrillation in the elderly. About four out of 10 hospitalized patients with stroke are visiting an emergency room within 3 hours of symptom onset, and only half use an ambulance. Regarding acute management, the proportion of patients with ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment was 10.7% and 3.6%, respectively. Decompressive surgery was performed in 1.4% of patients with ischemic stroke and in 28.1% of those with intracerebral hemorrhage. The cumulative incidence of bleeding and fracture at 1 year after stroke was 8.9% and 4.7%, respectively. The direct costs of stroke were about ₩1.68 trillion (KRW), of which ₩1.11 trillion were for ischemic stroke and ₩540 billion for hemorrhagic stroke. The great burden of stroke in Korea can be reduced through more concentrated efforts to control major attributable risk factors for age and sex, reorganize emergency medical service systems to give patients with stroke more opportunities for reperfusion therapy, disseminate stroke unit care, and reduce regional disparities. We hope that this report can contribute to achieving these tasks.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Ambulances , Atrial Fibrillation , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology , Female , Hemorrhage , Hope , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Korea , Male , Mortality , Prevalence , Reperfusion , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Writing
12.
Journal of Stroke ; : 69-77, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombectomy within 24 hours can improve outcomes in selected patients with a clinical-infarct mismatch. We devised an easy-to-use visual estimation tool that allows infarct volume estimation in centers with limited resources. METHODS: We identified 1,031 patients with cardioembolic or large-artery atherosclerosis infarction on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained before recanalization therapy and within 24 hours of onset, and occlusion of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery. Acute DWIs were mapped onto a standard template and used to create visual reference maps with known lesion volumes, which were then used in a validation study (with 130 cases) against software estimates of infarct volume. RESULTS: The DWI reference map chart comprises 144 maps corresponding to 12 different infarct volumes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 mL) in each of 12 template slices (Montreal Neurological Institute z-axis –15 to 51 mm). Infarct volume in a patient is estimated by selecting a slice with a similar infarct size at the corresponding z-axis level on the reference maps and then adding up over all slices. The method yielded good correlations to software volumetrics and was easily learned by both experienced and junior physicians, with approximately 1 to 2 minutes spent per case. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detecting threshold infarct volumes ( 90%). CONCLUSIONS: We developed easy-to-use reference maps that allow prompt and reliable visual estimation of infarct volumes for triaging patients to thrombectomy in acute stroke.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Cerebral Infarction , Decision Making , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Infarction , Medical Staff, Hospital , Methods , Middle Cerebral Artery , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stroke , Thrombectomy
15.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 688-693, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are few pharmacologic options to reduce erythema and flushing in patients with recalcitrant erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR). We previously reported two cases of refractory flushing and erythema of rosacea that were successfully treated with intradermal botulinum toxin injection, and additional research is needed to prove the efficacy and safety of this treatment. OBJECTIVE: To report the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin injection as an aid in persistent erythema of rosacea patients. METHODS: A total of 20 Korean patients with recalcitrant ETR were enrolled to receive treatment by injection of botulinum toxin. Patients received one treatment of intradermal botulinum toxin injection and were assessed 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatment. The severity of erythema and telangiectasia was investigated by a non-treating physician, and the Erythema Index (EI) was assessed by mexameter at each visit. Patient satisfaction and any adverse events were also assessed at each visit. RESULTS: 17 patients completed all follow-up visits and were included in the analysis. Intradermal injection of botulinum toxin significantly reduced erythema severity and EI in ETR patients. Patients reported a satisfaction score of 2.94±0.56 at 8 weeks after treatment. Except for three patients who discontinued the study early due to inconvenience of facial muscle paralysis, 17 patients participating in the final analysis did not report side effects except injection pain at the time of the procedure. CONCLUSION: Intradermal injection of botulinum toxin can be used as an effective and relatively safe adjuvant agent for recalcitrant and persistent erythema of ETR patients.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins , Erythema , Facial Muscles , Flushing , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Injections, Intradermal , Paralysis , Patient Satisfaction , Pilot Projects , Rosacea , Telangiectasis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are associated with cerebrovascular risk factors and cognitive dysfunction among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether CMBs themselves are associated with PD is to be elucidated. METHODS: We analyzed the presence of CMBs using 3-Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging in non-demented patients with PD and in age-, sex-, and hypertension-matched control subjects. PD patients were classified according to their motor subtypes: tremor-dominant, intermediate, and postural instability-gait disturbance (PIGD). Other cerebrovascular risk factors and small vessel disease (SVD) burdens were also evaluated. RESULTS: Two-hundred and five patients with PD and 205 control subjects were included. The prevalence of CMBs was higher in PD patients than in controls (16.1% vs. 8.8%; odds ratio [OR], 2.126; P = 0.019); CMBs in the lobar area showed a significant difference between PD patients and controls (11.7% vs. 5.9%; OR, 2.234; P = 0.032). According to the motor subtype, CMBs in those with PIGD type showed significant difference from controls with respect to the overall brain area (21.1% vs. 8.9%; OR, 2.759; P = 0.010) and lobar area (14.6% vs. 4.9%; OR, 3.336; P = 0.016). Among PD patients, those with CMBs had higher age and more evidence of SVDs than those without CMBs. CONCLUSION: We found that CMBs are more frequent in PD patients than in controls, especially in those with the PIGD subtype and CMBs on the lobar area. Further study investigating the pathogenetic significance of CMBs is required.


Subject(s)
Brain , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Odds Ratio , Parkinson Disease , Prevalence , Risk Factors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727868

ABSTRACT

Human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) are used in tissue repair and regeneration; however, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We investigated the hair growth-promoting effects of hUCB-MSCs treatment to determine whether hUCB-MSCs enhance the promotion of hair growth. Furthermore, we attempted to identify the factors responsible for hair growth. The effects of hUCB-MSCs on hair growth were investigated in vivo, and hUCB-MSCs advanced anagen onset and hair follicle neogeneration. We found that hUCB-MSCs co-culture increased the viability and up-regulated hair induction-related proteins of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro. A growth factor antibody array revealed that secretory factors from hUCB-MSCs are related to hair growth. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were increased in co-culture medium. Finally, we found that IGFBP-1, through the co-localization of an IGF-1 and IGFBP-1, had positive effects on cell viability; VEGF secretion; expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), CD133, and β-catenin; and formation of hDPCs 3D spheroids. Taken together, these data suggest that hUCB-MSCs promote hair growth via a paracrine mechanism.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Alopecia , Cell Survival , Coculture Techniques , Fetal Blood , Hair Follicle , Hair , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Regeneration , Stem Cells , Umbilical Cord , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
18.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 699-705, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is one of the most prevalent fungal diseases in the general population. However, treatment is of limited effectiveness and must be administered for long periods of time. Systemic antifungal agents are associated with adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of a 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser with amorolfine nail lacquer to treat onychomycosis. METHODS: The 128 patients were randomly divided to 2 groups: 64 in the experimental group were treated with 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser therapy and amorolfine nail lacquer; the other 64 were in a control group treated with topical amorolfine lacquer monotherapy. The laser treatment was 4 sessions at 4-week intervals and amorolfine lacquer was applied once a week for 16 weeks. Efficacy was assessed as response rate from standardized photographs with ImagePro®Plus (Media Cybernetics, Inc., USA) analysis, microscopic examination, and subjective evaluation. RESULTS: At 16 weeks, the experimental group showed a significantly higher cumulative cure rate than the control group (71.88% vs. 20.31%, p<0.0001). Clinical therapeutic effects were linked to patient satisfaction. The percent of “very satisfied” or “satisfied” responses was higher in the test group than the control group (81.25% vs. 23.44%). The treatment regimen was well tolerated, with transient discomfort observed in the test group. CONCLUSION: The 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser with amorolfine nail lacquer was effective and safe for treating onychomycosis. This therapy should be considered an alternative treatment, especially for patients with contraindications to systemic antifungal agents.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Cybernetics , Humans , Lacquer , Laser Therapy , Onychomycosis , Patient Satisfaction , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome , Yttrium
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