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1.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 18-30, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967818

ABSTRACT

Background@#Korea recently established 70 emergency medical service areas. However, there are many concerns that medical resources for stroke could not be evenly distributed through the country. We aimed to compare the treatment quality and outcomes of acute stroke among the emergency medical service areas. @*Methods@#This study analyzed the data of 28,800 patients admitted in 248 hospitals which participated in the 8th acute stroke quality assessment by Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Individual hospitals were regrouped into emergency service areas according to the address of the location. Assessment indicators and fatality were compared by the service areas. We defined the appropriate hospital by the performance of intravenous thrombolysis. @*Results@#In seven service areas, there were no hospitals which received more than 10 stroke patients for 6 months. In nine service areas, there were no patients who underwent intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Among 167 designated emergency medical centers, 50 hospitals (29.9%) responded that IVT was impossible 24 hours a day. There are 97 (39.1%) hospitals that meet the definitions of appropriate hospital. In 23 service areas (32.9%) had no appropriate or feasible hospitals. The fatality of service areas with stroke centers were 6.9% within 30 days and 15.6% within 1 year from stroke onset than those without stroke centers (7.7%, 16.9%, respectively). @*Conclusions@#There was a wide regional gap in the medical resource and the quality of treatments for acute stroke among emergency medical service areas in Korea. The poststroke fatality rate of the service areas which have stroke centers or appropriate hospitals were significantly low.

2.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 145-153, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967663

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Although it is difficult to define the quality of stroke care, acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with moderate-to-severe neurological deficits may benefit from thrombectomy-capable hospitals (TCHs) that have a stroke unit, stroke specialists, and a substantial endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) case volume. @*Methods@#From national audit data collected between 2013 and 2016, potential EVT candidates arriving within 24 hours with a baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥6 were identified. Hospitals were classified as TCHs (≥15 EVT case/y, stroke unit, and stroke specialists), primary stroke hospitals (PSHs) without EVT (PSHs-without-EVT, 0 case/y), and PSHs-with-EVT. Thirty-day and 1-year case-fatality rates (CFRs) were analyzed using random intercept multilevel logistic regression. @*Results@#Out of 35 004 AIS patients, 7954 (22.7%) EVT candidates were included in this study. The average 30-day CFR was 16.3% in PSHs-without-EVT, 14.8% in PSHs-with-EVT, and 11.0% in TCHs. The average 1-year CFR was 37.5% in PSHs-without-EVT, 31.3% in PSHs-with-EVT, and 26.2% in TCHs. In TCHs, a significant reduction was not found in the 30-day CFR (odds ratio [OR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.12), but was found in the 1-year CFR (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.96). @*Conclusions@#The 1-year CFR was significantly reduced when EVT candidates were treated at TCHs. TCHs are not defined based solely on the number of EVTs, but also based on the presence of a stroke unit and stroke specialists. This supports the need for TCH certification in Korea and suggests that annual EVT case volume could be used to qualify TCHs.

3.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 125-130, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967130

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeInterhospital transfer is an essential practical component of regional stroke care systems. To establish an effective stroke transfer network in South Korea, an interactive transfer system was constructed, and its workflow metrics were observed. @*Methods@#In March 2019, a direct transfer system between primary stroke hospitals (PSHs) and comprehensive regional stroke centers (CSCs) was established to standardize the clinical pathway of imaging, recanalization therapy, transfer decisions, and exclusive transfer linkage systems in the two types of centers. In an active case, the time metrics from arrival at PSH (“door”) to imaging was measured, and intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular treatment (EVT) were used to assess the differences in clinical situations. @*Results@#The direct transfer system was used by 27 patients. They stayed at the PSH for a median duration of 72 min (interquartile range [IQR], 38–114 min), with a median times of 15 and 58 min for imaging and subsequent processing, respectively. The door-to-needle median times of subjects treated with IVT at PSHs (n=5) and CSCs (n=2) were 21 min (IQR, 20.0–22.0 min) and 137.5 min (IQR, 125.3–149.8 min), respectively. EVT was performed on seven subjects (25.9%) at CSCs, which took a median duration of 175 min; 77 min at the PSH, 48 min for transportation, and 50 min at the CSC. Before EVT, bridging IVT at the PSH did not significantly affect the door-to-puncture time (127 min vs. 143.5 min, p=0.86). @*Conclusions@#The direct and interactive transfer system is feasible in real-world practice in South Korea and presents merits in reducing the treatment delay by sharing information during transfer.

4.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 272-277, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001547

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a serious post-infectious complication of COVID-19 characterized by hyperinflammation and multi-organ dysfunction including shock. Shock is also seen in a severe form of Kawasaki disease (KD) called KD shock syndrome (KDSS). Here, we present one MIS-C and one KDSS case and compare similarities and differences between them. Both MIS-C (case 1) and KDSS (case 2) showed hyperinflammation, KD-related features, gastrointestinal problems, hypotension, and coagulopathy. The extent of systemic inflammation and organ dysfunction was more severe in KDSS than in MIS-C. Case 1 was diagnosed as MIS-C because SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed, and case 2 was diagnosed as KDSS because no pathogen was identified in microbiological studies. We believe that the most important difference between MIS-C and KDSS was whether SARS-CoV-2 was identified as an infectious trigger. Organ dysfunction is a hallmark of MIS-C and KDSS, but not KD, so MIS-C shares more clinical phenotypes with KDSS than with KD. Comparison of MIS-C and KDSS will be an interesting and important topic in the field of KD-like hyperinflammatory disease research.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e254-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938033

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to present the prognosis after minor acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA), using a definition of subsequent stroke in accordance with recent clinical trials. In total, 9,506 patients with minor AIS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤ 5) or high-risk TIA (acute lesions or ≥ 50% cerebral artery steno-occlusion) admitted between November 2010 and October 2013 were included. The primary outcome was the composite of stroke (progression of initial event or a subsequent event) and all-cause mortality. The cumulative incidence of stroke or death was 11.2% at 1 month, 13.3% at 3 months and 16.7% at 1 year. Incidence rate of stroke or death in the first month was 12.5 per 100 person-months: highest in patients with large artery atherosclerosis (17.0). The risk of subsequent events shortly after a minor AIS or high-risk TIA was substantial, particularly in patients with large artery atherosclerosis.

6.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 178-181, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926622

ABSTRACT

Spider angioma (SA) may present as solitary or multiple lesions. Studies have shown that approximately 60% of pregnant women and 38% of healthy children have at least one spider telangiectasia. Hence, solitary SA in an otherwise healthy individual does not warrant further workup. However, multiple spider angiomas (MSAs) are usually suggestive of an underlying systemic disease. Physical examination for MSAs has been reported as the most reliable method to diagnose alcoholic liver cirrhosis; the presence of MSAs is more indicative of liver cirrhosis than just the history of alcohol use because a very low proportion of alcohol drinkers among the general population develop liver cirrhosis. We report a case of MSAs in a 42-year-old alcoholic woman suggesting that MSA is reliable indicator and a warning sign of liver cirrhosis, suggesting that further evaluation and management with the department of hepatology is necessary.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e141-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925987

ABSTRACT

Background@#The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on Kawasaki disease (KD) has not yet been established. We investigated changes in the observed number and severity of KD cases and accompanying coronary artery complications during the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea. @*Methods@#This retrospective observational study included patients aged < 18 years with acute-phase KD diagnosed between March 2018 and February 2021. Data were extracted from the Clinical Data Warehouse that houses data from five affiliated university hospitals in Korea. We analyzed changes in the number of patient admissions and clinical characteristics, including cardiac complications, before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Results@#A total of 475 admissions were included in the analysis. After March 2020, we observed a significant decrease of 33% in the number of hospitalizations for KD compared with the average number of hospitalizations during the previous 2 years. The number of admissions per month significantly decreased by 7.9 persons/month (95% confidence interval, −13.8 to −2.0; P < 0.05) compared with that before COVID-19. By contrast, the proportion of patients aged < 1 year with KD increased. The proportion of patients with refractory KD and the rate of cardiac complications did not change significantly. @*Conclusion@#Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the total number of hospital admissions for KD has decreased in Korea. Although the proportion of admissions of infants aged < 1 year increased, no changes were observed in clinical courses and complications.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e100-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925871

ABSTRACT

Background@#Clinical implications of elevated fasting triglycerides (FTGs) and non-fasting triglycerides (NFTGs) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remain unknown. We aimed to elucidate the correlation and clinical significance of FTG and NFTG levels in AIS patients. @*Methods@#Using a multicenter prospective stroke registry, we identified AIS patients hospitalized within 24 hours of onset with available NFTG results. The primary outcome was a composite of stroke recurrence, myocardial infarction, and all-cause mortality up to one year. @*Results@#This study analyzed 2,176 patients. The prevalence of fasting and non-fasting hypertriglyceridemia was 11.5% and 24.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age, diabetes, higher body mass index and initial systolic blood pressure were independently associated with both fasting and non-fasting hypertriglyceridemia (all P < 0.05). Patients with higher quartiles of NFTG were more likely to be male, younger, eversmokers, diabetic, and have family histories of premature coronary heart disease and stroke (all P < 0.05). Similar tendencies were observed for FTG. The composite outcome was not associated with FTG or NFTG quartiles. @*Conclusion@#The fasting and non-fasting hypertriglyceridemia were prevalent in AIS patients and showed similar clinical characteristics and outcomes. High FTG and NFTG levels were not associated with occurrence of subsequent clinical events up to one year.

9.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 237-244, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937157

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pediatric alopecia areata (AA) can affect the quality of life (QoL) of patients and their family members. Research on the QoL and burden on family members in pediatric AA is limited. @*Objective@#This nationwide multicenter questionnaire study described the QoL and burden of the family members of patients with pediatric AA. @*Methods@#This nationwide multicenter questionnaire study enrolled AA patients between the ages of 5 and 18 years from March 1, 2017 to February 28, 2018. Enrolled patients and their parents completed the modified Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and the modified Dermatitis Family Impact (mDFI). The disease severity was measured using the Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) survey scores. @*Results@#A total of 268 patients with AA from 22 hospitals participated in this study. Our study found that the efficacy and satisfaction of previous treatments of AA decreased as the severity of the disease increased. The use of home-based therapies and traditional medicines increased with the increasing severity of the disease, but the efficacy felt by patients was limited. CDLQI and mDFI scores were higher in patients with extensive AA than those with mild to moderate AA. The economic and time burden of the family members also increased as the severity of the disease increased. @*Conclusion@#The severity of the AA is indirectly proportional to the QoL of patients and their family members and directly proportional to the burden. Physicians need to understand these characteristics of pediatric AA and provide appropriate intervention to patients and their family members.

10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 150-163, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938689

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of ischemic heart disease is steadily growing as populations age. Antithrombotic treatment is a key therapeutic modality for the prevention of secondary cerebro-cardiovascular disease. Patients with acute coronary syndrome or who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention must be treated with dual antiplatelet therapy for a mandatory period. The optimal perioperative antithrombotic regimen remains debatable; antithrombotics can cause bleeding. Inadequate antithrombotic regimens are associated with perioperative ischemic events, but continuation of therapy may increase the risks of perioperative hemorrhagic complications (including mortality). Many guidelines on the perioperative management of antithrombotic agents have been established by academic societies. However, the existing guidelines do not cover all specialties, nor do they describe the thrombotic and hemorrhagic risks associated with various surgical interventions. Moreover, few practical recommendations on the modification of antithrombotic regimens in patients who require non-deferrable interventions/surgeries or procedures associated with a high risk of hemorrhage have appeared. Therefore, cardiologists, specialists performing invasive procedures, surgeons, dentists, and anesthesiologists have not come to a consensus on optimal perioperative antithrombotic regimens. The Korean Platelet-Thrombosis Research Group presented a positioning paper on perioperative antithrombotic management. We here discuss commonly encountered clinical scenarios and engage in evidence-based discussion to assist individualized, perioperative antithrombotic management in clinical practice.

11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 204-228, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938674

ABSTRACT

Given the progressive improvements in antithrombotic strategies, management of cardiovascular disease has become sophisticated/refined. However, the optimal perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome or who are scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention remains unclear. Assessments of the thrombotic and hemorrhagic risks are essential to reduce the rates of mortality and major cardiac events. However, the existing guidelines do not mention these topics. This case-based consensus document deals with common clinical scenarios and offers evidence-based guidelines for individualized perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy in the real world.

12.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 385-394, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915878

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aimed to explore the status of regional variations in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treatment and investigate the association between the presence of a thrombectomy-capable stroke center (TSC) and the case fatality rate (CFR) of AIS within hospital service areas (HSAs). @*Methods@#This observational cross-sectional study analyzed acute stroke quality assessment program data from 262 hospitals between 2013 and 2016. TSCs were defined according to the criteria of the Joint Commission. In total, 64 HSAs were identified based on the addresses of hospitals. We analyzed the effects of structure factors, process factors, and the presence of a TSC on the CFR of AIS using multivariate logistic regression. @*Results@#Among 262 hospitals, 31 hospitals met the definition of a TSC. Of the 64 HSAs, only 20 had a TSC. At hospitals, the presence of a stroke unit, the presence of stroke specialists, and the rate of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) treatment were associated with reductions in the CFR. In HSAs, the rate of EVT treatment (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 0.99) and the presence of a TSC (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88 to 0.99) significantly reduced the CFR of AIS. @*Conclusions@#The presence of a TSC within an HSA, corresponding to structure and process factors related to the quality of care, contributed significantly to lowering the CFR of AIS. The CFR also declined as the rate of treatment increased. This study highlights the importance of TSCs in the development of an acute stroke care system in Korea.

13.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 217-224, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894290

ABSTRACT

Background@#The adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) on the skin have been concerning recently. @*Objective@#We investigated PM induced inflammation on barrier-interrupted skin and relieving effects of plant extracts on PM-induced skin irritation. @*Methods@#A total of 20 participants were enrolled for the induction of skin irritation. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) patch was affixed to the forearm for 24 hours. After patch removal, total suspended particulates (TSPs) were applied. After inducing skin irritation using SLS and TSP, cream containing 0.1% mixture of plant extracts (Citrus sunki, Sceptridium ternatum (Botrychium ternatum), and Korthalsella japonica) was applied. The a* value, erythema index (EI), and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured. @*Results@#The a* value was significantly higher at the site where TSPs were applied than that at the site where TSPs were not applied at 1 and 2 days after SLS patch removal. The a* value, EI, and TEWL were significantly low in the cream-applied area 7 days after the introduction of the SLS patch and TSPs. @*Conclusion@#PM induced skin irritation in a previously disrupted skin barrier. Topical application of plant extracts alleviated skin irritation symptoms caused by dust exposure.

14.
Journal of Stroke ; : 343-357, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892960

ABSTRACT

Endovascular therapy (EVT) is an effective treatment for ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Unlike intravenous thrombolysis, EVT enables visualization of the restoration of blood flow, also known as successful reperfusion in real time. However, until successful reperfusion is achieved, the survival of the ischemic brain is mainly dependent on blood flow from the leptomeningeal collaterals (LMC). It plays a critical role in maintaining tissue perfusion after LVO via pre-existing channels between the arborizing pial small arteries or arterioles overlying the cerebral hemispheres. In the ischemic territory where the physiologic cerebral autoregulation is impaired and the pial arteries are maximally dilated within their capacity, the direction and amount of LMC perfusion rely on the systemic perfusion, which can be estimated by measuring blood pressure (BP). After the EVT procedure, treatment focuses on mitigating the risk of hemorrhagic transformation, potentially via BP reduction. Thus, BP management may be a key component of acute care for patients with LVO stroke. However, the guidelines on BP management during and after EVT are limited, mostly due to the scarcity of high-level evidence on this issue. In this review, we aim to summarize the anatomical and physiological characteristics of LMC to maintain cerebral perfusion after acute LVO, along with a landscape summary of the literature on BP management in endovascular treatment. The objective of this review is to describe the mechanistic association between systemic BP and collateral perfusion after LVO and thus provide clinical and research perspectives on this topic.

15.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 213-219, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891402

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose An insertable cardiac monitor (ICM) has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for detecting subclinical atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). This study aimed to identify the clinical predictors of AF in ESUS patients with ICMs. @*Methods@#We retrospectively selected consecutive patients with an ICM implanted for AF detection following ESUS. The primary endpoint was defined as any AF episode lasting for longer than 5 min. The atrial ectopic burden (AEB) was calculated as the percentage of the number of conducted QRS from atrial ectopy on Holter monitoring. @*Results@#This study included 136 patients. AF lasting ≥5 min was detected in 20 patients (14.7%) during a median follow-up period of 6.6 months (interquartile range, 3.3–10.8 months).AF patients had a higher AEB (0.20% vs. 0.02%,p<0.001) and a larger left atrial diameter (LAD, 41.0 mm vs. 35.3 mm, p<0.001) than those without AF. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.795 and 0.816 for the LAD and log-transformed AEB, respectively, for the best cutoff values of 38.5 mm for LAD and 0.050% for AEB. AF lasting ≥5 min was detected in 34.6% (9/26) of patients with LAD ≥38.5 mm and AEB ≥0.050%, and in 0% (0/65) of those with LAD <38.5 mm and AEB <0.050%. @*Conclusions@#AF was detected in a significant proportion of ESUS patients during a 6.6-month follow-up. The LAD and AEB are good predictors of AF and might be useful for AF risk stratification in ESUS patients.

16.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 217-224, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901994

ABSTRACT

Background@#The adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) on the skin have been concerning recently. @*Objective@#We investigated PM induced inflammation on barrier-interrupted skin and relieving effects of plant extracts on PM-induced skin irritation. @*Methods@#A total of 20 participants were enrolled for the induction of skin irritation. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) patch was affixed to the forearm for 24 hours. After patch removal, total suspended particulates (TSPs) were applied. After inducing skin irritation using SLS and TSP, cream containing 0.1% mixture of plant extracts (Citrus sunki, Sceptridium ternatum (Botrychium ternatum), and Korthalsella japonica) was applied. The a* value, erythema index (EI), and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured. @*Results@#The a* value was significantly higher at the site where TSPs were applied than that at the site where TSPs were not applied at 1 and 2 days after SLS patch removal. The a* value, EI, and TEWL were significantly low in the cream-applied area 7 days after the introduction of the SLS patch and TSPs. @*Conclusion@#PM induced skin irritation in a previously disrupted skin barrier. Topical application of plant extracts alleviated skin irritation symptoms caused by dust exposure.

17.
Journal of Stroke ; : 343-357, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900664

ABSTRACT

Endovascular therapy (EVT) is an effective treatment for ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Unlike intravenous thrombolysis, EVT enables visualization of the restoration of blood flow, also known as successful reperfusion in real time. However, until successful reperfusion is achieved, the survival of the ischemic brain is mainly dependent on blood flow from the leptomeningeal collaterals (LMC). It plays a critical role in maintaining tissue perfusion after LVO via pre-existing channels between the arborizing pial small arteries or arterioles overlying the cerebral hemispheres. In the ischemic territory where the physiologic cerebral autoregulation is impaired and the pial arteries are maximally dilated within their capacity, the direction and amount of LMC perfusion rely on the systemic perfusion, which can be estimated by measuring blood pressure (BP). After the EVT procedure, treatment focuses on mitigating the risk of hemorrhagic transformation, potentially via BP reduction. Thus, BP management may be a key component of acute care for patients with LVO stroke. However, the guidelines on BP management during and after EVT are limited, mostly due to the scarcity of high-level evidence on this issue. In this review, we aim to summarize the anatomical and physiological characteristics of LMC to maintain cerebral perfusion after acute LVO, along with a landscape summary of the literature on BP management in endovascular treatment. The objective of this review is to describe the mechanistic association between systemic BP and collateral perfusion after LVO and thus provide clinical and research perspectives on this topic.

18.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 213-219, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899106

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose An insertable cardiac monitor (ICM) has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for detecting subclinical atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). This study aimed to identify the clinical predictors of AF in ESUS patients with ICMs. @*Methods@#We retrospectively selected consecutive patients with an ICM implanted for AF detection following ESUS. The primary endpoint was defined as any AF episode lasting for longer than 5 min. The atrial ectopic burden (AEB) was calculated as the percentage of the number of conducted QRS from atrial ectopy on Holter monitoring. @*Results@#This study included 136 patients. AF lasting ≥5 min was detected in 20 patients (14.7%) during a median follow-up period of 6.6 months (interquartile range, 3.3–10.8 months).AF patients had a higher AEB (0.20% vs. 0.02%,p<0.001) and a larger left atrial diameter (LAD, 41.0 mm vs. 35.3 mm, p<0.001) than those without AF. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.795 and 0.816 for the LAD and log-transformed AEB, respectively, for the best cutoff values of 38.5 mm for LAD and 0.050% for AEB. AF lasting ≥5 min was detected in 34.6% (9/26) of patients with LAD ≥38.5 mm and AEB ≥0.050%, and in 0% (0/65) of those with LAD <38.5 mm and AEB <0.050%. @*Conclusions@#AF was detected in a significant proportion of ESUS patients during a 6.6-month follow-up. The LAD and AEB are good predictors of AF and might be useful for AF risk stratification in ESUS patients.

19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 69-81, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874955

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) occasionally appear on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among initially DWI-negative but clinically suspicious stroke patients. We established the prevalence of positive conversion in DWI-negative stroke and determined the clinical factors associated with it. @*Methods@#This retrospective, observational, single-center study included 5,271 patients hospitalized due to stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) in a single university hospital during 2010 to 2017. Patients without initial DWI lesions underwent follow-up DWI imaging as a routine practice. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for recurrent stroke risk according to positive conversion were determined using Cox proportional hazard regression. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for positive conversion among initially DWI-negative patients were estimated. @*Results@#In total, 694 (13.2%) patients (mean±standard deviation age, 62.9±13.7 years; male, 404 [58.2%]) were initially DWI-negative. Among them, 22.5% had positive-conversion on follow-up DWI. Positive conversion was associated with a higher risk of recurrent stroke (aHR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.56 to 6.26). Early neurologic deterioration (aOR, 15.1; 95% CI, 5.71 to 47.66), atrial fibrillation (aOR, 6.17; 95% CI, 3.23 to 12.01), smoking (aOR, 3.76; 95% CI, 2.19 to 6.63), pre-stroke dependency (aOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.27), objective hemiparesis (aOR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.90 to 10.32), longer symptom duration (aOR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.57 to 3.08), high cholesterol (aOR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.78 to 12.77), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (aOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.91), and high systolic blood pressure (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.02) were associated with a higher incidence of lesions with delayed appearance. Regarding the location of lesions on follow-up DWI, 34.6% and 21.2% were in the cortex and brainstem, respectively. @*Conclusions@#In DWI-negative stroke/TIA, positive conversion is associated with a higher risk of recurrent stroke. DWI-negative stroke with factors related to positive conversion may require follow-up MRI for a definitive diagnosis.

20.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 149-156, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896198

ABSTRACT

Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (mesna) is a protective agent that is widely used in medicine because of its antioxidant effects. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to increase pigmentation. Thus, ROS scavengers and inhibitors of ROS production may suppress melanogenesis. Forkhead box-O3a (FoxO3a) is an antimelanogenic factor that mediates ROS-induced skin pigmentation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the whitening effect of mesna and the signaling mechanism mediating this effect. Human melanoma (MNT-1) cells were used in this study. mRNA and protein expression were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting analysis to track changes in FoxO3a-related signals induced by mesna. An immunofluorescence assay was performed to determine the nuclear translocation of FoxO3a. When MNT-1 melanoma cells were treated with mesna, melanin production and secretion decreased. These effects were accompanied by increases in FoxO3a activation and nuclear translocation, resulting in downregulation of four master genes of melanogenesis: MITF, TYR, TRP1, and TRP2. We found that mesna, an antioxidant and radical scavenger, suppresses melanin production and may therefore be a useful agent for the clinical treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders.

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