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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 61: e23143, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557118

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer, and prevention relies on screening programs with resection complete resection of neoplastic lesions. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the best snare polypectomy technique for colorectal lesions up to 10 mm, focusing on complete resection rate, and adverse events. Methods: A comprehensive search using electronic databases was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials comparing hot versus cold snare resection for polyps sized up to 10 mm, and following PRISMA guidelines, a meta-analysis was performed. Outcomes included complete resection rate, en bloc resection rate, polypectomy, procedure times, immediate, delayed bleeding, and perforation. Results: Nineteen RCTs involving 8720 patients and 17588 polyps were included. Hot snare polypectomy showed a higher complete resection rate (RD, 0.02; 95%CI [+0.00,0.04]; P=0.03; I 2=63%), but also a higher rate of delayed bleeding (RD 0.00; 95%CI [0.00, 0.01]; P=0.01; I 2=0%), and severe delayed bleeding (RD 0.00; 95%CI [0.00, 0.00]; P=0.04; I 2=0%). Cold Snare was associated with shorter polypectomy time (MD -46.89 seconds; 95%CI [-62.99, -30.79]; P<0.00001; I 2=90%) and shorter total colonoscopy time (MD -7.17 minutes; 95%CI [-9.10, -5.25]; P<0.00001; I 2=41%). No significant differences were observed in en bloc resection rate or immediate bleeding. Conclusion: Hot snare polypectomy presents a slightly higher complete resection rate, but, as it is associated with a longer procedure time and a higher rate of delayed bleeding compared to Cold Snare, it cannot be recommended as the gold standard approach. Individual analysis and personal experience should be considered when selecting the best approach.


RESUMO Contexto: O câncer colorretal é o terceiro câncer mais comum na população, e a prevenção é principalmente baseada em programas de screening, com a ressecção completa de lesões neoplásicas. Múltiplas técnicas de ressecção estão disponíveis, mas ainda há controvérsias sobre a melhor abordagem, especialmente em relação à taxa de ressecção completa e à taxa de sangramento tardio. Objetivo: Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a melhor técnica de polipectomia com alça para lesões colorretais de até 10 mm. Métodos: Foi realizada uma busca abrangente em bancos de dados eletrônicos (MEDLINE e EMBASE) para identificar ensaios clínicos randomizados que comparassem a ressecção com alça quente versus alça fria para pólipos de até 10 mm, seguindo as diretrizes PRISMA. Os desfechos incluíram taxa de ressecção completa, taxa de ressecção em bloco, tempo de polipectomia, tempo total do procedimento, sangramento imediato, sangramento tardio e perfuração. Resultados: Dezenove ensaios clínicos randomizados foram incluídos, totalizando 8.720 pacientes e 17.588 pólipos. A polipectomia com alça quente foi associada a uma maior taxa de ressecção completa (RD, 0,02; IC95% [+0,00, 0,04]; P=0,03; I 2=63%), embora também tenha sido associada a uma taxa mais alta de sangramento tardio (RD 0,00; IC95% [0,00, 0,01]; P=0,01; I 2=0%) e de sangramento tardio grave (RD 0,00; IC95% [0,00, 0,00]; P=0,04; I 2=0%). A polipectomia com alça fria foi associada a um menor tempo de polipectomia (MD -46,89 segundos; IC95% [-62,99, -30,79]; P<0,00001 I 2=90%) e a um menor tempo total de colonoscopia (DM -7,17 minutos; IC95% [-9,10, -5,25]; P<0,00001 I 2=41%). Não houve diferença significativa na taxa de ressecção em bloco (RD, 0,00; IC95% [-0,01, 0,01]; P=0,20; I 2=30%) ou na taxa de sangramento imediato (RD -0,00; IC95% [-0,01, 0,00]; P=0,34; I 2=11%). Não foram relatados casos de perfuração em nenhum dos grupos. Conclusão: A polipectomia com alça quente apresenta uma taxa ligeiramente mais alta de ressecção completa, mas, como está associada a um tempo de procedimento mais longo e a uma taxa mais alta de sangramento tardio em comparação com a polipectomia com alça fria, não pode ser recomendada como a abordagem padrão. A análise individualizada e a experiência pessoal devem ser consideradas ao escolher a melhor abordagem.

2.
Clinics ; 79: 100323, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557588

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder, with main manifestations related to communication, social interaction, and behavioral patterns. The slight dynamics of change in the child over time require that the onset of clinical manifestations presented by the child be more valued, with the aim of stabilizing the condition. Faced with a variety of methods for diagnosing ASD, the question arises as to which method should be used. This systematic review aims to recommend the best tools to perform screening and diagnosis. Methodology This systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. The databases MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL (Cochrane), and Lilacs were accessed, and gray and manual searches were performed. The search strategy was created with terms referring to autism and the diagnosis/broad filter. The studies were qualitatively evaluated and quantitatively. Statistical analysis was performed using Meta-diSc-2.0 software, the confidence interval was 95 %. Results The M-CHAT-R/F tool demonstrated a sensitivity of 78 % (95 % CI 0.57‒0.91) and specificity of 0.98 (95 % CI 0.88-1.00). The diagnostic tools demonstrated sensitivity and specificity respectively of: ADOS, sensitivity of 87 % (95 % CI 0.79‒0.92) and specificity 75 % (95 % CI 0.73‒0.78); ADI-R demonstrated test sensitivity of 77 % (95 % CI 0.56‒0.90) and specificity 68 % (95 % CI 0.52‒0.81), CARS test sensitivity was 89 % (95 % CI 0.78‒0.95) and specificity 79 % (95 % CI 0.65‒0.88). Conclusion It is mandatory to apply a screening test, the most recommended being the M-CHAT-R/F. For diagnosis CARS and ADOS are the most recommended tools.

3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(4): e2023D704, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558908

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The Guidelines Project, which is an initiative of the Brazilian Medical Association, aims to combine information from the medical field to standardize how to conduct and assist in the reasoning and decision-making of doctors. The information provided by this project must be critically evaluated by the physician responsible for the conduct that will be adopted, depending on the conditions and the clinical condition of each patient.

4.
J. bras. pneumol ; 50(1): e20230233, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550514

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Although lung cancer (LC) is one of the most common and lethal tumors, only 15% of patients are diagnosed at an early stage. Smoking is still responsible for more than 85% of cases. Lung cancer screening (LCS) with low-dose CT (LDCT) reduces LC-related mortality by 20%, and that reduction reaches 38% when LCS by LDCT is combined with smoking cessation. In the last decade, a number of countries have adopted population-based LCS as a public health recommendation. Albeit still incipient, discussion on this topic in Brazil is becoming increasingly broad and necessary. With the aim of increasing knowledge and stimulating debate on LCS, the Brazilian Society of Thoracic Surgery, the Brazilian Thoracic Association, and the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging convened a panel of experts to prepare recommendations for LCS in Brazil. The recommendations presented here were based on a narrative review of the literature, with an emphasis on large population-based studies, systematic reviews, and the recommendations of international guidelines, and were developed after extensive discussion by the panel of experts. The following topics were reviewed: reasons for screening; general considerations about smoking; epidemiology of LC; eligibility criteria; incidental findings; granulomatous lesions; probabilistic models; minimum requirements for LDCT; volumetric acquisition; risks of screening; minimum structure and role of the multidisciplinary team; practice according to the Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System; costs versus benefits of screening; and future perspectives for LCS.


RESUMO O câncer de pulmão (CP) é uma das neoplasias mais comuns e letais no Brasil, e apenas 15% dos pacientes são diagnosticados nos estágios iniciais. O tabagismo persiste como o responsável por mais de 85% de todos os casos. O rastreamento do CP (RCP) por meio da TC de baixa dosagem de radiação (TCBD) reduz a mortalidade do CP em 20%, e, quando combinado com a cessação do tabagismo, essa redução chega a 38%. Na última década, diversos países adotaram o RCP como recomendação de saúde populacional. No Brasil, embora ainda incipiente, a discussão sobre o tema é cada vez mais ampla e necessária. Com o intuito de aumentar o conhecimento e estimular o debate sobre o RCP, a Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Torácica, a Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia e o Colégio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnóstico por Imagem constituíram um painel de especialistas para elaborar as recomendações para o RCP. As recomendações aqui apresentadas foram baseadas em revisão narrativa da literatura, com ênfase em grandes estudos populacionais, em revisões sistemáticas e em recomendações de diretrizes internacionais, sendo construídas após ampla discussão pelo grupo de especialistas. Os temas revisados foram os seguintes: porque rastrear, considerações gerais sobre tabagismo, epidemiologia do CP, critérios de elegibilidade, achados incidentais, lesões granulomatosas, modelos probabilísticos, requisitos mínimos da TCBD, aquisições volumétricas, riscos do rastreamento, estrutura mínima e papel da equipe multidisciplinar, conduta segundo o Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS), custos vs. benefícios e perspectivas do rastreamento.

7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(1): 24-40, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421720

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: COVID-19 continues to be an urgent World issue. Receptors of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), gateway of SARS-CoV-2, are present in the lungs, bladder, prostate, and testicles. Therefore, these organs face high risk of damage caused by the virus and this mechanism may explain non-respiratory symptoms of the disease. Materials and Methods: This systematic review, guided by the PRIMSA statement, was proposed to elucidate possible urological complications of COVID-19. Searches were carried out in Medline (PubMed), Cochrane (CENTRAL), Embase, MedRxiv and LILACS. Bias analysis was made using the specific Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for each study design. Results: Search was carried out until April 2022, and 8,477 articles were identified. Forty-nine of them were included in this systematic review. There is evidence that lower urinary tract symptoms and acute scrotum may be signs of COVID-19 in men, although in a small proportion. Also, the disease may have a transitory impact on male fertility, evidenced by several alterations in sperm counts. However, it must be clarified whether this impact is transitory, or may last for longer periods. Several patients showed reduction of total value of testosterone. Two authors linked low levels of testosterone with worse outcomes of COVID-19, suggesting that the hormone may be used as an early biomarker of the severity of the disease. Moreover, it is extremely unlikely that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted by semen. Conclusion: This systematic review identified possible repercussions of COVID-19 in the urinary as well as in the male reproductive system.

10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 49(6): e20230003, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528927

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of wearing a mask to prevent COVID-19 infection. Methods: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies, considering the best level of evidence available. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinical Trials.gov) were searched to identify studies that evaluated the effectiveness of wearing masks compared with that of not wearing them during the COVID-19 pandemic. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. Results: Of the 1,028 studies identified, 9 met the inclusion criteria (2 cohort studies and 7 case-control studies) and were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis using cohort studies alone showed statistically significant differences, wearing a cloth mask decreased by 21% [RD = −0.21 (95% CI, −0.34 to −0.07); I2 = 0%; p = 0,002] the risk of COVID-19 infection, but the quality of evidence was low. Regarding case-control studies, wearing a surgical mask reduced the chance of COVID-19 infection [OR = 0.51 (95% CI, 0.37-0.70); I2 = 47%; p = 0.0001], as did wearing an N95 respirator mask [OR = 0.31 (95% CI, 0.20-0.49); I2 = 0%; p = 0.00001], both with low quality of evidence. Conclusions: In this systematic review with meta-analysis, we showed the effectiveness of wearing masks in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection regardless of the type of mask (disposable surgical mask, common masks, including cloth masks, or N95 respirators), although the studies evaluated presented with low quality of evidence and important biases.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia do uso de máscaras na prevenção da infecção por COVID-19. Métodos: Revisão sistemática e meta-análise de estudos de coorte e caso-controle, considerando o melhor nível de evidência disponível. Bancos de dados eletrônicos (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials e ClinicalTrials.gov) foram pesquisados para identificar estudos que avaliassem a eficácia do uso de máscaras em comparação com ausência de seu uso durante a pandemia de COVID-19. O risco de viés e a qualidade da evidência foram avaliados usando a ferramenta Cochrane risk of bias e Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. Resultados: Dos 1.028 estudos identificados, 9 preencheram os critérios de inclusão (2 estudos de coorte e 7 estudos de caso-controle) e foram incluídos na análise. A meta-análise usando apenas estudos de coorte mostrou diferenças estatisticamente significativas: o uso de máscara de tecido diminuiu 21% [(risk difference = −0,21 (IC 95%: −0,34 a −0,07); I2 = 0%; p = 0,002] o risco de infecção por COVID-19, mas a qualidade da evidência foi baixa. Em relação aos estudos caso-controle, o uso de máscara cirúrgica reduziu a chance de infecção por COVID-19 [OR = 0,51 (IC 95%: 0,37-0,70); I2 = 47%; p = 0,0001], assim como o uso de máscara respiratória N95 [OR = 0,31 (IC 95%: 0,20-0,49); I2 = 0%; p = 0,00001], ambos com baixa qualidade de evidência. Conclusões: Nesta revisão sistemática com meta-análise, demonstramos a eficácia do uso de máscaras na prevenção da infecção por SARS-CoV-2 independentemente do tipo de máscara (máscara cirúrgica descartável, máscaras comuns, incluindo máscaras de tecido, ou respiradores N95), embora os estudos avaliados apresentassem evidências de baixa qualidade e vieses importantes.

11.
Clinics ; 78: 100163, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421260

ABSTRACT

Abstract Biliary drainage for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma (PCCA) can be performed either by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage (PTBD). To date there is no consensus about which method is preferred. Taking that into account, the aim of this study is to compare Endoscopic Biliary Drainage (EBD) versus percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma through a systematic review and metanalysis. A comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases was performed. Evaluated outcomes included technical success, clinical success, post drainage complications (cholangitis, pancreatitis, bleeding, and major complications), crossover, hospital length stay, and seeding metastases. Data extracted from the studies were used to calculate Mean Differences (MD). Seventeen studies were included, with a total of 2284 patients (EBD = 1239, PTBD = 1045). Considering resectable PCCA, the PTBD group demonstrated lower rates of crossover (RD = 0.29; 95% CI 0.07-0.51; p = 0.009 I2 = 90%), post-drainage complications (RD = 0.20; 95% CI 0.06-0.33; p < 0.0001; I2 = 78%), and post-drainage pancreatitis (RD = 0.10; 95% CI 0.05-0.16; p < 0.0001; I2 = 64%). The EBD group presented reduced length of hospital stay (RD = -2.89; 95% CI -3.35 - -2,43; p < 0.00001; I2 = 42%). Considering palliative PCCA, the PTBD group demonstrated a higher clinical success (RD = -0.19; 95% CI -0.27 - -0.11; p < 0.00001; I2 = 0%) and less post-drainage cholangitis (RD = 0.08; 95% CI 0.01-0.15; p = 0.02; I2 = 48%) when compared to the EBD group. There was no statistical difference between the groups regarding: technical success, post-drainage bleeding, major post-drainage complications, and seeding metastases.

14.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 21: eRW0371, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448192

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Gratitude has several implications. Over time, a logical relationship has been established between gratitude and well-being. In addition, researchers aimed to establish associations between gratitude and other factors of positive feelings using scientific methods. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions to develop gratitude and its benefits to human beings. Objective This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the available scientific evidence on interventions to acquire knowledge on gratitude as a quantifiable causal factor of benefit to human beings. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that investigated the effects of gratitude interventions. MEDLINE, Embase, and Central Cochrane databases were searched in addition to gray (Google Scholar) and manual search. Two authors independently evaluated the titles and abstracts, and selected the studies that met the inclusion criteria. The searches were conducted between January and July 2022. Results Sixty-four randomized clinical trials were included. The meta-analysis demonstrated that patients who underwent gratitude interventions experienced greater feelings of gratitude, better mental health, and fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. Moreover, they experienced other benefits such as a more positive mood and emotions. Conclusion The results demonstrate that acts of gratitude can be used as a therapeutic complement for treating anxiety and depression and can increase positive feelings and emotions in the general population. Prospero database registration: (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero) under the number CRD42021250799.

15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(6): e2023D696, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449080

ABSTRACT

The Guidelines Project, an initiative of the Brazilian Medical Association, aims to combine information from the medical field to standardize how to conduct, and to assist in the reasoning and decision-making of doctors. The information provided by this project must be critically evaluated by the physician responsible for the conduct that will be adopted, depending on the conditions and the clinical condition of each patient. Guideline conclusion: April 2023. Societies: Brazilian Medical Association.

17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 68(10): 1345-1357, Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406571

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and short- and long-term tolerability of cannabidiol (CBD), as an adjunct treatment, in children and adults with Dravet syndrome (SD), Lennox-Gataut syndrome (LGS), or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), with inadequate control of seizures. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted through a search for scientific evidence in the Mediline/PubMed, Central Cochrane, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases until April 2022. Selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that presented the outcomes: reduction in the frequency of seizures and total seizures (all types), number of patients with a response greater than or equal to 50%, change in caregiver global impression of change (CGIC) (improvement ≥1 category on the initial scale), adverse events (AEs), and tolerability to treatment. This review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses. RESULTS: Notably, six RCTs were included, with a total of 1,034 patients with SD, LGS, and TSC, of which 3 were open-label extension RCTs. The meta-analysis of the studies showed that the use of CBD as compared with placebo, in patients with convulsive seizures refractory to the use of medications, reduces the frequency of seizures by 33%; increases the number of patients with a reduction ≥50% in the frequency of seizures by 20%; increases the number of patients with absence of seizures by 3%; improves the clinical impression evaluated by the caregiver or patient (S/CGIC) in 21%; increases total AEs by 12%; increases serious AE by 16%; increases the risk of treatment abandonment by 12%; and increases the number of patients with transaminase elevation (≥3 times the referral) by 15%. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review, with meta-analysis, supports the use of CBD in the treatment of patients with seizures, originated in DS, LGS, and TSC, who are resistant to the common medications, presenting satisfactory benefits in reducing seizures and tolerable toxicity.

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