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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763049


M1/M2 polarization of immune cells including microglia has been well characterized. It mediates detrimental or beneficial roles in neuroinflammatory disorders including cerebral ischemia. We have previously found that sphingosine 1-phospate receptor subtype 1 (S1P₁) in post-ischemic brain following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) can trigger microglial activation, leading to brain damage. Although the link between S1P₁ and microglial activation as a pathogenesis in cerebral ischemia had been clearly demonstrated, whether the pathogenic role of S1P₁ is associated with its regulation of M1/M2 polarization remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether S1P₁ was associated with regulation of M1/M2 polarization in post-ischemic brain. Suppressing S1P₁ activity with its functional antagonist, AUY954 (5 mg/kg, p.o.), attenuated mRNA upregulation of M1 polarization markers in post-ischemic brain at 1 day and 3 days after tMCAO challenge. Similarly, suppressing S1P₁ activity with AUY954 administration inhibited M1-polarizatioin-relevant NF-κB activation in post-ischemic brain. Particularly, NF-κB activation was observed in activated microglia of post-ischemic brain and markedly attenuated by AUY954, indicating that M1 polarization through S1P₁ in post-ischemic brain mainly occurred in activated microglia. Suppressing S1P₁ activity with AUY954 also increased mRNA expression levels of M2 polarization markers in post-ischemic brain, further indicating that S1P₁ could also influence M2 polarization in post-ischemic brain. Finally, suppressing S1P₁ activity decreased phosphorylation of M1-relevant ERK1/2, p38, and JNK MAPKs, but increased phosphorylation of M2-relevant Akt, all of which were downstream pathways following S1P₁ activation. Overall, these results revealed S1P₁-regulated M1/M2 polarization toward brain damage as a pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia.

Brain Injuries , Brain Ischemia , Brain , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Microglia , Phosphorylation , RNA, Messenger , Sphingosine , Up-Regulation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687913


Herbal medicines, mainly of plant source, are invaluable source for the discovery of new therapeutic agents for all sorts of human ailments. The complex pathogenesis of stroke and multifactorial effect of herbal medicine and their active constituents may suggest the promising future of natural medicine for stroke treatment. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, neuroprotective and vascular protective effect of herbal medicines are believed to be efficacious in stroke treatment. Herbs typically have fewer reported side effects than allopathic medicine, and may be safer to use over longer period of time. Herbal medicines are believed to be more effective for the longstanding health complaints, such as stroke. Several medicinal plants and their active constituents show the promising results in laboratory research. However failure in transformation of laboratory animal research to the clinical trials has created huge challenge for the use of herbal medicine in stroke. Until and unless scientifically comprehensive evidence of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine in ischemic stroke patients is available, efforts should be made to continue implementing treatment strategies of proven effectiveness. More consideration should be paid to natural compounds that can have extensive therapeutic time windows, perfect pharmacological targets with few side effects. Herbal medicine has excellent prospective for the treatment of ischemic stroke, but a lot of effort should be invested to transform the success of animal research to human use.

Animals , Brain Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Neurons , Pathology , Neuroprotection , Phytotherapy , Stroke , Drug Therapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262670


Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is the most widely used medicinal plant in traditional Eastern medicine, especially in Chinese medicine. The major phytochemicals isolated from S. baicalensis are flavonoids, glycosides and their glucoronides such as baicalin, baicalein, wogonin etc. More than 30 different kinds of flavonoids are isolated from this plant. S. baicalensis and its flavonoids are reported to have several pharmacological activities, which includes anti-allergic, antioxidant, anti apoptic, anti-inflammatory effects and many more. Recently, S. baicalensis and its isolated flavonoids have been studied for their neuroprotective effects, through a variety of in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative diseases, plausibly suggesting that S. baicalensis has salutary effect as a nature's blessing for neuroprotection. In this review, we are focousing on the neuroprotective effects of S. baicalensis and its flavonoids in ischemia or stroke-induced neuronal cell death. We aimed at compiling all the information regarding the neuroprotective effect of S. baicalensis in various experimental models of cerebral ischemia or stroke.

Humans , Plant Extracts , Therapeutic Uses , Scutellaria , Chemistry , Stroke , Drug Therapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308270


Datura stramonium L., a wild-growing plant of the Solanaceae family, is widely distributed and easily accessible. It contains a variety of toxic tropane alkaloids such as atropine, hyoscamine, and scopolamine. In Eastern medicine, especially in Ayurvedic medicine, D. stramonium has been used for curing various human ailments, including ulcers, wounds, inflammation, rheumatism and gout, sciatica, bruises and swellings, fever, asthma and bronchitis, and toothache. A few previous studies have reported on the pharmacological effects of D. stramonium; however, complete information regarding the pharmacology, toxicity, ethnobotany and phytochemistry remains unclear. Ethnomedicinally, the frequent recreational abuse of D. stramonium has resulted in toxic syndromes. D. stramonium, in the form of paste or solution to relieve the local pain, may not have a deleterious effect; however, oral and systemic administration may lead to severe anticholinergic symptoms. For this reason, it is very important for individuals, mainly young people, to be aware of the toxic nature and potential risks associated with the use of this plant. This comprehensive review of D. stramonium includes information on botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and ethnomedicinal uses.

Animals , Datura , Chemistry , Classification , Humans , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity