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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195848

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: To support recent political commitments to end tuberculosis (TB) in the World Health Organization South-East Asian Region (SEAR), there is a need to understand by what measures, and with what investment, these goals could be reached. These questions were addressed by using mathematical models of TB transmission by doing the analysis on a country-by-country basis in SEAR. Methods: A dynamical model of TB transmission was developed, in consultation with each of the 11 countries in the SEAR. Three intervention scenarios were examined: (i) strengthening basic TB services (including private sector engagement), (ii) accelerating TB case-finding and notification, and (iii) deployment of a prognostic biomarker test by 2025, to guide mass preventive therapy of latent TB infection. Each scenario was built on the preceding ones, in successive combination. Results: Comprehensive improvements in basic TB services by 2020, in combination with accelerated case-finding to increase TB detection by at least two-fold by 2020, could lead to a reduction in TB incidence rates in SEAR by 67.3 per cent [95% credible intervals (CrI) 65.3-69.8] and TB deaths by 80.9 per cent (95% CrI 77.9-84.7) in 2035, relative to 2015. These interventions alone would require an additional investment of at least US$ 25 billion. However, their combined effect is insufficient to reach the end TB targets of 80 per cent by 2030 and 90 per cent by 2035. Model projections show how additionally, deployment of a biomarker test by 2025 could end TB in the region by 2035. Targeting specific risk groups, such as slum dwellers, could mitigate the coverage needed in the general population, to end TB in the Region. Interpretation & conclusions: While the scale-up of currently available strategies may play an important role in averting TB cases and deaths in the Region, there will ultimately be a need for novel, mass preventive measures, to meet the end TB goals. Achieving these impacts will require a substantial escalation in funding for TB control in the Region.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-191937

ABSTRACT

Background: Substance use is an ever-increasing public health problem in the Indian society. Besides being a personal health risk, it is also a social and economic issue. The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence and pattern of substance use in rural Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Material & Methods: A cross sectional community-based study was undertaken in rural Bhubaneswar in two phases, a pre survey qualitative assessment followed by the quantitative assessment. The prevalence, pattern and habit of use of different psychoactive substances were accessed using a predesigned pretested questionnaire among 574 study participants of greater than ten years of age. Results: The prevalence of use of at least one substance was 44.1%. Tobacco (smokeless) was the most commonly used substance followed by alcohol and smoked tobacco. Male gender, age greater than 40 years, joint family and being illiterate were the important predictors of substance use. Conclusions: A predominance of smokeless tobacco consumption was found in our study. Family members’ being the source of introduction in majority of users is a matter of serious concern. Community based intervention strategies can be helpful in targeting the rural population for deaddiction and delivering a social message for curbing the use of harmful substances.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-191903

ABSTRACT

Anemia is a major public health problem in India affecting over half of population in almost all age groups. It has devastating effect on human health and affects the socio-economic development. Government has devised several programs like National Nutritional Anemia Control Program (NNACP), Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS), National Iron Plus Initiative (NIPI) etc to combat anemia. The facts remain that in spite of all the programs, no marked improvement has been noticed in the magnitude of anemia. A holistic approach is required with special emphasis on community awareness about consequences of anaemia and benefits of Iron Folic Acid (IFA) supplementation, uninterrupted supply availability of Iron folic Acid tablets and syrups, hard to reach areas and monitoring and review system to find out adequacy in terms of participation and frequency of meetings and problem-solving in NIPI

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-191879

ABSTRACT

Background: India has adopted MDA strategy for elimination of lymphatic filariasis since 2004. It requires constant efforts on a nationwide scale particularly in the endemic areas for interruption of transmission of this neglected tropical disease. Aims & Objectives: This study aims to assess the coverage and compliance along with factors affecting compliance regarding MDA implementation in Nayagarh district of Odisha. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in November 2016 for evaluation of filariasis elimination activities carried out in the district. A pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule as per National Vector Borne Disease control Programme (NVBDCP) guidelines was used. A qualitative component was added to determine the perceptions and attitudes of the study population regarding MDA implementation. Data was analysed using simple proportion and percentages. Results: A total 120 households (90 rural and 30 urban) were surveyed, covering a population of 590. Overall coverage rate of study population was found to be 91.47%. The effective coverage rate was 71.1% (77.8% in rural areas and 48.8% in urban areas). The overall coverage compliance gap was 22.2, being higher in urban than rural areas. Conclusion: There is a felt need for health education activities to increase acceptance among the population coupled with supervised on the spot consumption of DEC for decreasing the coverage compliance gap. The issues regarding compliance need to be addressed for realizing the global target of eliminating lymphatic filariasis by 2020.

5.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2015 Oct-Dec; 33(4): 533-537
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-176509

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Various antifungal agents both topical and systemic have been introduced into clinical practice for effectively treating dermatophytic conditions. Dermatophytosis is the infection of keratinised tissues caused by fungal species of genera Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum, commonly known as dermatophytes affecting 20–25% of the world’s population. The present study aims at determining the susceptibility patterns of dermatophyte species recovered from superficial mycoses of human patients in Himachal Pradesh to antifungal agents; itraconazole, terbinafine and ketoconazole. The study also aims at determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these agents following the recommended protocol of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (M38-A2). Methodology: A total of 53 isolates of dermatophytes (T. mentagrophyte-34 in no., T. rubrum-18 and M. gypseum-1) recovered from the superficial mycoses were examined. Broth microdilution method M38-A2 approved protocol of CLSI (2008) for filamentous fungi was followed for determining the susceptibility of dermatophyte species. Results: T. mentagrophyte isolates were found more susceptible to both itraconazole and ketoconazole as compared to terbinafine (MIC50: 0.125 μg/ml for itraconazole, 0.0625 μg/ml for ketoconazole and 0.5 μg/ml for terbinafine). Three isolates of T. mentagrophytes (VBS-5, VBSo-3 and VBSo-73) and one isolate of T. rubrum (VBPo-9) had higher MIC values of itraconazole (1 μg/ml). Similarly, the higher MIC values of ketoconazole were observed in case of only three isolates of T. mentagrophyte (VBSo-30 = 2 μg/ml; VBSo-44, VBM-2 = 1 μg/ml). The comparative analysis of the three antifungal drugs based on t-test revealed that ‘itraconazole and terbinafine’ and ‘terbinafine and ketoconazole’ were found independent based on the P < 0.005 in case of T. mentagrophyte isolates. In case of T. rubrum, the similarity existed between MIC values of ‘itraconazole and ketoconazole’ and ‘terbinafine and ketoconazole’. Conclusion: The MIC values observed in the present study based on standard protocol M38-A2 of CLSI 2008 might serve as reference for further studies covering large number of isolates from different geographic regions of the state. Such studies might reflect on the acquisition of drug resistance among isolates of dermatophyte species based on MIC values.

6.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1272233

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Background:The aim of this prospective, double blind, randomised trial was to compare the analgesic and adverse effectsof three concentrations of the thoracic epidural sufentanil with bupivacaine in patients undergoing thoracotomy.Methods:We studied 60 (randomised) patients who were to receive a 10 ml bolus dose of sufentanil, 1µg/ml, 2 µg/ml and3 µg/ml, in bupivacaine 0.125%, via thoracic epidural. Postoperatively, pain at rest, on coughing and with ambulation wasassessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and observer verbal ranking score (OVRS) at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Adverseeffects were simultaneously assessed.Results:There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics between the three groups. The number of patientswith episodes of unsatisfactory pain, i.e. a VAS scores ≥ 40 and OVRS ≥ 2, at each of the four assessments postoperatively,was significantly higher with sufentanil 1 g/ml than with sufentanil 2 µg/ml or µ3 g/ml (p < 0.05). In the 3 µg/ml sufentanilgroup, four patients (20%) had a sedation score ≥ 3 compared with one (5%) and no (0%) patients in the 2 µg/ml and1 µg/ml sufentanil groups, respectively (p < 0.05). In addition, 30% patients experienced pruritus in the 3 µg/ml sufentanilgroup compared with 10% and 5%, respectively, in the 2 µg/ml and 1 µg/ml sufentanil groups. In the sufentanil 3 µg/ml,2 µg/ml and 1 µg/ml groups, 30%, 20% and 5% patients, respectively, had emetics symptoms (p < 0.05).Conclusions:We conclude that a thoracic epidural bolus of 10 ml sufentanil 2 µg/ml with bupivacaine 0.125% provides theoptimal balance between pain relief and side-effects following thoracotomy


Subject(s)
Analgesia, Epidural , Anesthesia, Epidural , Bupivacaine , Pain, Postoperative , Sufentanil , Thoracotomy
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-24908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Urban Indians have a high prevalence of insulin resistance, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We studied the prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension, as well their association with cardiovascular risk factors, in a north Indian upper socio-economic population. METHODS: A total of 1746 adults (age >or=30 yr) residing in an urban colony of high-income group residents in the city of Lucknow, north India, were invited to be enrolled for the study. The response rate was 64 per cent (n=1112). Blood pressure, anthropometry, plasma glucose in response to oral glucose tolerance test and lipids were measured. The variables contributing significantly to pre-hypertension and hypertension were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 32.2 per cent and pre-hypertension was 32.3 per cent. In contrast to hypertension, which was highest in the age group 60-69 yr (64%), prehypertension was highest (36%) in the group 30-39 yr. There was a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the general population [central obesity (86.7%), elevated LDL cholesterol (22.8%), abnormal glucose tolerance (41.6%) and smoking (20.3% of males)]. Two or more of the cardiovascular risk factors were present in a higher proportion of hypertensive [66%, odds ratio (OR) 3.0, P<0.0001] and pre-hypertensive, (56%, OR 2.0, P<0.0001) compared to normotensive subjects (39%). Subjects with pre-hypertension had body mass index, waist-hip ratio and frequency of glucose intolerance, which was intermediate between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. In multiple logistic regression analysis, increasing age, body mass index, waist hip ratio and impaired glucose tolerance/diabetes were independent risk factors for both hypertension and pre-hypertension. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension were noted in affluent urban north Indians. Increasing age, body mass index, central obesity and impaired glucose tolerance/diabetes were significantly associated with both hypertension and pre-hypertension. Pre-hypertension was associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Waist-Hip Ratio
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-22969

ABSTRACT

The clinical implications of calcium deficiency include rickets, poor bone mass accrual as well as abnormal foetal programming during pregnancy, poor peak bone mass due to poor accrual in childhood and adolescence, postmenopausal osteoporosis and osteoporosis of the elderly. Serum calcium is maintained within a narrow normal range, chiefly by resorption from the skeleton and alteration of urinary calcium loss and absorption from gut. Absorption is dependent on vitamin D sufficiency, presence of calcium binders in diet (such as phosphate, oxalate and phytate), age group and physiological state. A 2004 WHO expert panel has examined available data on calcium balance studies as well as calcium deficiency states and recommended daily calcium intake in the adult to be 1000 mg per day, with adjustments suggested for other age groups and physiological states. Daily calcium intake in India, both the reality and the recommendations, are far lower than the Western data. A reappraisal of dietary calcium recommendations may be necessary for India.


Subject(s)
Calcium/deficiency , Calcium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Humans , India , Osteoporosis/metabolism , Rickets/metabolism
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-93415

ABSTRACT

A case of late stent occlusion of a Sirolimus eluting Cypher stent (Cordis, Johnson and Johnson) presenting as acute ST elevation myocardial infarction 22 months after deployment is reported. The possible mechanisms are discussed.


Subject(s)
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Thrombosis/etiology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Paclitaxel/administration & dosage , Sirolimus/administration & dosage , Stents , Time Factors
11.
Indian J Public Health ; 2006 Oct-Dec; 50(4): 244-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-109361

ABSTRACT

Health and human rights are inextricably linked. Factors that violate human rights are likely to result in deprivation and ill-health. TB leads to disability and death thus negatively impacting human rights, more so in poor and marginalised groups. On the other hand DOTS strategy as exemplified by India's TB control programme serves to protect human rights by increasing political commitment, equitable access to quality services and enhancing accountability. By adequate treatment and cure of TB patient, it not only serves the individual but also community by preventing spread and emergence of resistance to available drugs.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Female , Human Rights , Humans , India , Male , Prejudice , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
12.
Indian Pediatr ; 2006 Aug; 43(8): 701-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-11269

ABSTRACT

Cerebral edema is the most important complication of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. It has a high mortality rate of 20 to 90% in different series. Twenty to 40% of survivors suffer from neurologic sequelae. The pathogenetic mechanisms are still controversial and the risk factors which are thought to predict its occurrence do not consistently correlate with cerebral edema in various studies. Prevention and recognition of early warning signs, such as decreased arousal, lethargy after initial improvement, headache, vomiting, relative bradycardia and relative hypertension, are crucial. Therapeutic guidelines to prevent cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis include slow rehydration over about 48 hours, avoidance of hypotonicity and of unnecessary alkali therapy. Early recognition of cerebral edema and prompt institution of hypertonic therapy with mannitol may prevent permanent neurological sequelae.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema/etiology , Child , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
13.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2006 Feb; 43(1): 41-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26772

ABSTRACT

The effect of field weathering on oxyradical accumulation and subsequent changes were studied in the seeds of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cv. JS 71-05. Electron spin resonance (ESR) quantification of oxyradical revealed that field weathering plays an important role in acceleration of their accumulation. One week of weathering increased the accumulation of oxyradicals to almost 2-fold and triggered the deteriorative cascade, by enhancing the lipid peroxidation and membrane perturbation, leading to cell death in seed tissues and poor germinability and vigour of soybean seeds. Thus, the weather conditions at the time of physiological maturity to harvesting of crop are very crucial and the field weathering plays a critical role for the maintenance of seed quality.


Subject(s)
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Seeds/chemistry , Soybeans/growth & development , Weather
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-118471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: India is currently witnessing a sharp rise in noncommunicable disorders such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This rise can be related in part to dietary changes such as increased intake of calories, fat (especially saturated fat) and cholesterol. A simple, accurate and reproducible method to measure these nutrients is essential to study the role of diet in these diseases in epidemiological studies. We aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire that could be used for this purpose. METHODS: Thirty urban north Indian subjects (age 23-64 years, 16 men) belonging to a high socioeconomic group were studied. The subjects were selected consecutively over a period of 3 weeks from among those participating in an epidemiological survey on cardiovascular risk factors in an affluent population. A 102-item food frequency questionnaire was developed to capture the intake of calories, fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The results obtained by the food frequency questionnaire were compared with a 5-day diet record. To assess the reproducibility of the food frequency questionnaire, it was re-administered after 3 months to the 23 subjects available. RESULTS: It took the dietician 20 minutes or less to administer the questionnaire. There was good correlation between the nutrient values as calculated by the food frequency questionnaire and 5-day diet record. The correlation for energy intake was 0.80, and varied between 0.55 and 0.69 for unadjusted intake of other nutrients. After adjusting for calories, the correlation varied between 0.45 and 0.68. In general, the food frequency questionnaire overestimated the energy-adjusted nutrient intake by 6%-17%. When intake was classified into quartiles, there was good agreement between the two methods: 43%-100% for calories; 29%-86% for other nutrients for unadjusted intake; 29%-71% for nutrients after energy adjustment. On calculation of intake after re-administration of the food frequency questionnaire, there was a moderate to strong correlation (energy adjusted r=0.49-0.90) between the two evaluations for various nutrients. CONCLUSION: The food frequency questionnaire developed for the assessment of nutrient intake in a north Indian population was easy to administer, showed moderate to good correlation with the 5-day diet record and was reproducible.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diet Records , Diet Surveys , Dietary Fats , Energy Intake , Female , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Income , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-91868

ABSTRACT

Local complications after femoral arterial catheterization, such as hematomas, pseudoaneurysms, arteriovenous fistulas (AV fistulas), and arterial occlusions, are becoming more common, with the growing number of complex invasive procedures being undertaken, especially in older and sicker patients. Newer percutaneous techniques are being developed to treat these. Covered stents are an effective, safe, and less invasive way to deal with pseudoaneurysms and AV fistulas. This case report highlights the application of this technique to treat an iatrogenic femoral AV fistula in a 69 years male.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/adverse effects , Arteriovenous Fistula/etiology , Femoral Artery/injuries , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease , Male , Risk Factors , Stents
16.
Indian Pediatr ; 2004 Aug; 41(8): 779-85
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-6900

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of step reduction of expired minute ventilation (MV) on PaCO2 in ventilated newborns and to determine whether MV within a defined range can predict PaCO2. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive. SETTING: Referral neonatal unit of a teaching hospital. METHODS: Forty neonates stable on mechanical ventilation receiving minute ventilation in the range of 150-210 ml/kg/min. were studied. The spectrum of disorders for which the babies were ventilated included apnea of prematurity in 16, pneumonia in 14, meconium aspiration syndrome in 6 and hyaline membrane disease in 4. Median age at study was 6 days and median weight at study was 2.1 kgs. The MV was reduced from 210 to 150 mL/kg/min in three steps and concomitant PaCO2 was measured. Reductions were not done if PaCO2 was more than 50 mmHg. MVs were plotted against PaCO2 and a regression equation to predict PaCO2 from MV was calculated. RESULTS: A stepwise increase was seen in CO2 with reduction of MV over the range studied. The median MV and median PaCO2 achieved in the three steps were 201 mL/kg/min and 36.7 mm of Hg, 180 mL/kg/min and 41.7 mm of Hg, 160 mL/kg/min, and 44.3 mm of Hg. The regression equation to predict PaCO2 was PaCO2 = 70 - 0.17 x MV in mL/kg/min, r = -0.45, r2 = 0.20, residual variance (s2) = 39.37; gave a predicted PaCO2 within 12.5 mmHg. for a given MV. CONCLUSION: Reducing minute ventilation led to an increase in the levels of PaCO2. Minute volumes of 160 ml/kg/min correlated with PaCO2 value of 44.3 mm of Hg. MV as low as 160 mL/kg/min are well tolerated by newborns.


Subject(s)
Blood Gas Analysis , Carbon Dioxide/physiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Partial Pressure , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Tidal Volume
18.
J Postgrad Med ; 2003 Oct-Dec; 49(4): 361-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-116252

ABSTRACT

Currently, inflammation is considered to be the central player in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It leads to the formation of multiple plaques in the arterial beds including coronary vasculature. Recent studies using the latest imaging techniques have shown that in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) multiple plaques are ruptured and have thrombus formation on them. Various factors make these plaques unstable, these include structural components of plaque like thin fibrous cap, high lipid content of the plaque core and inflammation, both localized and generalized. It has been shown that most of the ACS are caused by plaques causing non-critical stenosis as seen on traditional X-ray angiography. Also, the phenomenon of remodelling makes angiography a poor technique for plaque visualization. Hence newer modalities are required to identify these "vulnerable plaques". Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), thermography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are a few such promising techniques. Here we review the invasive and non-invasive modalities that can be helpful in the identification of these plaques before they become unstable and cause ACS, and also the available therapies to stabilize these plaques.


Subject(s)
Angioscopy , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Stenosis/diagnosis , Coronary Thrombosis/pathology , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Humans , Inflammation , Thermography , Ultrasonography, Interventional
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-119481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The adolescent age group is particularly prone to nutritional rickets/osteomalacia due to an increased demand for nutrients, especially calcium and vitamin D. Osteomalacia presents with non-specific signs and symptoms because of which diagnosis may be delayed. Vitamin D deficiency is unexpected in India, which is a tropical country with abundant sunshine. METHODS: We prospectively studied the clinical presentation, aetiology and social factors contributing to adolescent rickets/ osteomalacia in our region. RESULTS: We saw 21 symptomatic adolescents with osteomalacia during the study period (November 2000-July 2002). All were girls. Only 1 practised purda and 4 belonged to a low socioeconomic class. The mean (SD) duration of illness before correct diagnosis was 2.8 (2.1) years. Bone pains and muscular weakness were universally present. Non-specific complaints (especially limb pains being mistaken for joint involvement) led to a delay in diagnosis with consequent morbidity. All but 1 patient had low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (<10 ng/ml), with the mean (SD) being 4.9 (2.7) ng/ml. Their mean dietary calcium intake was low 1265 (199) mg/day, range 40-810 mg/day]. Restricted outdoor activities (n = 19) and the traditional dress code (n = 21) were contributory factors, as they led to poor exposure to sunshine. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional osteomalacia among adolescents is a poorly recognized entity. Even in non-purda practising communities in the tropics, poor exposure to sunshine due to social factors, compounded by low dietary calcium intake, can lead to osteomalacia in adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Calcium/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Osteomalacia/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sunlight , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
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