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Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 865-875, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909950

ABSTRACT

Traumatic rib fractures are the most common injury in thoracic trauma. Previously,the patients with traumatic rib fractures were mostly treated non-surgically,of which 50%,especially those combined with flail chest presented chronic pain or chest wall deformities and over 30% had long-term disabilities,being unable to retain a full-time job. In the past two decades,thanks to the development of internal fixation material technology,the surgical treatment of rib fractures has achieved good outcomes. However,there are still some problems in clinical treatment,including inconsistency in surgical treatment and quality control in medical services. The current consensuses on the management of regional traumatic rib fractures published at home and abroad mainly focus on the guidance of the overall treatment decisions and plans,and relevant clinical guidelines abroad lacks progress in surgical treatment of rib fractures in recent years. Therefore,the Chinese Society of Traumatology affiliated to Chinese Medical Association and Chinese College of Trauma Surgeons affiliated to Chinese Medical Doctor Association,in conjunction with national multidisciplinary experts,formulate the Chinese Consensus for Surgical Treatment of Traumatic Rib Fractures(2021)following the principle of evidence-based medicine,scientific nature and practicality. This expert consensus puts forward some clear,applicable,and graded recommendations from aspects of preoperative imaging evaluation,surgical indications,timing of surgery,surgical methods,rib fracture sites for surgical fixation,internal fixation methods and material selections,treatment of combined injuries in rib fractures,in order to provide references for surgical treatment of traumatic rib fractures.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-793269

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of influenza B viruses isolated in Yancheng City from 2015 to 2017. Methods The throat swab specimens of influenza-like illness( ILI) from sentinel surveillance hospital and outbreak sites were collected and sent to Yancheng CDC for virus nucleic acids and virus isolation testing. After validation with serological tests, eighteen strains of influenza B virus isolates were selected to amplify their HA1 and NA genes through RT-PCR assay. Their molecular characteristics of the obtained viral HA1 and NA gene sequences were analyzed using bioinformation software from three aspects, including nucleic acid level, amino acid level and molecular evolution level. Results Basically, the clustering relationships and the branche patterns between HA1 and NA genes from the 18 Yancheng influenza B virus strains were similar. The Yamagata lineage strains in 2015 were distributed in the Yamagata Clade 3 branch, belonging to Phuket/3073 strains. The Victoria lineage strains in 2016-2017 were distributed in the Victoria Clade 1A branch, belonging to Brisbane/60 strains. D196N substitution was detected on HA1 protein in all of Yamagata lineage strains at 190-helix epitope; Amino acid substitutions of victoria lineage strains involved two antigenic epitopes, 117 and 129 sites of 120-loop epitope and 197 and 199 sites of 190-helix epitope. No Intra-lineage or inter-lineage rearrangements occurred in Yancheng strains. Eighteen influenza B strains had no mutations in catalytic residues and drug resistant sites of NA genes. Conclusion The Yamagata strains well matched with vaccine strain B/Phuket/3073/2013. The HA1 and NA genes of victoria lineage strains circulated in Yancheng City during 2016 to 2017 are changing gradually. The accumulation of these mutations will result in antigenic drift of victoria lineage strains and increase the mismatch of the IFV field stains with the available vaccine strains, which may reduce the protective effect of flu vaccine.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771636

ABSTRACT

Vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) is frequently used in abdominal surgeries. However, relevant guidelines are rare. Chinese Trauma Surgeon Association organized a committee composed of 28 experts across China in July 2017, aiming to provide an evidence-based recommendation for the application of VSD in abdominal surgeries. Eleven questions regarding the use of VSD in abdominal surgeries were addressed: (1) which type of materials should be respectively chosen for the intraperitoneal cavity, retroperitoneal cavity and superficial incisions? (2) Can VSD be preventively used for a high-risk abdominal incision with primary suture? (3) Can VSD be used in severely contaminated/infected abdominal surgical sites? (4) Can VSD be used for temporary abdominal cavity closure under some special conditions such as severe abdominal trauma, infection, liver transplantation and intra-abdominal volume increment in abdominal compartment syndrome? (5) Can VSD be used in abdominal organ inflammation, injury, or postoperative drainage? (6) Can VSD be used in the treatment of intestinal fistula and pancreatic fistula? (7) Can VSD be used in the treatment of intra-abdominal and extra-peritoneal abscess? (8) Can VSD be used in the treatment of abdominal wall wounds, wound cavity, and defects? (9) Does VSD increase the risk of bleeding? (10) Does VSD increase the risk of intestinal wall injury? (11) Does VSD increase the risk of peritoneal adhesion? Focusing on these questions, evidence-based recommendations were given accordingly. VSD was strongly recommended regarding the questions 2-4. Weak recommendations were made regarding questions 1 and 5-11. Proper use of VSD in abdominal surgeries can lower the risk of infection in abdominal incisions with primary suture, treat severely contaminated/infected surgical sites and facilitate temporary abdominal cavity closure.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , General Surgery , China , Drainage , Methods , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Societies, Medical , Surgical Wound Infection , Traumatology , Vacuum
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