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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 279-290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966470

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Renal tumors account for approximately 7% of all childhood cancers. These include Wilms tumor (WT), clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) and other rare tumors. We investigated the epidemiology of pediatric renal tumors in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2001 to December 2015, data of pediatric patients (0–18 years) newly-diagnosed with renal tumors at 26 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Among 439 patients (male, 240), the most common tumor was WT (n=342, 77.9%), followed by RCC (n=36, 8.2%), CCSK (n=24, 5.5%), MRTK (n=16, 3.6%), CMN (n=12, 2.7%), and others (n=9, 2.1%). Median age at diagnosis was 27.1 months (range 0-225.5) and median follow-up duration was 88.5 months (range 0-211.6). Overall, 32 patients died, of whom 17, 11, 1, and 3 died of relapse, progressive disease, second malignant neoplasm, and treatment-related mortality. Five-year overall survival and event free survival were 97.2% and 84.8% in WT, 90.6% and 82.1% in RCC, 81.1% and 63.6% in CCSK, 60.3% and 56.2% in MRTK, and 100% and 91.7% in CMN, respectively (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The pediatric renal tumor types in Korea are similar to those previously reported in other countries. WT accounted for a large proportion and survival was excellent. Non-Wilms renal tumors included a variety of tumors and showed inferior outcome, especially MRTK. Further efforts are necessary to optimize the treatment and analyze the genetic characteristics of pediatric renal tumors in Korea.

2.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 34-41, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966270

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the clinical factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD) among children and adolescents with osteoporosis secondary to treatment for underlying clinical conditions. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients aged 10–18 years and evaluated them for lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD) after treatment for underlying diseases, including hemato-oncologic, rheumatologic system, and inflammator y bowel diseases. LSBMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performed from March 2019 to March 2021 was evaluated. We analyzed 117 patients who underwent initial DXA after treatment for underlying diseases. @*Results@#Subjects in this study had multiple underlying diseases: hemato-oncologic (78.6%), rheumatologic (11.1%), and inflammatory bowel diseases (10.3%). There was no significant association between the z-score and bone metabolic markers (P>0.05). However, higher cumulative glucocorticoid (GC) dose significantly reduced LSBMD z-score (P=0.029). Moreover, the association between cumulative dose of GC and initial z-score of LSBMD was significant in logarithmic regression analysis (P=0.003, R2=0.149). GC accumulation was a significant risk factor for vertebral fracture when the initial BMD was evaluated after treatment (P=0.043). Bone metabolic markers did not significantly influence the risk of vertebral fracture. @*Conclusion@#Initial bone mass density of the lumbar spine evaluated after long-term GC use for underlying diseases is a predictor of further vertebral fractures.

3.
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition ; : 224-229, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002683

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a rare adverse event of dasatinib, which is known to be caused by dasatinib-induced colitis, severe thrombocytopenia, and platelet dysfunction.We present two cases of pediatric patients who developed hematochezia during treatment with dasatinib after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A colonic tissue biopsy was performed to differentiate the cause of GI bleeding. Both patients were diagnosed with proven cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis, but only one was treated with ganciclovir. The patient who did not receive antiviral therapy experienced recurrent GI bleeding during dasatinib administration, leading to multiple treatment interruptions. During dasatinib therapy after HSCT, patients with GI bleeding and confirmed CMV colitis may benefit from antiviral therapy to reduce interruptions in dasatinib therapy.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e230-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001112

ABSTRACT

Background@#Data on the status of long-term follow-up (LTFU) care for childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) in Korea is lacking. This study was conducted to evaluate the current status of LTFU care for CCSs and relevant physicians’ perspectives. @*Methods@#A nationwide online survey of pediatric hematologists/oncologists in the Republic of Korea was undertaken. @*Results@#Overall, 47 of the 74 board-certified Korean pediatric hematologists/oncologists currently providing pediatric hematology/oncology care participated in the survey (response rate = 63.5%). Forty-five of the 47 respondents provided LTFU care for CCSs five years after the completion of primary cancer treatment. However, some of the 45 respondents provided LTFU care only for CCS with late complications or CCSs who requested LTFU care. Twenty of the 45 respondents oversaw LTFU care for adult CCSs, although pediatric hematologists/ oncologists experienced more difficulties managing adult CCSs. Many pediatric hematologists/oncologists did not perform the necessary screening test, although CCSs had risk factors for late complications, mostly because of insurance coverage issues and the lack of Korean LTFU guidelines. Regarding a desirable LTFU care system for CCSs in Korea, 27 of the 46 respondents (58.7%) answered that it is desirable to establish a multidisciplinary CCSs care system in which pediatric hematologists/oncologists and adult physicians cooperate. @*Conclusion@#The LTFU care system for CCS is underdeveloped in the Republic of Korea. It is urgent to establish an LTFU care system to meet the growing needs of Korean CCSs, which should include Korean CCSs care guidelines, provider education plans, the establishment of multidisciplinary care systems, and a supportive national healthcare policy.

5.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 116-123, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999356

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Survivors of childhood leukemia are at risk of growth impairment due to intensive chemotherapy and radiation treatments. This study investigated the auxological and biochemical characteristics of childhood leukemia survivors diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and the changes in these parameters after 1 year of growth hormone (GH) treatment. @*Methods@#A total of 24 children diagnosed with GHD after leukemia treatment was analyzed. Clinical and biochemical data were collected retrospectively at leukemia diagnosis, GHD diagnosis, and 1 year after GH treatment. Standard deviation score (SDS) was calculated based on the age- and gender-adjusted population. @*Results@#Of the 24 children included in this study, 19 received GH treatment. The median age at GHD diagnosis was 12.3 years, and the median delay in bone age was 1.46 years. Height SDS decreased from -0.69 at leukemia diagnosis to -2.58 at GHD diagnosis (P<0.001). The change in height SDS with and without GH for 1 year was 0.35 and -0.21, respectively (P=0.044). In regression analyses, higher height SDS at GHD diagnosis and a smaller decrease of the height SDS between leukemia and GHD diagnoses were positively correlated with height SDS after GH treatment. @*Conclusion@#GH treatment could be beneficial and safe for improving height in childhood leukemia survivors with GHD. Height SDS at GHD diagnosis and reduction of height SDS between leukemia and GHD diagnosis could be potential factors in predicting the therapeutic effects. Close auxological monitoring is recommended for any childhood leukemia survivors who experience posttreatment height decline.

6.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 190-204, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976631

ABSTRACT

Background@#Alopecia areata (AA) is a chronic disease with an unpredictable disease course and severe psychological impact. @*Objective@#To provide evidence- and consensus-based insights regarding the treatment of patients with AA in Korea. @*Methods@#We searched for relevant studies on the topical and device-based treatment of AA in the literature from inception until May 2021. Evidence-based recommendations were also prepared. The evidence for each statement was graded and classified according to the strength of the recommendations. Hair experts from the Korean Hair Research Society (KHRS) voted on the statements, and an agreement of 75% or greater was considered as consensus. @*Results@#Currently, there remains a scarcity of topical treatments, which is supported by robust evidence from a number of high-quality randomized controlled trials. Current evidence supports the efficacy of topical corticosteroids, corticosteroid intralesional injection, and contact immunotherapy in AA patients. Topical corticosteroids and contact immunotherapy are recommended for pediatric AA. A consensus was achieved in 6 out of 14 (42.8%), and 1 out of 5 (20.0%) statements pertaining to topical and device-based treatments in AA, respectively. The expert consensus was from a single country, and the study may not cover all the treatments used. @*Conclusion@#The present study provides up-to-date, evidence-based treatment guidelines for AA based on the consensus reached among experts after considering regional healthcare circumstances, adding diversity to the previous guidelines.

7.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 205-216, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976630

ABSTRACT

Background@#Alopecia areata (AA) is a chronic disease with an unpredictable course and can have a severe psychological impact on an individual. @*Objective@#To provide evidence and consensus-based statements regarding the treatment of patients with AA in Korea. @*Methods@#We searched for relevant studies from inception to May 2021 regarding the systemic treatment of AA. Evidence-based recommendations were also prepared. The evidence for each statement was graded and classified according to the strength of the recommendations. Hair experts from the Korean Hair Research Society (KHRS) voted on the statement, and an agreement of 75% or greater was considered as having reached consensus. @*Results@#Current evidence supports the efficacy of systemic corticosteroids, oral cyclosporine monotherapy or combination with systemic corticosteroids, and oral Janus kinase inhibitors in severe AA patients. Systemic steroids may be considered for pediatric patients with severe AA. A consensus was achieved in three out of nine (33.3%), and one out of three (33.3%) statements pertaining to systemic treatment in adult and pediatric AA, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The present study produced up-to-date, evidence-based treatment guidelines for AA associated with the consensus obtained by experts based on the Korean healthcare system.

8.
Blood Research ; : 256-263, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966425

ABSTRACT

Background@#Allogeneic HSCT may improve survival in pediatric ALL patients who relapse. In this study, we analyzed the outcome and prognostic factors of 62 ALL patients (35 male, 56.5%) who received allogeneic HSCT in second complete remission (CR) at our institution between April 1st 2009 and December 31st 2019. @*Methods@#The median time from diagnosis to relapse was 35.1 months (range, 6.0‒113.6 mo).Fifty-three patients (85.5%) experienced bone marrow relapse only. The number of patients who received transplant according to each donor type was as follows: HLA matched family donor 17 (27.4%), matched unrelated donor (UD) 22 (35.5%), mismatched donor 23 (37.1%). All patients received HSCT with a myeloablative conditioning, 58 patients (93.5%) with the incorporation of TBI [31 patients 12 Gray (Gy), 24 patients 13.2 Gy, 3 patients 8 Gy]. @*Results@#The 5-year event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival of the study group was 41.3±6.3% (26/62), and 42.3±6.6% (27/62), respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse and transplant-related mortality was 57.1±6.4% and 1.6±1.6%, respectively.Infant ALL, shorter time from diagnosis to relapse, and TBI dose of 12 Gy, rather than 13.2 Gy, resulted in significantly worse EFS. In multivariate analysis, infant ALL and TBI dose of 12 Gy during conditioning predicted significantly lower EFS. @*Conclusion@#In our study group, treatment with a higher dose of TBI during conditioning resulted in better EFS for ALL patients who underwent HSCT in second CR. Further study is needed to determine potential long-term complications associated with a higher TBI dose.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 269-276, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

10.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 63-66, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897872

ABSTRACT

Synovial sarcoma occurring in the pleura and lung is extremely rare. We report a case of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma as a second malignant neoplasm. The patient had been diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia at 5 years of age, and received matched sibling donor allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, with total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide conditioning. At 22 years of age, he complained of worsening chest discomfort and exertional dyspnea. Chest CT revealed a huge mass in the right middle lobe, pleura, and diaphragm. The patient was initially diagnosed as sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma, without any environmental or occupational asbestos exposure. Five months later, the patient presented with soft tissue metastasis and underwent needle biopsy. Pathological examination including SYT-SSX RT-PCR revealed synovial sarcoma, which led to a review of the original tumor findings and confirmed the diagnosis of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma.To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma developed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 567-575, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897438

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recent cooperative trials in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) report long-term event-free survival (EFS) of greater than 80%. In this study, we analyzed the outcome and prognostic factors for patients with precursor B cell ALL (n=405) diagnosed during a 10-year period (2005-2015) at our institution. @*Materials and Methods@#All patients were treated with a uniform institutional regimen based on four risk groups, except for steroid type; patients diagnosed up till 2008 receiving dexamethasone, while subsequent patients received prednisolone. None of the patients received cranial irradiation in first complete remission. @*Results@#The 10-year EFS and overall survival was 76.3%±2.3% and 85.1%±1.9%. Ten-year cumulative incidence of relapse, any central nervous system (CNS) relapse and isolated CNS relapse was 20.8%±2.2%, 3.7%±1.1% and 2.5%±0.9% respectively. A comparison of established, good prognosis genetic abnormalities showed that patients with high hyperdiploidy had significantly better EFS than those with ETV6-RUNX1 rearrangement (10-year EFS of 91.2%±3.0% vs. 79.5%±4.4%, p=0.033). For the overall cohort, male sex, infant ALL, initial CNS involvement, and Philadelphia chromosome (+) ALL were significant factors for lower EFS in multivariate study, while high hyperdiploidy conferred favorable outcome. For high and very high risk patients (n=231), high hyperdiploidy was the only significant factor for EFS in multivariate study. @*Conclusion@#Regarding good prognosis genetic abnormalities, patients with high hyperdiploidy had significantly better outcome than ETV6-RUNX1 (+) patients. High hyperdiploidy was a major, favorable prognostic factor in the overall patient group, as well as the subgroup of patients with higher risk.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 567-575, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889734

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recent cooperative trials in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) report long-term event-free survival (EFS) of greater than 80%. In this study, we analyzed the outcome and prognostic factors for patients with precursor B cell ALL (n=405) diagnosed during a 10-year period (2005-2015) at our institution. @*Materials and Methods@#All patients were treated with a uniform institutional regimen based on four risk groups, except for steroid type; patients diagnosed up till 2008 receiving dexamethasone, while subsequent patients received prednisolone. None of the patients received cranial irradiation in first complete remission. @*Results@#The 10-year EFS and overall survival was 76.3%±2.3% and 85.1%±1.9%. Ten-year cumulative incidence of relapse, any central nervous system (CNS) relapse and isolated CNS relapse was 20.8%±2.2%, 3.7%±1.1% and 2.5%±0.9% respectively. A comparison of established, good prognosis genetic abnormalities showed that patients with high hyperdiploidy had significantly better EFS than those with ETV6-RUNX1 rearrangement (10-year EFS of 91.2%±3.0% vs. 79.5%±4.4%, p=0.033). For the overall cohort, male sex, infant ALL, initial CNS involvement, and Philadelphia chromosome (+) ALL were significant factors for lower EFS in multivariate study, while high hyperdiploidy conferred favorable outcome. For high and very high risk patients (n=231), high hyperdiploidy was the only significant factor for EFS in multivariate study. @*Conclusion@#Regarding good prognosis genetic abnormalities, patients with high hyperdiploidy had significantly better outcome than ETV6-RUNX1 (+) patients. High hyperdiploidy was a major, favorable prognostic factor in the overall patient group, as well as the subgroup of patients with higher risk.

13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 513-522, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903200

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience significant difficulties with executive functioning (EF) and related adaptive skills, yet the lack of interventions in South Korea targeting these areas has resulted in a heightened need to develop an evidence- based program. Therefore, we developed a novel intervention aiming to enhance everyday EF and daily adaptive skills in adults with high-functioning ASD and conducted a pilot study to evaluate the validity and feasibility of the program. @*Methods@#A behavioral intervention of 10-weekly sessions was developed based on literature searches and focus group interviews. Seven adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age=20.29) participated in a single-group pilot trial. We used self and parent-report questionnaires as well as skills measured by assessment instruments to analyze differences before and after the intervention. @*Results@#Significant improvements were shown in everyday EF, including time management, organization, self-restraint, and regulation of emotions. Additionally, results demonstrated an enhancement in adaptive functioning, especially in the subdomains of daily living skills. Analyses of parental outcomes only revealed a significant decrease in the scores of emotion regulation. @*Conclusion@#The current study provides good evidence for the validity and feasibility of an intervention to improve everyday EF and adaptive skills in adults with ASD.

14.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal ; : 16-22, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903071

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to identify the factors associated with the repeated febrile seizures (RFS), defined as recurrent seizures during the same febrile illness. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of children with febrile seizure who visited 4 academic emergency departments from October 2016 through September 2018. Differences were identified in variables regarding clinical and laboratory characteristics between the children with and without RFS. The RFS was the primary outcome. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with the occurrence of RFS. @*Results@#Among 1,551 children, 922 were included in the study, of whom, 198 (21.5%) underwent RFS. Of the children with RFS, 188 (94.9%) underwent the recurrences within the initial 24 hours. Logistic regression showed focal seizure (adjusted odds ratio, 6.67; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-18.82), venous pH 30 minutes (1.90; 1.30-2.78) as the factors for RFS. @*Conclusion@#In children with febrile seizure, focal seizure, acidosis, and prolonged postictal state may be independent risk factors for RFS. These findings may be informed to healthcare professionals and parents caring for children with febrile seizure.

15.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 60-76, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900917

ABSTRACT

The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis mediated by the parasympathetic, sympathetic and enteric systems. Autonomic failure adversely affects body function and may increase morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the scoring systems, such as Ewing’s classification and Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale (CASS), were developed to detect and quantify autonomic deficits, primarily focusing on the cardiovascular reflex system. Autonomic disorders manifest with a myriad of symptoms resulting from the dysfunction of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, secretomotor, pupillomotor systems as well as cardiovascular system. Several self-report questionnaires, such as Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS), Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson’s disease for Autonomic Symptoms (SCOPA-AUT), Survey of Autonomic Symptom (SAS), were also used to support to detect various signs and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in clinical settings. In this review, we introduce clinically useful assessment scales in autonomic nervous system disorders.

16.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 84-88, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914060

ABSTRACT

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) deficiency is a rare immunodeficiency disorder. A 13-month-old boy was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and treated with steroid and cyclosporine. Bone marrow showed diminished erythroid precursors, and positive results for Parvovirus B19 and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. A genetic study of Diamond-Blackfan anemia was negative. Five months later, he was admitted due to fever and lymphadenopathy. PCR showed still positive for the Parvovirus, CMV, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). He was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that was positive for EBV. The patient received chemotherapy with R-CHOP, and achieved complete remission. Immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were within an age-matched normal range until the completion of chemotherapy. Subsequently, he was admitted nine times due to recurrent pneumonia and acute otitis media between two and eight years old. We reanalyzed the Ig levels and lymphocyte subsets: IgG, IgA, and IgM were 30 mg/dL, below 1.0 mg/dL, and 36 mg/dL, respectively. Lymphocyte subsets showed nearly absent CD19 (+) cells, but T- and NK cell counts were within normal ranges. A genetic study showed a hemizygous inframe deletion mutation in exon 4 of the IAP gene without the SH2D1A mutation, consistent with a XIAP deficiency. Therefore, he was diagnosed with XIAP deficiency. Genetic analysis of his mother, aunt and elder sister showed that they were carriers of the same gene mutation. He receives intravenous Ig regularly with follow-up, and still requires a low dose steroid to maintain hemoglobin level. We report XIAP deficiency as initial presentation of PRCA.

17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1184-1194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913813

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Effectiveness and safety of clofarabine (one of the treatment mainstays in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) was assessed in Korean pediatric patients with ALL to facilitate conditional coverage with evidence development. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter, prospective, observational study, patients receiving clofarabine as mono/combination therapy were followed up every 4-6 weeks for 6 months or until hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Response rates, survival outcomes, and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Sixty patients (2-26 years old; 65% B-cell ALL, received prior ≥ 2 regimen, 68.3% refractory to previous regimen) were enrolled and treated with at least one dose of clofarabine; of whom 26 (43.3%) completed 6 months of follow-up after the last dose of clofarabine. Fifty-eight patients (96.7%) received clofarabine combination therapy. Overall remission rate (complete remission [CR] or CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) was 45.0% (27/60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32.4 to 57.6) and the overall response rate (CR, CRp, or partial remission [PR]) was 46.7% (28/60; 95% CI, 34.0 to 59.3), with 11 (18.3%), 16 (26.7%), and one (1.7%) patients achieving CR, CRp, and PR, respectively. The median time to remission was 5.1 weeks (95% CI, 4.7 to 6.1). Median duration of remission was 16.6 weeks (range, 2.0 to 167.6 weeks). Sixteen patients (26.7%) proceeded to HSCT. There were 24 deaths; 14 due to treatment-emergent adverse events. @*Conclusion@#Remission with clofarabine was observed in approximately half of the study patients who had overall expected safety profile; however, there was no favorable long-term survival outcome in this study.

18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 513-522, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895496

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience significant difficulties with executive functioning (EF) and related adaptive skills, yet the lack of interventions in South Korea targeting these areas has resulted in a heightened need to develop an evidence- based program. Therefore, we developed a novel intervention aiming to enhance everyday EF and daily adaptive skills in adults with high-functioning ASD and conducted a pilot study to evaluate the validity and feasibility of the program. @*Methods@#A behavioral intervention of 10-weekly sessions was developed based on literature searches and focus group interviews. Seven adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age=20.29) participated in a single-group pilot trial. We used self and parent-report questionnaires as well as skills measured by assessment instruments to analyze differences before and after the intervention. @*Results@#Significant improvements were shown in everyday EF, including time management, organization, self-restraint, and regulation of emotions. Additionally, results demonstrated an enhancement in adaptive functioning, especially in the subdomains of daily living skills. Analyses of parental outcomes only revealed a significant decrease in the scores of emotion regulation. @*Conclusion@#The current study provides good evidence for the validity and feasibility of an intervention to improve everyday EF and adaptive skills in adults with ASD.

19.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal ; : 16-22, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895367

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to identify the factors associated with the repeated febrile seizures (RFS), defined as recurrent seizures during the same febrile illness. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of children with febrile seizure who visited 4 academic emergency departments from October 2016 through September 2018. Differences were identified in variables regarding clinical and laboratory characteristics between the children with and without RFS. The RFS was the primary outcome. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with the occurrence of RFS. @*Results@#Among 1,551 children, 922 were included in the study, of whom, 198 (21.5%) underwent RFS. Of the children with RFS, 188 (94.9%) underwent the recurrences within the initial 24 hours. Logistic regression showed focal seizure (adjusted odds ratio, 6.67; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-18.82), venous pH 30 minutes (1.90; 1.30-2.78) as the factors for RFS. @*Conclusion@#In children with febrile seizure, focal seizure, acidosis, and prolonged postictal state may be independent risk factors for RFS. These findings may be informed to healthcare professionals and parents caring for children with febrile seizure.

20.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 60-76, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893213

ABSTRACT

The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis mediated by the parasympathetic, sympathetic and enteric systems. Autonomic failure adversely affects body function and may increase morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the scoring systems, such as Ewing’s classification and Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale (CASS), were developed to detect and quantify autonomic deficits, primarily focusing on the cardiovascular reflex system. Autonomic disorders manifest with a myriad of symptoms resulting from the dysfunction of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, secretomotor, pupillomotor systems as well as cardiovascular system. Several self-report questionnaires, such as Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS), Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson’s disease for Autonomic Symptoms (SCOPA-AUT), Survey of Autonomic Symptom (SAS), were also used to support to detect various signs and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in clinical settings. In this review, we introduce clinically useful assessment scales in autonomic nervous system disorders.

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