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1.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 306-311, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933793

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relapse risk factors of anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-IgG positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) patients treated with immunosuppressant.Methods:Data (from January 2011 to June 2021) of AQP4-IgG positive NMOSD patients treated with immunosuppressant for longer than 5 years from MSNMObase, a hospital-based electronic registry for multiple sclerosis and related disorders in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, were collected. Clinical features and risk factor differences between patients with and without relapse under the immunosuppressive therapy were analyzed.Results:One hundred and twelve patients with AQP4-IgG positive NMOSD were included, 105 (93.8%) of which were female. The disease onset age was (34.9±11.3) years, 13(11.6%) had an older disease onset age than 50 years (late onset), and the disease duration was 8.1 (6.6, 11.4) years. Sixty-four (57.1%) patients had relapse, and the proportion of late onset patients was significantly lower in relapse group than in non-relapse group [4/64(6.3%) vs 9/48(18.8%), χ2=4.18, P=0.041]. Compared with those without relapse, both the annualized relapse rate (ARR) before treatment [1.07 (0.36, 2.25) vs 0.34 (0, 1.11), Z=2.92, P=0.003] and the proportion of patients with relapse before treatment [54/64(84.4%) vs 33/48(68.8%), χ2=3.86, P=0.049] were significantly higher for patients in relapse group. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed the relapse risk of late-onset patients was lower than that of early-onset patients ( HR=0.26, 95% CI 0.10-0.73, P=0.010) and patients with higher ARR before treatment showed a higher risk of relapse under the immunosuppressive therapy ( HR=1.55,95% CI 1.26-1.91, P<0.001). Conclusion:AQP4-IgG positive NMOSD patients with younger disease onset age than 50 years or with frequent relapses before treatment had a higher relapse risk under the immunosuppressive therapy, and they may need highly effective treatments.

2.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 783-787, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957969

ABSTRACT

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a new optical imaging technique, which can indirectly reflect the auto-regulation of cerebral blood perfusion and the brain activation by monitoring blood oxygen saturation. This technique has been widely used in neurocritical care in recent years. The basic principle of NIRS and its application in cognitive impairment were reviewed, and the comparison of this technique and functional magnetic resonance imaging which has been commonly used in brain activation assessment was discussed. In the future, NIRS is expected to be more widely used in the field of cognitive impairment assessment.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932334

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of a novel retrograde tibial nail (RTN) in the treatment of distal tibial fractures.Methods:A retrospective study was conducted in the 11 patients with distal tibial fracture who had been admitted to Department of Traumatic Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Hengyang Medical School from July 2020 to July 2021. There were 5 male and 6 females, aged from 18 to 70 years (average 54.7 years). By the AO/OTA classification, there were 7 extra-articular distal fractures (3 cases of type 43-A1, 3 cases of type 43-A2 and one type 43-A3) and 4 intra-articular fractures (2 cases of type 43-C1 and 2 cases of type 43-C2); by the Gustilo classification, there were 7 closed fractures and 4 open fractures (2 cases of type I and 2 cases of type Ⅱ). All fractures were fixated with a novel RTN. Deformities like distal tibial varus and valgus as well as fracture-related complications were observed after operation while the curative effects evaluated by the ankle-hindfoot score of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS).Results:This cohort was followed up for an average of 7.4 months (from 5 to 12 months). All patients obtained clinical union and recovered daily life and work. Radiographic evaluation showed no distal tibial varus or valgus. There were no such complications as postoperative infection, exposure of bone and internal fixation, compartment syndrome, or neurovascular lesion. According to the ankle-hindfoot score of AOFAS, 7 cases were excellent and 4 cases good.Conclusion:This novel retrograde tibial nail may result in good efficacy in the treatment of distal tibial fracture, but its advantages still need further verification.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929575

ABSTRACT

Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the influenza viruses. Older people, infants and people with underlying medical conditions could have a higher risk of severe influenza symptoms and complications. The co-infection of Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19) with influenza viruses could lead to the complication of prevention, diagnosis, control, treatment, and recovery of COVID-19. Influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine overlapped in target populations, vaccination time, and inoculation units. Although there was insufficient evidence on the immunogenicity and safety of co-administration of influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine, World Health Organization and some countries recommended co-administration of inactivated influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine. This review summarized domestic and international vaccination policies and research progress, and put forward corresponding suggestions in order to provide scientific support for the formulation of vaccination strategy on seasonal influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Humans , Infant , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 183-188, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935368

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the time distribution of the first positive nucleic acid detection in imported cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 reported nationwide in China and provide references for further improvement of the prevention and control of COVID-19 in international travelers. Methods: The data of imported cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 reported by provinces from 24 July 2020 and 23 July 2021 were collected for the analysis on the time distribution of the first positive nucleic acid detection after entering China. Results: A total of 7 199 imported cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 were reported in 28 provinces during 24 July 2020 to 23 July 2021. The median interval (Q1, Q3) from the entry to the first positive nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 was 1 (0, 5) day. The imported cases who had the first positive nucleic acid detections within 14 days and 14 days later after the entry accounted for 95.15% (6 850/7 199) and 4.85% (349/7 199) respectively. Among these cases, 3.65% (263/7 199), 0.88% (63/7 199) and 0.32% (23/7 199) had the first positive nucleic acid detections within 15-21 days, 22-28 days and 28 days later after the entry respectively. The proportion of asymptomatic infections were 47.24% (3 236/6 850) and 63.61% (222/349) among the cases who had the first positive nucleic acid detections within 14 days and 14 days later after the entry respectively. A total of 39.54% (138/349) of cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 with the first positive nucleic acid detections 14 days later after the entry had inter-provincial travel after the discharge of entry point isolation. Conclusions: About 5% of the imported cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 were first positive 14 days later after the entry. In order to effectively reduce the risk of domestic COVID-19 secondary outbreaks caused by imported cases, it is suggested to add a nucleic acid test on 8th -13th day after the entry.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Nucleic Acids , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 479-482, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885447

ABSTRACT

Objective:To identify anti-dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein 6 (DPPX) antibody in patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology and describe the clinical features of anti-DPPX antibody-associated encephalitis in Chinese patients.Methods:For patients registered in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital Encephalitis and Paraneoplastic Syndrome Registration Project from 2016 to 2019 with negative findings in autoimmune encephalitis routine antibody profile and paraneoplastic antibody profile, but with positive tissue-based assay (TBA) results, further tests for rare antibodies, including cell-based assay (CBA) of anti-DPPX antibody, were performed. Patients positive for anti-DPPX antibody were enrolled and the clinical data were collected.Results:Two patients with anti-DPPX antibody-associated encephalitis were found from 2016 to 2019 among about 15 000 patients. Both were females, aged 46 and 75 years. One patient had diarrhea, cachexia, cognitive dysfunction, agitation, myoclonus, tremor, and seizures. The other had cognitive impairment, restlessness, memory loss, disorientation, and sleep disturbance. The second patient had medical history of systemic lupus erythematosus and secondary Sj?gren′s syndrome.Conclusions:TBA should be combined with CBA in identification of anti-DPPX antibody to confirm the diagnosis. Anti-DPPX antibody-associated encephalitis has clinical manifestations of encephalopathy with diarrhea and cachexia, and can coexist with systemic lupus erythematosus.

7.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 204-210, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885404

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore whether there were changes in midbrain morphology related to motor function in patients with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD).Methods:The study was conducted on a subset of patients with CSVD registered at the Department of Neurology of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2010 to 2018. All magnetic resonance imaging images were taken with a 3.0 T nuclear magnetic resonance imager. The measurement of anteroposterior diameter of the mesencephalon and the tegmentum of mesencephalon was performed on a personal computer with the image processing software RadiAnt DICOM Viewer. Several clinical manifestations of dyspraxia, dysphagia, dysarthria and dysuria were evaluated by interviewing the patient and family members living with the patient. Kinect depth camera combined with self-developed software platform was used to conduct quantitative evaluation of patients′ motor function. Three parameters, namely walking speed, walking time of three meters and time of standing up and sitting down, were selected from the obtained parameters. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis.Results:A total of 176 patients were included, aged 30-88 (64.16±11.57) years. One hundred and fifteen patients were males, accounting for 65.34%. In patients with CSVD, anteroposterior diameter of the mesencephalon and the tegmentum of mesencephalon were negatively correlated with age ( B=-0.032, P<0.001; B=-0.020, P=0.006). The anteroposterior diameter of the mesencephalon was negatively correlated with symptoms of dyskinesia ( OR=0.006, 95% CI 0-0.135, P=0.001), even when the age and gender were adjusted ( OR=0.014,95% CI 0-0.416, P=0.013). The anteroposterior diameter of the mesencephalon was negatively correlated with symptoms of dysuria ( OR=0.046,95% CI 0.002-0.936, P=0.045), but no longer correlated when the age and gender were adjusted. The anteroposterior diameter of tegmentum of mesencephalo was also negatively correlated with symptoms of dyskinesia ( OR=0.035,95% CI 0.002-0.684, P=0.027), but no longer correlated after adjusting for age and gender. Video recording and evaluation of motor function were performed on 87 patients. Spearman correlation analysis showed that none of the three motor function scores was correlated with age or gender. The anteroposteric diameter of the midbrain was positively correlated with walking speed ( r=0.231 ,P=0.040) and negatively correlated with walking time of three meters ( r=-0.304, P=0.005), but not with standing up and sitting down time, while the anteroposteric diameter of tegmentum of mesencephalo was not correlated with all of them. Conclusion:There are changes in mesencephalon morphology in patients with CSVD, structural parameters of mesencephalon are related to motor function and urination function, and mesencephalon atrophy may be an independent related factor for symptoms of dyskinesia in patients with CSVD.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884232

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of establishment of a trauma center on the therapeutic efficacy for patients with severe multiple injuries.Methods:A retrospective study was conducted in the patients who had been treated at The Second Affiliated Hospital, University of South China for severe multiple injuries from October 2015 to September 2019. They were assigned into 2 groups. The study group included 102 patients who had been treated after establishment of our trauma center (from October 2017 to September 2019) while the control group 126 patients who had been treated before establishment of our trauma center (from October 2015 to September 2017). The 2 groups were compared in terms of time for emergency treatment (from admission to emergency surgery or ICU), ICU stay, hospital stay, total medical costs and mortality.Results:There was a significant difference between the 2 groups in time for emergency treatment [51 (47, 57) min for the study group versus 97 (87, 107) min for the control group] ( P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in ICU stay [4 (1.8, 9.3) d versus 4 (2.0, 10.0) d], hospital stay [25.5 (15.8, 39.0) d versus 21.5 (12.8, 41.5) d], or total medical costs [¥41,259.0 yuan (¥26,950 yuan, ¥81,599 yuan)] ( P>0.05). There was a significant difference between the 2 groups in mortality [12.7% (13/102) for the study group versus 24.6% (31/126) for the control group] ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Establishment of a trauma center can effectively shorten time for emergency treatment, improve treatment efficacy and reduce mortality for patients with severe multiple injuries.

9.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 729-733, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884117

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CHD) and hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy).Methods:A total of 101 patients with CHD complicated with HHcy who had successfully undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled. They were divided into ticagrelor group ( n=49) and clopidogrel group ( n=52) according to the different antiplatelet drugs used. The clinical data of the two groups were collected, and the incidence of major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adverse events (MACCE) and bleeding events in one year were compared between the two groups. Results:There was no statistical difference in baseline datas and PCI datas between the clopidogrel and ticagrelor groups ( P>0.05). Compared with clopidogrel group, ticagrelor can reduce the total MACCE (8.16% vs 32.69%, P<0.05) and the incidence of unstable angina pectoris events (0 vs 13.46%, P<0.05) in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia PCI 1 year after operation. The incidences of ischemic stroke, unstable angina pectoris, recurrent myocardial infarction, and cardiogenic death were compared separately between the two groups, and the difference was not statistically significant ( P>0.05). The incidence of major bleeding events, minor bleeding events, and minimal bleeding events were similar between the two groups, and the difference was not statistically significant (4.08% vs 0; 4.08% vs 1.92%; 20.41% vs 9.62%; P>0.05). Conclusions:In patients with CHD and Hhcy, ticagrelor can play a better antithrombotic effect, reduce the incidence of ischemic events, and has good security, which is more worthy of clinical recommendation.

10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1812-1818, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887644

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Unawareness of stroke symptoms and low income are two barriers that affect the seeking of emergency medical service (EMS). This study aimed to assess the effect of unawareness and low income on seeking EMS and to investigate the regional distribution of the unawareness and low-income status and their associations with failing to call EMS in China.@*METHODS@#A total of 187,723 samples from the China National Stroke Screening Survey was interviewed cross-sectionally. Four status of awareness and annual income were identified: unaware and low-income, unaware-only, low-income-only, and aware and regular income. The outcomes were whether they intended to call EMS or not. The regional distribution of each status and their associations with not calling EMS were presented.@*RESULTS@#The status of unaware and low-income, unaware-only, and low-income-only accounted for 6.3% (11,806/187,673), 11.9% (22,241/187,673), and 21.5% (40,289/187,673) of the total sample, respectively. Not calling EMS was significantly associated with the status of unaware and low-income (odds ratio [OR]: 3.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.07-3.35), unaware-only (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 2.31-2.46), and low-income-only (OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.63-1.71), compared with the aware and regular income status. The Midwest regions had higher percentages of people in the unaware and low-income status; the East, South, and Central had higher percentages of unaware-only status; the North and Northeast regions had a higher percentage of low-income-only status, compared with other regions.@*CONCLUSION@#The existence of the regional difference in unawareness and low income justifies the specific stroke education strategies for the targeted regions and population.


Subject(s)
China , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Odds Ratio , Socioeconomic Factors , Stroke
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883632

ABSTRACT

In medical field, the demand of high-level applied statistical talents is becoming more and more urgent, and the number of medical colleges to train graduate students of Master of Applied Statistics (MAS) is increasing gradually. Taking Chongqing Medical University as an example, this article introduces the objective, orientation and training mode of MAS education, analyzes the main characteristics of MAS professional education and talent training, discusses the problems mainly on training system and teaching base, combined with the interview results of MAS graduate students studying in CMU, and puts forward target suggestions including expanding the enrollment scale, optimizing the "two-tutorial system", advancing the training system and developing new teaching bases, to provide reference and experience for the teaching and training of MAS graduate students in medical colleges.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942594

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of tinnitus in Sichuan and Chongqing. Methods: We designed a tinnitus epidemiological questionnaire. The multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling methods was applied to obtain study subjects in six areas (Nanchong, Jiangjin, Fengdu, Yunyang, Suining and Ya'an), which were selected for epidemiological investigation. Home visit completion of epidemiological questionnaires was conducted. The trained investigators guided the respondents to fill in the tinnitus epidemiological questionnaires, and the epidemiological status of six areas on prevalence and risk factor was investigated. SPSS 22.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Sampling population were 10 289, in which 9 273 were valid questionnaires. There were 4 281 males and 4 992 females, with an average age of 47.3 years, among which 34.83% (3 230/9 273) had tinnitus. 3.99% (370/9 273) were diagnosed with bothersome tinnitus. In a multivariable logistic regression mod, the following factors were associated with onsetting of tinnitus: sleep disorder [Odds Ratio(OR)=3.74] and noise exposure(OR=1.99). The risk of disease was lowest in the age of 30-40 years old, while the risk of disease was higher for people under 30 and over 40. In another multivariable logistic regression mode, the following factors were associated with having bothersome tinnitus: older people were more likely to suffer from tinnitus, sleep disorders (OR=4.68) and noise exposure (OR=1.56). Conclusions: The prevalence of tinnitus in Sichuan and Chongqing is about 34.83%, but most of the tinnitus is short-lived and has low loudness, which will not affect the patients. Only a small number of patients with tinnitus (3.99%) persist and affect their health and need treatment. The occurrence and exacerbation of tinnitus may be related to sleep, age, and noise exposure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tinnitus/epidemiology
13.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 122-126, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799518

ABSTRACT

The treatment strategy of acute ischemic stroke depends on the clinical classification according to pathogenic mechanism. Intravenous thrombolysis and endovascualr thrombectomy are the most efficient treatments to restrore cerebral perfusion. Early implementation of secondary ischemic stroke prevention can reduce the risk of stroke recurrence. Rehabilitation is beneficial for neurological functional recovery.

14.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 25-30, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798975

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the value of cerebrospinal fluid markers expecially total-tau protein (T-tau), phosphorylated-tau protein (P-tau) in diagnosis and differentiation of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD).@*Methods@#sCJD (according to 2009 Brain criteria, 2018 Neurology amended criteria), Alzheimer's disease (AD; the National Institute on Aging at National Institutes of Health and the Alzheimer's Association revised guidelines 2011 criteria) and other patients without cognitive impairment, matched for sex and age, in the Department of Neurology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2018 to 2019 were enrolled. Twelve sCJD patients, 49 AD patients and 14 normal controls were enrolled. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected through gravity dropping directly, and further stored in -80 ℃ and disposed according to widely used standards. The levels of T-tau and P-tau were measured by ELISA. The data on electroencephalogram and neuroimaging findings of sCJD patients were recorded. Moreover, specimens of sCJD patients were sent to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention to test 14-3-3 protein and PRNP genotype.@*Results@#Using Mann-Whitney U test, T-tau concentrations were found higher in patients with sCJD (1 211(448, 2 227) pg/ml) than in AD patients (549(314, 1 078) pg/ml; U=178, P=0.034 9), and both groups had higher T-tau than the control group (127(79, 192) pg/ml; U=20, 73, P<0.01). The level of P-tau was significantly increased in AD patients (72(58,109) pg/ml) compared to the control group (27(15, 42) pg/ml; U=82, P<0.01), but not in sCJD patients (32(24, 47) pg/ml). The T-tau/P-tau ratio was higher in sCJD patients (29.77(20.01, 54.53)) than in AD patients (7.45(4.79, 10.43); U=87, P<0.01). Twelve sCJD patients had cotical hyperintensity on diffusion weighted imaging and five had periodic three-phase waves on electroencephalogram. Nine sCJD patients, whose CSF samples were tested in the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, carried an M/M genotype at codon 129 and E/E at codon 219.@*Conclusion@#The CSF tau level and T-tau/P-tau ratio are significantly increased in sCJD, which may promote the diagnosis and differentiation of sCJD in routine clinical setting.

15.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 1352-1355, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867401

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation between the expression of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and systemic immunoinflammatory index (SII) in patients with radical hepatectomy.Methods:A total of 78 patients with radical hepatectomy from March 2016 to January 2018 were enrolled in the observation group. All patients were treated with radical hepatectomy. 58 patients with liver benign disease treated at the same time were selected as the control group. The patient′s neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet levels were calculated by automatic biochemical analyzer, and the NLR and PLR values were calculated. The SII was calculated using the formula platelet × neutrophil/lymphocyte; The patients′ gender, age, preoperative alanine aminotransferase (ALT), tumor diameter, preoperative alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), liver function classification and other indicators were recorded, and univariate and multivariate logistic analysis was performed; the patients were followed up for 18 months after treatment, and were divided into death group and survival group according to the prognosis. The levels of NLR, PLR and SII in the two groups were recorded and analyzed. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between NLR, PLR, SII and prognosis.Results:The levels of NLR (7.48±1.21), PLR (25.31±4.23) and SII (452.98±43.69) in the observation group were higher than those in the control group [NLR(2.35±0.96), PLR (10.49±2.44) and SII (253.23±25.31)] ( t=6.391, 5.328, 8.562, P<0.05). The results of univariate and multivariate logistic analysis showed that the levels of NLR, PLR and SII in the observation group were related to preoperative ALT, tumor diameter, preoperative AFP and liver function classification ( P<0.05); 55 patients survived and 23 died in 18 months follow-up. The levels of NLR (4.39±1.46), PLR (15.93±4.39) and SII (275.69±21.53) in survival group were lower than those in death group [NLR (13.59±2.49), PLR (53.29±6.41), SII (574.67±46.39)] ( t=7.398, 4.395, 6.781, P<0.05). The results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that the levels of NLR, PLR and SII were negatively correlated with the prognosis of patients ( r=-0.693, -0.771, -0.709, P<0.05). Conclusions:NLR, PLR and SII are highly expressed in patients with radical hepatectomy. The expression level of NLR, PLR and SII is correlated with the prognosis of patients, monitoring their expression level can evaluate the prognosis and guide clinical treatment.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865881

ABSTRACT

Objective:To provide a reference for integrated medical education reform in medical colleges by analyzing the scores of National Staged Examination of Clinical Physician Qualification (NSECPQ).Methods:The NSECPQ scores of our students in 2019 were analyzed by hypothesis testing. Chi-test was used to compare the pass rate of the examination, and the t-test was used to compare the total scores, the average mastery of disciplines and the average mastery of the system. Results:The total scores and pass rate of the examination of the students in the framework of integrated medicine education were significantly higher than those in traditional medical education. There was no significant difference in the scores of some subjects between the two educational frameworks, the scores of some subjects of the students in the framework of integrated medicine education were even lower than those in traditional medical education. For example, under the integrated medical education mode, the students' average mastery of obstetrics is 4.04 points, slightly lower than the students under the traditional medical education mode (4.11 points). It shows that the reform of integrated medical education still has some shortcomings in the teaching of some disciplines and systems.Conclusion:When implementing the teaching reform of integrated medical education in medical colleges, special attention should be paid to comparing the examination syllabus of clinical physician qualification, reasonably arranging the teaching contents of integrated medical courses, and strengthening the training of teaching staff and the construction of teaching teams, so as to ensure the teaching quality of integrated medical education reform.

17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 178-184, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in high temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 (HTRA1) gene are responsible for cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL). Recently, increasing evidence has shown that heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are also associated with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. This study was aimed to analyze the genetic and clinical characteristics of HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD.@*METHODS@#We presented three new Chinese cases of familial CSVD with heterozygous HTRA1 mutations and reviewed all clinical case reports and articles on HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD included in PUBMED by the end of March 1, 2020. CARASIL probands with genetic diagnosis reported to date were also reviewed. The genetic and clinical characteristics of HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD were summarized and analyzed by comparing with CARASIL.@*RESULTS@#Forty-four HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD probands and 22 CARASIL probands were included. Compared with typical CARASIL, HTRA1-related autosomal dominant probands has a higher proportion of vascular risk factors (P < 0.001), a later onset age (P < 0.001), and a relatively slower clinical progression. Alopecia and spondylosis can be observed, but less than those in the typical CARASIL. Thirty-five heterozygous mutations in HTRA1 were reported, most of which were missense mutations. Amino acids located close to amino acids 250-300 were most frequently affected, followed by these located near 150∼200. While amino acids 250∼300 were also the most frequently affected region in CARASIL patients, fewer mutations precede the 200th amino acids were detected, especially in the Kazal-type serine protease domain.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD is present as a mild phenotype of CARASIL. The trend of regional concentration of mutation sites may be related to the concentration of key sites in these regions which are responsible for pathogenesis of HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Infarction , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/genetics , Heterozygote , High-Temperature Requirement A Serine Peptidase 1/genetics , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/genetics , Mutation/genetics
18.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 1021-1027, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870918

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the clinical profile and prognostic features of relapsing polychondritis (RP) with nervous system involvement.Methods:The clinical data of 28 RP patients with nervous system involvement admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 2005 to November 2019 were collected and analyzed.Results:The median age of the patients was 50 years and 57.1% (16/28) were men. Patients with central nervous system involvement accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of the total. Common manifestations included headache (69.2%, 18/26), cognitive impairment (38.5%, 10/26), and mental disorders (38.5%, 10/26); only two cases had peripheral nervous system damage. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed that subcortical (13/18) and cortical (8/18) tissues were most affected. Cerebrospinal fluid tests showed that the median white blood cell count was 55×10 6/L, while the protein level was also slighted elevated ((0.54±0.17) g/L). All patients were treated with glucocorticoids, and 85.7% (24/28) of patients with immunosuppressants; 27 patients showed optimistic responses to the treatment, while 24 had recurrent courses. Cognitive dysfunction was the most common residual symptom. Follow-up data of 16 patients were available with an average follow-up time of 3.3 years. Ten of the patients were in stable condition and three patients died. Conclusions:Nervous system damage, especially limbic encephalitis and meningitis may present in course of RP. However, it is a challenge to diagnose for the non-specific clinical manifestations. Treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressants can lead to a favorable response.

19.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 341-347, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870818

ABSTRACT

Objective:To characterize the digital language markers in Alzheimer′s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and to explore the pathological effect and aging effect on these markers.Methods:AD ( n=14) and MCI ( n=16) patients from memory clinic in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, age-matched cognitively normal elderly adults ( n=18) and youthful adults ( n=19) as controls participated in the study. The digital speech data of animal fluency test were collected. Novel language markers such as response time, semantic similarity and word frequency were analyzed in addition to the traditional word production, clustering and switching indicators by trained professionals. Multiple linear regression analysis with multiple comparison was used to test the associations of language markers with the cognitive status, adjusting for education. Results:The results of multiple regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for the years of education, statistically significant differences existed in 11 language markers among the four groups ( P<0.001), except for the effective word production in the last 15 s, cluster size, the first word response time and the average semantic similarity. Compared to other three groups, AD group differed significantly in effective word production, effective rate, repetitive rate, effective word production in the first 15 s, the number of subcategories, single word production time and inter-subcategory switching interval ( P<0.001). In addition, compared to cognitively normal youthful group, AD group had less number of switching and shorter semantic maximum distance ( P=0.001, P<0.001); both AD and MCI groups had longer intra-subcategory switching interval ( P<0.001, P=0.001); AD, MCI and cognitively normal elderly groups had significantly higher word frequency ( P<0.001); MCI group had significantly less number of effective word production and subcategories ( P=0.002, P=0.003); both MCI and cognitively normal elderly groups had significantly longer single word production time ( P<0.001). Conclusions:The performance of AD patients on the semantic fluency test task was affected by both pathological effect and normal aging effect. Pathological indicators included effective word production, effective rate, repetition rate, effective word production in the first 15 s, the number of subcategories, inter-subcategory switching interval and single word production time. These results provide a new approach to identify the specific effects of AD dementia.

20.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 122-126, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870776

ABSTRACT

The treatment strategy of acute ischemic stroke depends on the clinical classification according to pathogenic mechanism.Intravenous thrombolysis and endovascualr thrombectomy are the most efficient treatments to restrore cerebral perfusion.Early implementation of secondary ischemic stroke prevention can reduce the risk of stroke recurrence.Rehabilitation is beneficial for neurological functional recovery.

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