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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922576

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of Xuebijing Injection (XBJ) on the lung endothelial barrier in hydrogen sulfide (H@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to H@*RESULTS@#The morphological investigation showed that XBJ attenuated H@*CONCLUSIONS@#XBJ ameliorated H


Subject(s)
Animals , Claudin-5 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Endothelial Cells , Hydrogen Sulfide , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906444

ABSTRACT

The historical evolution, fermentation technology and key links of Sojae Semen Praeparatum (SSP) were sorted out by consulting ancient books and modern literature, and the influencing factors and control methods of quality were analyzed and summarized in order to provide reference for the quality control of SSP. After analysis, it was found that in the fermentation process of SSP, fermentation strains, miscellaneous bacteria, temperature and humidity were all important factors affecting the quality of SSP. The condition control of "post fermentation" process has been paid more attention to in the past dynasties. In addition, the delicious SSP recognized in ancient times should be made from mold fermentation, and the breeding and application of fermented mold may be the key point to solve the quality problem of SSP. Therefore, based on the evaluation indexes of SSP in the past dynasties, it is of great significance to study and optimize the technological conditions such as strain, temperature and humidity in depth to improve the quality of SSP.

3.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E546-E553, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904436

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine the effects of javelin release parameters related to aerodynamics on aerodynamic distance and results in javelin throwing in actual competition environments. MethodsKinematic data from javelin throwing of 22 Chinese and American elite women javelin throwers were obtained using three-dimensional videographic method. The trial with the longest aerodynamic distance and the trial with the shortest aerodynamic distance for each thrower in the same competition were included in this study. Aerodynamics-related techinical parameters in long and short aerodynamic distance trials were compared. Results Compared with short aerodynamicdistance trials, the vacuum flight distances of long aerodynamic distance trials were significantly shorter, but the official distances were significantly longer. The release velocities of long aerodynamic distance trials were significantly lower, the attack angles and bending angles were significantly smaller. The horizontal direction angles at release of the long aerodynamic distance trials were more to the right side. The elevation angles and horizontal pointing angles during right/left foot landing in long aerodynamic distance trials were not significantly different from those in short aerodynamic distance trials. Conclusions Throwing javelin with submaximal effort beneficiates the control of aerodynamics-related release parameters and thus increased chances to obtain long aerodynamic distance and better result in women javelin throwing. Reducing attack angle and releasing javelin about 5°to the right will assist women javelin throwers to obtain longer aerodynamic distance.

4.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E534-E539, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904434

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare rotational techniques used by Chinese and world elite men’s shot put athletes, so as to provide scientific references for Chinese male shot putters to improve their sports performance and results in international competitions. Methods Three-dimensional (3D) kinematics data from Chinese male shot putters in actual competitions were obtained, and kinematic parameters of Chinese and world elite men’s shot put athletes were calculated and compared. Namely, shot velocities and hip-shoulder separation angles at five critical instants of rotational techniques: right foot off, left foot off, right foot touchdown, left foot touchdown and release, as well as phase durations and shot travel distances during four critical phases: first single support, air-born flight, second single support and final delivery. ResultsCompared with world elite athletes, Chinese male shot putters using rotational techniques had significantly lower vertical release velocity, longer air-borne duration, smaller hip-shoulder separation angles at left foot off and touchdown instant, and longer shot travel distance during air-borne flight, but shorter shot travel distance during final shot delivery. Conclusions The difference in lower extremity strength is a primary casue leading to different sports performance between Chinese and world elite male shot putters. The technique differences in Chinese and world elite male shot putters mainly lie in different phase timing and shot travel distances during different techinique phases.

5.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E491-E501, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904429

ABSTRACT

Sports biomechanics is an interdisciplinary application science that studies human movement. The main purpose of sports biomechanical research is to improve competitive sports performance and prevent sports injuries. This review introduced methods commonly used in biomechanical research, and selected results in biomechanical research on sports performance, training method and sports equipment, so as to provide references for improving the quality of biomechanical research in China. It is hoped that more biomechanical studies will be conducted with the focus on sports performance improvement and injury prevention, using rigorous research design and new technologies to obtain more accurate biomechanical data in human movement, so as to increase the breadth and depth of sports biomechanical researches.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886868

ABSTRACT

@#We reported a case of a six-year-old boy diagnosed of single ventricle, pulmonary atresia and interrupted inferior vena cava. After modified Blalock-Taussig shunt and bidirectional Glenn procedure, he received the Fontan procedure. The Fontan procedure was done through a unilateral thoracotomy, using an autologous pericardial conduit to connect hepatic vein and azygos vein. The result of short-term follow-up was satisfactory.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879169

ABSTRACT

Based on the systematic retrieval and the reported components of Sojae Semen Nigrum and Sojae Semen Praeparatum, this study conducted in-depth analysis of conversion of components in the fermentation process, and discussed types and possible mec-hanisms of conversion of chemical components, so as to provide the basis for studying technology, medicinal ingredients and quality standards. According to the analysis, there is a certain degree of conversion of nutrients(like protein, sugar, lipid), bioactive substances(like isoflavones, saponins, γ-aminobutyric acid) and other substances(like nucleosides, melanoids, biamines, etc) in the process of fermentation.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fermentation , Isoflavones/analysis , Semen/chemistry , Soybeans
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878954

ABSTRACT

The color characteristic information of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma powder was obtained by spectrophotometer, the feasibility of rapid identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma origin based on chromaticity value was studied by statistical analysis. The results of rank correlation analysis showed that a~*(P<0.01), b~*(P<0.01) had significantly correlation with the origin of medicinal herbs, which could be used as two important parameters to distinguish the origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, the larger the a~* value, the more red the powder color,and the greater the b~* value, the more yellow the powder color. Meanwhile, through Fisher discriminant analysis, the linear discriminant functions of different genus Rhei Radix et Rhizoma were established, which was Rheum tanguticum=40.666a~*+0.019b~*-213.303, Rh. palmatum=34.121a~*+0.061b~*-151.770, Rh. officinale=28.071a~*+0.113b~*-104.604 3, the coincidence rate of cross-validation was over 95%, among them, the discriminant rate of Rh. tanguticum and Rh. officinale reached 100%;In addition, using the percentile method to analyze the 90% reference value range of three different origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, as a result, Rh. tanguticum a~*(10.236 5-10.604 7), b~*(32.294 8-34.841 7); Rh. palmatum a~*(8.602 7-8.770 0), b~*(27.534 8-28.968 6), and Rh. officinale a~*(6.825 7-7.464 3),b~*(21.001 6-27.716 4). According to this study, rank correlation analysis and Fisher discriminant analysis are feasible to distinguish the base of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in a certain range, and provide some theoretical basis for the identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It also provides a new method and idea for the identification of other multi-base Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastropoda , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873546

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To analyze the Ebstein anomaly's reoperative strategy and mid- to long-term results. Methods    We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 23 patients who diagnosed with Ebstein anomaly and underwent reoperation for tricuspid valve insufficiency between July 2002 and July 2017 in Fuwai Hospital. There were 9 (39.1%) males and 14 (60.9%) females, with a median age of 28.0 (19.0, 45.0) years. Results    Among the 23 patients, 8 (34.8%) underwent tricuspid valvuloplasty and 15 (65.2%) underwent tricuspid valve replacement. The rate of valvuloplasty was 16.7% before 2012, and 54.5% after 2012 (P=0.089) as Cone reconstruction procedure was used. In the valvuloplasty cohort, 3 (37.5%) patients were treated with Danielson or Carpentier technique, and 5 (62.5%) patients were treated with Cone reconstruction procedure. There was no operation-related death. Early complications occurred in 3 (37.5%) patients. The median follow-up was 6.9 years (range, 3.0-15.1 years), and no adverse cardiac events occurred. In the patients with valve replacement, 7 (46.7%) received mechanical prosthesis and 8 (53.3%) received bio-prosthesis. There was no operation-related death. And early complications were observed in 3 (20.0%) patients. The median follow-up was 6.5 years (range, 2.5-15.3 years). One (6.3%) patient died and 4 (26.7%) had long-term complications during the follow-up period. Conclusion    The mid- to long-term outcomes are convincing in patients who undergo the second operation due to recurrent tricuspid regurgitation of Ebstein anomaly. A low incidence of reoperation is observed. Cone reconstruction procedure provides possibilities of second tricuspid valvuloplasty, and this technique can reduce the rate of tricuspid valve replacement in the second operation. Tricuspid valve replacement is still an alternative method for the treatment of recurrent tricuspid regurgitation in patients with Ebstein anomaly. The bioprosthetic prosthesis may be a better choice than mechanical prosthesis.

10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e00222, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089183

ABSTRACT

A series of 2,3-dioxoindolin-N-phenylacetamide derivatives was evaluated for inhibitory activity against CDC25B and PTP1B enzymes. Most of the derivatives showed inhibitory activity against CDC25B (IC50 = 3.2-23.2 µg/mL) and PTP1B (IC50 = 2.9-21.4 µg/mL). Compound 2h showed the most inhibitory activity in vitro with IC50 values of 3.2 and 2.9 µg/mL against CDC25B and PTP1B, respectively, compared with the reference drugs Na3VO4 (IC50 = 2.7 µg/mL) and oleanolic acid (IC50 = 2.3 µg/mL). The results of selectivity experiments showed that the 2,3-dioxoindolin-N-phenylacetamide derivatives were selective inhibitors against CDC25B and PTP1B. Enzyme kinetic experiments demonstrated that compound 2h was a specific inhibitor with the typical characteristics of a mixed inhibitor. In cytotoxic activity assays compound 2h had potent activity against A549, HeLa, and HCT116 cell lines. In addition, compound 2h showed potent tumor inhibitory activity in a colo205 xenograft model in vivo.

11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17721, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089201

ABSTRACT

In the present study, a series of novel 5,7-diisoprenyloxyflavone derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. Most of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria, especially against strains of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates. Compounds 4c, 4g, 4i, 4j, 4k, 4l, 4n, 4q and 4t showed high levels of antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4.0-20 µM. Compound 4k showed the most potent activity among these compounds against all multidrug-resistant clinical isolates tested. Unfortunately, none of the compounds were active against Gram-negative bacteria at the doses of 24-164 µM.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865423

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the anti-depressive effect of ferulic acid (FA) in mice exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and explore its molecular mechanisms. Methods: The mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: Control, LPS, LPS + SP, LPS + FA, and LPS + FA + anisomycin. The LPS + FA and LPS + FA + anisomycin groups were administered with FA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily continuously for 7 days, and the other groups received an equivalent volume of saline. On the 7th day, LPS (0.1 mg/mL, i.p.) was injected in all mice except the control group 30 min after FA or saline administration. The LPS + SP and LPS + FA + anisomycin groups were intravenously administered with SP600125 [c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor] (100 μL/site, i.v.) and anisomycin (JNK activator) (100 μL/site, i.v.) 15 min before LPS, respectively. The depressive behaviors were assessed by open field test, sucrose preference test, and forced swimming test at 24 h post-LPS administration. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in plasma were measured by ELISA. The levels of phospho-JNK, TNF-α, IL-1β, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c and caspase-3 were evaluated by Western blotting. Results: FA alleviated depression symptoms caused by LPS in mice, including increasing sucrose water consumption in sucrose preference test and reducing the immobility time in forced swimming test. FA could inhibit upregulated levels of phospho-JNK, TNF-α, and IL-1β. FA also markedly decreased Bax, caspase-3, and cytochrome c, and increased Bcl-2 levels. Besides, SP600125 showed neuroprotective effect similar to FA which was attenuated by anisomycin. Conclusions: FA attenuates inflammation and apoptosis by inhibiting LPS-induced activation of JNK to alleviate depression-like behaviors.

13.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E481-E488, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862373

ABSTRACT

Objective To build a method for calculating the optimal length of hamstring muscles in vivo, and make comparison with other indirect parameters which represent the optimal length. Methods By synchronously recording knee flexion torque and kinematic data, the musculoskeletal model of lower limbs was built to obtain hamstring strength and muscle length, and to further calculate the optimal length of hamstring muscles. Results Flexion angle at peak knee flexion torque was significantly greater than that at peak hamstring strength and their correlation coefficient was 0.741. The optimal lengths of each bi-articulated hamstring muscles were significantly greater than the corresponding muscle lengths during standing and their correlation coefficients was low. Conclusions The established estimating method for optimal length of hamstring muscles provided references for future studies on injury mechanism and risk factors. Flexion angle at peak knee flexion torque could partly represent the optimal length of hamstring. It is not suggested that hamstring muscle length during standing should be used as an approximation of hamstring optimal length.

14.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E672-E678, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862326

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the sex-specific lower extremity biomechanics of amateur runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Methods Fifteen male and ten female amateur runners with PFP were identified and enrolled in PFP group, twenty-five healthy amateur runners matched with the PFP group were recruited as control group. The kinematics and kinetics, surface electromyography (EMG) data from all the subjects in the running task were collected.Two-way analysis of variance was performed to determine the influence of group and sex on lower extremity biomechanics during running. Results Compared with control group, male amateur runners with PFP showed a greater peak knee flexion angle during the landing phase of running. Compared with control group, male and female amateur runners with PFP showed a greater peak hip adduction angle during the landing phase of running, while the peak hip adduction angle of female participants was significantly greater than that of male participants. Conclusions Amateur runners with PFP showed sex-specific lower extremity biomechanics in the running task, and the clinical intervention for PFP should be sex-specific.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828976

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To screen the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) treated with atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM ).@*Methods@#HBE cells were treated with PM samples from Shenzhen and Taiyuan for 24 h. To detect overall protein expression, the Q Exactive mass spectrometer was used. Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG), and Perseus software were used to screen DEPs.@*Results@#Overall, 67 DEPs were screened in the Shenzhen sample-treated group, of which 46 were upregulated and 21 were downregulated. In total, 252 DEPs were screened in the Taiyuan sample-treated group, of which 134 were upregulated and 118 were downregulated. KEGG analysis demonstrated that DEPs were mainly enriched in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and HIF-1 signal pathways in Shenzhen PM samples-treated group. The GO analysis demonstrated that Shenzhen sample-induced DEPs were mainly involved in the biological process for absorption of various metal ions and cell components. The Taiyuan PM -induced DEPs were mainly involved in biological processes of protein aggregation regulation and molecular function of oxidase activity. Additionally, three important DEPs, including ANXA2, DIABLO, and AIMP1, were screened.@*Conclusion@#Our findings provide a valuable basis for further evaluation of PM -associated carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Bronchi , Metabolism , Computational Biology , Epithelial Cells , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Particle Size , Particulate Matter , Proteomics
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828431

ABSTRACT

In this study, HPLC was used to determine the content of the four isoflavones of Astragalus membranceus var. mongholicus from different regions(calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, calycosin and formononetin), and gray correlation analysis and path analysis were used to explore the influence of climate factors on the content of isoflavone components in A. membranceus var. mongholicus. The results showed that there were significant differences in the content of the four isoflavones in different areas(P<0.05); grey correlation analysis showed that the highest temperature in July, the lowest temperature in January and the daily average temperature had a greater impact on the content of flavonoid glycosides, meanwhile precipitation and relative humidity were the more important factors for the accumulation of flavonoid aglycones. According to the general analysis, the direct positive effects of the lowest temperature in January and altitude on the contents of four isoflavones in A. membranceus var. mongholicus were significant. High altitude and extreme temperature conditions might be more adverse to the formation and accumulation of isoflavone components. Therefore, the religions of A. membranceus var. mongholicus with high contents of isoflavones should be chosen the low altitude region with higher minimum temperature in January. This study provides a reference basis for the quality evaluation of A. membranceus var. mongholicus, and basic data for the selection of suitable habitat, construction of planting standards and directional cultivation of medicinal materials in A. membranceus var. mongholicus.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Astragalus propinquus , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Isoflavones , Plant Roots , Chemistry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820935

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the residential radon concentration in typical areas of Hubei Province and assess the dose hazards of radon to human body. Methods According to geographical location, five cities including Wuhan, Enshi, Shiyan, Xianning and Daye were selected, and the stratified cluster sampling and monitoring were conducted in accordance with the residential building structure. From April to July, 2019, RSKS standard detectors were placed in the bedroom or living room of the tested families. After continuously sampling for three months, those detectors were returned back to the laboratory for test readings using Radosys system. Results A total of 651 detectors were deployed in 577 households of 70 communities, and 634 detectors were recovered. The recovery rate of detectors was 97.4%. The indoor residential radon concentration in Hubei Province showed a logarithmic normal distribution, with a median (25% quantile and 75% quantile) of 40.52 (29.13,64.74) Bq/m3 and an annual effective dose of 2.02 mSv. The indoor radon concentrations in Wuhan and Enshi were significantly higher than those in Shiyan, Xianning and Daye (P<0.05). The indoor radon concentrations in brick wood or civil structures were significantly higher than those in reinforced concrete structures (P<0.05), and indoor radon concentration in the first floor was significantly higher than those in other floors (P<0.05). The indoor radon concentrations after 2010 were significantly lower than those between 2001 and 2010 (P<0.05). Conclusion The number of households with indoor radon concentrations exceeding the national limit in newly-built buildings accounted for 10.1%; The indoor residential radon concentration levels of in Hubei Province were influenced by building structure, age and floor.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905456

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of Ganoderma triterpenoids combined with exogenous monosialoteterahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) on cognitive dysfunction in rats with epilepsy. Methods:A total of 75 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into blank control group, epileptic model group, Ganoderma triterpenoids group, GM1 group and GM1 combined with Ganoderma triterpenoids group (combination group), with 15 rats in each group. All the groups, except the blank control group, were intraperitoneally injected with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) 35 mg/kg once a day for 28 days. Medication groups were given corresponding administration based on daily intraperitoneal injection of PTZ. They were tested with Morris Water Maze; and were observed with transmission electron microscopy and HE staining for hippocampal neurons. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of actin-binding protein (Cofilin), synaptophysin (SYN) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) mRNA in hippocampus of rats. Results:Compared with the blank control group, the escape lantency prolonged in the epileptic model group in all the time points (P < 0.05). Compared with the epileptic model group, the escape lantency shortened in the treatment groups somewhen (P < 0.05). Compared with the epileptic model group, the number of crossing the platform increased in the treatment groups (P < 0.01), and the time of staying in the target quadrant prolonged (P < 0.01); while the number of pyramidal cells increased, the nuclear lysis and fragmentation reduced, the structure of neurons and the number of synapses improved, as well as the organelle structure. Compared with the blank control group, the expression of Cofilin mRNA increased (P < 0.05), and the expression of SYN mRNA and GAP-43 mRNA decreased (P < 0.05) in the epileptic model group; compared with the epileptic model group, the expression of Cofilin mRNA decreased (P < 0.05), and the expression of SYN mRNA increased (P < 0.05) in all the treatment groups, while the expression of GAP-43 mRNA increased (P < 0.05) only in the combination group. Conclusion:Ganoderma triterpenoids, GM1 and their combination can improve the learning and memory abilities of epileptic rats, which may be associated with increasing the expression of SYN and GAP-43, decreasing the expression of Cofilin, to promote the synaptic remodeling of hippocampal tissue and protect brain neurons from PTZ-induced epilepsy.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880737

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which first affected humans in China on December 31, 2019 (Shi et al., 2020). Coronaviruses generally cause mild, self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections in humans, such as the common cold, pneumonia, and gastroenteritis (To et al., 2013; Berry et al., 2015; Chan et al., 2015). According to the Report of the World Health Organization (WHO)-China Joint Mission on COVID-19 (WHO, 2020), the case fatality rate of COVID-19 increases with age, while the rate among males is higher than that among females (4.7% and 2.8%, respectively). Since an effective vaccine and specific anti-viral drugs are still under development, passive immunization using the convalescent plasma (CP) of recovered COVID-19 donors may offer a suitable therapeutic strategy for severely ill patients in the meantime. So far, several studies have shown therapeutic efficacy of CP transfusion in treating COVID-19 cases. A pilot study first reported that transfusion of CP with neutralizing antibody titers above 1:640 was well tolerated and could potentially improve clinical outcomes through neutralizing viremia in severe COVID-19 cases (Chen et al., 2020). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM are the most abundant and important antibodies in protecting the human body from viral attack (Arabi et al., 2015; Marano et al., 2016). Our study aimed to understand the aspects of plasma antibody titer levels in convalescent patients, as well as assessing the clinical characteristics of normal, severely ill, and critically ill patients, and thus provide a basis for guiding CP therapy. We also hoped to find indicators which could serve as a reference in predicting the progression of the disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/therapy , China , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879766

ABSTRACT

Pharmacogenomics is an emerging tool to improve the efficacy and safety of drug treatment through the DNA analysis in the genes related to drug concentrations (pharmacokinetics) and drug actions (pharmacodynamics). Clinicians need to integrate the genomic data in their benefit-risk assessment and then provide the right drug to the right patient at the right time. This tool can help to prevent an ineffective treatment, select right dose and reduce adverse drug reactions that are common in the current practice under the trial-observation-adjustment model. Pharmacogenomics may have extensive impacts on unique paediatric patients to enhance a better relationship between medical professionals and affected children or their guardians and to improve the drug compliance. Clinicians should embrace the advancements in pharmacogenomics and actively participate in clinical research to identify the ancestor-related alleles and develop the population-specific gene panel. It will allow patients to enjoy more achievements in pharmacogenomics by implementing it in first line clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Pharmacogenetics , Precision Medicine , Prescriptions
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