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1.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 360-363, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935221

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of primary and acquired resistance to anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) on the overall survival of patients with HER-2 positive advanced breast cancer. Methods: The clinical characteristics of HER-2 positive patients with advanced breast cancer admitted to Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 1998 to December 2018 were collected, and their neoadjuvant/adjuvant and advanced three-line chemotherapy were summarized. Among them, targeted drugs for HER-2 included trastuzumab, pertuzumab, T-DM1, RC48-ADC, lapatinib, pyrotinib, allitinib, sipatinib, seratinib. Based on the duration of benefit from anti HER-2 treatment, the patients were divided into two groups: primary anti HER-2 resistance group and acquired anti HER-2 resistance group. In this study, the overall survival (OS) was used as the main end point. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional risk regression model were used to analyze the effects of different drug resistance mechanisms on the overall survival. Results: The whole group of 284 patients were included. The median age of recurrence and metastasis was 48 years old, 155 (54.6%) were hormone receptor (HR) positive and 129 (45.4%) were HR negative, 128 cases (45.1%) were premenopausal and 156 cases (54.9%) were postmenopausal, 277 cases (97.5%) had a score of 0-1 in ECoG PS and 7 cases (2.5%) had a score of more than 2 in the first diagnosis of relapse and metastasis. There were 103 cases (36.3%) in the primary drug resistance group and 181 cases (63.7%) in the secondary drug resistance group. The median overall survival time of the two groups was 24.9 months and 40.4 months, respectively, with statistical significance (P<0.001). Conclusion: Primary resistance to HER-2 is one of the factors of poor prognosis in HER-2 positive breast cancer, and its mechanism needs to be further explored.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Drug Resistance , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Prognosis , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Trastuzumab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
2.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 276-281, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935211

ABSTRACT

Objective: Systematically summarize the research progress of clinical trials of gastric cancer oncology drugs and the overview of marketed drugs in China from 2012 to 2021, providing data and decision-making evidence for relevant departments. Methods: Based on the registration database of the drug clinical trial registration and information disclosure platform of Food and Drug Administration of China and the data query system of domestic and imported drugs, the information on gastric cancer drug clinical trials, investigational drugs and marketed drugs from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2021 was analyzed, and the differences between Chinese and foreign enterprises in terms of trial scope, trial phase, treatment lines and drug type, effect and mechanism studies were compared. Results: A total of 114 drug clinical trials related to gastric tumor were registered in China from 2012 to 2021, accounting for 3.7% (114/3 041) of all anticancer drug clinical trials in the same period, the registration number showed a significant growth rate after 2016 and reached its peak with 32 trials in 2020. Among them, 85 (74.6%, 85/114) trials were initiated by Chinese pharmaceutical enterprise. Compared with foreign pharmaceutical enterprise, Chinese pharmaceutical enterprise had higher rates of phase I trials (35.3% vs 6.9%, P=0.001), but the rate of international multicenter trials (11.9% vs 67.9%, P<0.001) was relatively low. There were 76 different drugs involved in relevant clinical trials, of which 65 (85.5%) were targeted drugs. For targeted drugs, HER2 is the most common one (14 types), followed by PD-1 and multi-target VEGER. In the past ten years, 3 of 4 marketed drugs for gastric cancer treatment were domestic and included in the national medical insurance directory. Conclusions: From 2012 to 2021, China has made some progress in drug research and development for gastric carcinoma. However, compared with the serious disease burden, it is still insufficient. Targeted strengthening of research and development of investment in many aspects of gastric cancer drugs, such as new target discovery, matured target excavating, combination drug development and early line therapy promotion, is the key work in the future, especially for domestic companies.


Subject(s)
China , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
3.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 178-184, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935199

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and survival outcomes of dose-dense (biweekly) carboplatin plus paclitaxel (PC) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and to explore an optimal neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen for TNBC. Methods: Patients diagnosed as TNBC(cT1-4N0-3M0) in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College Between January 2008 and September 2018 who received dose-dense PC and standard 3-weekly PC as NAC were 1∶1 matched using propensity score matching (PSM) to compare the efficacy, safety and survival outcomes. Results: One hundred of TNBC patients were enrolled (50 patients were divided in dose-dense group, 50 patients in standard group). The objective response rate (ORR) of dose-dense group and standard group were both 90.0% (45/50). The grade 3-4 neutropenia in dose-dense group was less than that of standard group (32.7% vs. 68.0%, P=0.001), while the rate of ALT/AST elevation in dose-dense group was higher than that of standard group (57.1% vs. 32.0%, P=0.012). The pathological complete response (pCR) rates were 34.0% (17/50) in dose-dense group and 38.0% (19/50) in standard group, without statistically significance (P=0.677). The median follow-up time was 55 months (3-150 months). The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) in dose-dense group and standard group were 83.5% and 75.2%, respectively the 5-year overall survival (OS) in dose-dense and standard group were 87.9% and 84.5% the difference were not statistically significant (P=0.322 and 0.647, respectively). Patients with residual disease (tumor size≥1 cm or lymph node positive) had poor prognosis, the 5-year RFS and OS were 59.3% and 68.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Dose-dense PC has similar efficacy with standard 3-weekly PC and has a good safety profile. Since dose-dense regimen can shorten the duration of therapy, it can be an alternative in TNBC.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carboplatin/therapeutic use , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy/adverse effects , Paclitaxel/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-636436

ABSTRACT

Anthracycline-Taxane chemotherapy is widely used in neoadjuvant treatment for breast cancers. However, there is limited data reported in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we evaluated the pathologic responses and survival of neoadjuvant epirubicin and taxanes chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced TNBC to provide some useful information for clinical practice. A total of 43 patients with locally advanced TNBC were enrolled in this study. Patients were administered with epirubicin 75 mg/m(2) plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) or docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for at least 2 cycles. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR), which was defined as no residual invasive cancer, or only carcinoma in situ in both the excised breast and axillary lymph node, while relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were secondary endpoints. Thirty-nine (90.7%) patients were at clinical stages IIB-IIIC. Thirty-seven (86%) completed 4-6 cycles of preoperative chemotherapy, and objective response rate (ORR) was 81.4% (35/43). Forty-two patients underwent radical surgery subsequently. The pCR rate was 14.3% (6/42). The most common adverse events in neoadjuvant chemotherapy were nausea/vomiting (88.4%, 38/43) and neutropenia (88.4%). After a median follow-up period of 34.0 months, 3-year RFS and OS rate was 53.6% and 80.1%, respectively. All events of recurrence and death occurred in non-pCR patients, in whom the 3-year RFS and OS rates were 44.3% and 76.6%, respectively. This study suggest that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin plus taxanes has a relatively low pCR rate and high early recurrence risk in locally advanced TNBC, which indicates the necessity for more efficacious treatment. Further study is needed to validate these results.

5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 521-524, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267507

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Retrospective and prospective studies have shown that continuous administration of trastuzumab with different chemotherapy regimens resulted in better clinical outcomes than the administration of chemotherapy alone in women with HER2-positive, trastuzumab-refractory metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, there are limited data to evaluate the activity of trastuzumab in patients progressed after other anti-HER2 therapies, e.g. lapatinib. The aim of the present study was to evaluate retrospectively the clinical value of trastuzumab in patients with lapatinib-resistant HER2-positive advanced breast cancer treated in our center.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Patients with HER2-positive MBC who experienced progression after first-line lapatinib-based regimens were assigned to receive either conventional treatment without trastuzumab or in combination with trastuzumab as second-line therapy. The efficacy end points included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Thirty-five eligible patients progressed after treatment with lapatinib-based regimens were collected. None of the patients had received prior trastuzumab in either the adjuvant or metastatic setting. Twenty-two patients were assigned to receive conventional treatment without trastuzumab as second-line therapy (non-T arm) and 13 patients received conventional treatment combined with trastuzumab (T arm). There were no significant differences in the main clinical factors between the two arms, such as age, PS status, ER/PR, metastatic status, etc. Both the two cases with no disease progression after the second-line therapy were trastuzumab-treated patients, and all the other 33 cases were patients with progression despite the second-line therapy. Twenty-seven patients died due to disease progression, and eight survived (six cases of the T-arm and two cases of the non-T arm). The median PFS was 3.3 months in the non-T arm and 10.0 months in the T arm (P = 0.001). The median OS was 7.0 months in the non-T arm and 31.1 months in the T arm (P = 0.015).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Trastuzumab plus conventional treatment is superior to conventional treatment in women with lapatinib-resistant HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Continuous anti-HER2 management can provide survival benefit to patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Quinazolines , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Trastuzumab
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 855-857, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267441

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of adrenal metastasis from breast cancer, and to explore methods to improve prognosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-four breast cancer patients with adrenal metastasis were diagnosed and treated in our hospital from Jan. 1999 to Dec. 2010. SPSS 17.0 was used for survival analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>During the Jan. 1999 to Dec. 2010 period, 13 595 patients with breast cancer were treated in our hospital. Among them, 34 cases had adrenal metastasis from breast cancer, with an incidence of 0.25%. The median time to progression (TTP) and overall survival of the 34 patients was 6.2 months (95%CI 3.1-9.3 months) and 21.4 months (95%CI 0-44.0 months), respectively. Eleven patients (34.4%) achieved partial response among 32 patients who received chemotherapy, and 10 (31.2%) achieved stable disease. Patients who achieved best response of PR or SD were superior in TTP and OS than patients with disease progression after chemotherapy (TTP: 18.1 months vs. 2.3 months, P < 0.001; OS: 35.2 months vs. 10.3 months, P = 0.003). Patients who received 1st or 2nd line chemotherapy were superior in TTP than patients who received over 2nd line chemotherapy (TTP: 15.7 months vs. 4.2 months, P = 0.005).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The incidence of adrenal metastasis from breast cancer is low. Chemotherapy-based systemic therapy should be recommended to improve the prognosis for these patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , General Surgery , Adrenalectomy , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Drug Therapy , Pathology , General Surgery , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
7.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 207-211, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284207

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of breast cancer patients with inguinal lymph node metastases.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seventeen breast cancer patients with inguinal lymph node metastases were treated from January 1999 to December 2010 in our cancer center. All of the patients had a history of breast cancer without other primary cancer. Their clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors were surveyed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The frequency of breast cancer cases with inguinal lymph node metastaseis consisted of 0.11% of the total number of breast cancer patients in the same period. Two patients (11.8%) had inguinal lymph node metastasis only, and multi-site metastases were observed in the remaining 15 (88.2%) patients. The number of ER- and/or PR-positive and negative were 10 (58.8%) and 7 (41.2%) cases, respectively, and among the 13 cases who underwent HER-2 test, the number of HER-2-positive was 4 (30.8%). For the 16 patients who underwent surgery, 9 patients were detected with metastatic axillary lymph nodes equal or greater than 4. All of the 17 patients were treated with chemotherapy.The median follow-up time was 156 months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 49.9%. Univariate analysis revealed that metastatic axillary lymph nodes ≥ 4, ER- and(or) PR-negative, adjuvant chemotherapy ≤ 6 cycles, disease stage as III/IV at diagnosis and the period from diagnosis of breast cancer to the occurrence of inguinal lymph node metastasis ≤ 36 months were predictors of shorter PFS (P < 0.05). Metastatic axillary lymph nodes ≥ 4, ER- and(or) PR-negative, adjuvant chemotherapy ≤ 6 cycles, primary recurrence as multiple distant metastases, the period from diagnosis of breast cancer to the occurrence of inguinal lymph nodes metastasis ≤ 36 months and pleural effusion were predictors of shorter OS (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the period from diagnosis of breast cancer to the occurrence of inguinal lymph node metastasis was an independent prognostic factor concerning PFS (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The prognostic factors of breast cancer patients with inguinal lymph node metastases include the number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes, ER and(or) PR status, the cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, type of primary recurrence, the period from diagnosis of breast cancer to the occurrence of inguinal lymph node metastasis and pleural effusion. Regular and complete physical examination after surgery as well as prompt intensive treatment for high-risk patients may have positive significance in the treatment of such type of patients. However, a type of more reasonable and individualized treatment is warranted in future studies.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Axilla , Bone Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , General Surgery , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , General Surgery , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Groin , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Pathology , General Surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mastectomy, Modified Radical , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen , Metabolism , Receptors, Progesterone , Metabolism , Survival Rate
8.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 236-239, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284200

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relationship between genetic variantions of circadian clock genes and risk of breast cancer.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A case-control study including 406 breast cancer patients and 412 controls was conducted and genes Clock (rs2070062) and Per2 (rs2304672, rs2304669, rs934945) were genotyped by TaqMan real-time PCR. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between the genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Individuals with the rs2304669-TT genotype showed significantly increased breast cancer risk with the OR of 2.33 when compared with the individuals with rs2304669-CC and CT genotypes (P = 0.001). In addition, the three haplotypes containing the risk T allele of rs2304669 were identified to be associated with increased breast cancer risk. However, it was found that rs2304672, rs2070062 and rs934945 polymorphisms were not related with breast cancer risk.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The locus rs2304669 on Per2 gene is associated with breast cancer risk. Genetic variation of circadian clock genes may increase the susceptibility to breast cancer. Therefore, it may become an important biomarker of susceptibility to breast cancer.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Biomarkers, Tumor , Genetics , Breast Neoplasms , Genetics , CLOCK Proteins , Genetics , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Genetics , Case-Control Studies , Female , Genetic Variation , Humans , Period Circadian Proteins , Genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-343107

ABSTRACT

Anthracycline-Taxane chemotherapy is widely used in neoadjuvant treatment for breast cancers. However, there is limited data reported in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we evaluated the pathologic responses and survival of neoadjuvant epirubicin and taxanes chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced TNBC to provide some useful information for clinical practice. A total of 43 patients with locally advanced TNBC were enrolled in this study. Patients were administered with epirubicin 75 mg/m(2) plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) or docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for at least 2 cycles. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR), which was defined as no residual invasive cancer, or only carcinoma in situ in both the excised breast and axillary lymph node, while relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were secondary endpoints. Thirty-nine (90.7%) patients were at clinical stages IIB-IIIC. Thirty-seven (86%) completed 4-6 cycles of preoperative chemotherapy, and objective response rate (ORR) was 81.4% (35/43). Forty-two patients underwent radical surgery subsequently. The pCR rate was 14.3% (6/42). The most common adverse events in neoadjuvant chemotherapy were nausea/vomiting (88.4%, 38/43) and neutropenia (88.4%). After a median follow-up period of 34.0 months, 3-year RFS and OS rate was 53.6% and 80.1%, respectively. All events of recurrence and death occurred in non-pCR patients, in whom the 3-year RFS and OS rates were 44.3% and 76.6%, respectively. This study suggest that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin plus taxanes has a relatively low pCR rate and high early recurrence risk in locally advanced TNBC, which indicates the necessity for more efficacious treatment. Further study is needed to validate these results.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Methods , Disease-Free Survival , Epirubicin , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pathology , Neoplasm, Residual , Pathology , Paclitaxel , Taxoids , Treatment Failure , Treatment Outcome , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 764-769, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262529

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Three randomised trials have demonstrated that combining bevacizumab with first-line chemotherapy significantly improves progression-free survival versus chemotherapy alone in HER2-negative locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer (LR/mBC). However, data from Chinese populations are limited and possible differences between ethnic and geographic populations are unknown. This study was conducted to determine whether there are differences in safety and efficacy in patients with HER2-negative LR/mRC between Chinese and Western populations after they receive first-line bevacizumab combined with taxane-based therapy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In the single-arm, open-label, Avastin Therapy for Advanced Breast Cancer (ATHENA) study (NCT00448591), patients with HER2-negative LR/mBC received first-line bevacizumab (investigator's choice of 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks or 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks) combined with taxane-based therapy. The primary endpoint was safety profile and the secondary is time to progression (TTP). A subpopulation analysis was conducted to assess safety and efficacy in Chinese patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of 2264 patients treated in ATHENA, 202 were enrolled in China. Bevacizumab was combined with docetaxel in 90% of Chinese patients and paclitaxel in 10%. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were diarrhoea (in 5.0% of patients) and hypertension (in 2.5% of patients). Grade 3/4 proteinuria occurred in 0.5%. After median follow-up of 17.6 months and events in 56% of patients, median TTP was 9.0 months (95%CI, 8.4-11.1). Overall survival data were immature.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>We found no evidence of increased bevacizumab-related toxicity or reduced efficacy in Chinese LR/mBC patients receiving first-line bevacizumab-taxane therapy compared with predominantly Western populations. The safety profile was generally similar to previously reported LR/mBC trials. Subtle differences may be attributable to different lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese patients compared with the overall population. It appears reasonable to extrapolate findings from bevacizumab-based randomised trials to Chinese populations.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Therapeutic Uses , Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Bevacizumab , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Genetics , Metabolism , Taxoids , Therapeutic Uses , Young Adult
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 775-779, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262527

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Treatment option for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients pre-treated with chemotherapy is limited. Oral etoposide has shown some promises in these patients. However, patients who received heavy prior chemotherapy may have poor tolerance to prolonged oral etoposide exposure. This study is a single-arm clinical trial that evaluates the efficacy and safety of short-term oral etoposide in Chinese patients with MBC who had received heavy prior therapy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MBC patients receiving at least two chemotherapy regimens prior to the enrollment were treated with repeated cycles of oral etoposide (60 mg×m(-2)×d(-1) on days 1-10, followed by 11 days of rest). The primary end point was the progression free survival (PFS). The secondary end points were objective response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profiles.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Thirty-two patients received 230 cycles of oral etoposide with a median of 6 cycles (range, 2-20 cycles) per patient. Eight patients (25%) had partial response (PR) and 14 patients achieved stable disease (SD). The ORR was 25%. Nine patients achieved SD for more than 24 weeks and CBR was 53%. The median PFS and OS were 5 (range, 1.5-17.0 months) and 16 months (range, 3.0-51.0 months), respectively. The patients who achieved clinical benefit had longer survival time than those who did not (25.0 versus 11.0 months, P<0.01). Among the 16 patients who received more than four regimens prior to this study, four patients achieved PR and four achieved SD for more than 24 weeks, with a CBR of 50%. The most common hematologic adverse events were anemia (43.8%) and neutropenia (38.5%). Nausea/vomiting (75.0%) and alopecia (62.5%) were the most frequent non-hematologic toxicities.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Oral etoposide is effective and well tolerated in Chinese women with heavily pretreated MBC.</p>


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Drug Administration Schedule , Etoposide , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult
12.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 394-397, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307377

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Endobronchial metastases (EBM) secondary to extrapulmonary solid malignant tumors are rare but may occur. The most common extrathoracic malignancies associated with EBM are colorectal, renal and breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological aspects of EBM from breast cancer and the prognosis of the patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinicopathological data of 11 cases diagnosed as EBM from breast cancer treated in our hospital from 2003 to 2010 were re-evaluated. Their symptoms, recurrence interval, radiological features, histopathological properties, and prognosis were assessed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Eleven cases were diagnosed by bronchoscopic bronchial biopsy. The median interval from diagnosis of breast cancer was 57 months (range: 11 - 189 mo). All patients had other proven metastases when the EBM was diagnosed. The most frequently observed symptoms were cough (8 cases). Interestingly, two patients were asymptomatic. Hilar mass (5 cases) was a common radiological finding. No disaccordance between the hormone receptor status in the primary and metastatic lesions in these patients was found. The median survival after EBM diagnosis was 21 months (range: 6 - 36) with four patients still alive and one of these four patients was surviving more than 7 years.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>On average, EBM is diagnosed about 5 years after the diagnosis of breast cancer, which is a relatively long lead time, but the median survival time is short, as 21 months in our group. The treatment plan must be individualized, because in some cases, long-term survival can be expected.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Radiotherapy , General Surgery , Bronchial Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Radiotherapy , General Surgery , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mastectomy, Modified Radical , Middle Aged , Nitriles , Therapeutic Uses , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Triazoles , Therapeutic Uses
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 465-468, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307362

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Triple-negative [estrogen receptor (ER)-/progesterone receptor (PR)-/HER2-] breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for ∼ 15% of overall breast cancer and associated with a poor prognosis. There is a short of standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for TNBC. A number of studies have shown that TNBC might be sensitive to cisplatin and carboplatin on the basis that dysfunction of BRCA1 and its pathway is associated with a specific DNA-repair defect, but data of adjuvant setting about this is limited.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From January 2010 to September 2011, 95 early triple-negative breast cancer patients confirmed by pathology were randomly assigned to receive TP (docetaxel 75 mg/m², carboplatin AUC = 5, day 1, 21 days a cycle for 6 cycles) or EC-T (epirubicin 90 mg/m², cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m², d1, 21 days a cycle for 4 cycles, followed by docetaxel 80 mg/m², d1, 21 days a cycle for 4 cycles) chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiation therapy was given selectively after chemotherapy. Here we report a preliminary safety analysis with the chi-square test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Seventy-six out of the 95 patients had completed the chemotherapy and could be assessed for the safety profiles of the regimens. Thirty-seven of them were in the EC-T group with a median age of 47 years, and 21 out of these 37 patients were premenopausal (56.8%). Another 39 patients came from the TP group with a median age of 46 years, and 22 out of these 39 patients were premenopausal (56.4%). All of the 37 patients in EC-T group completed the planned treatment whereas 2 patients of the 39 cases in TP group did not because of bone marrow suppression. During the treatments, 9 patients had dose adjustment in each group. Adverse events of grade 1/2 were common. Specific incidence of adverse events with grade 3/4 in each group was as follows: alopecia, 29.7% vs. 10.3% (P = 0.033), vomiting 21.6% vs. 7.7% (P = 0.085), leukopenia 54.1% vs.25.6% (P = 0.011) and neutropenia 51.4% vs. 35.9% (P = 0.174). Other grade 3/4 toxicities were rare. All the adverse events (except peripheral neuropathy and pigmentation) recovered within 1 month after the chemotherapy.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Both EC-T and TP regimens as adjuvant chemotherapy are safe and tolerable for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer patients, while the TP regimen has advantages with less grade III/IV alopecia and leukopenia.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alopecia , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Radiotherapy , General Surgery , Carboplatin , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Radiotherapy , General Surgery , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cyclophosphamide , Epirubicin , Female , Humans , Leukopenia , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Neutropenia , Premenopause , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen , Metabolism , Receptors, Progesterone , Metabolism , Taxoids , Vomiting
14.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 770-774, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307297

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the efficacy, safety and survival of combination of carboplatin plus paclitaxel as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for patients with locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and explore an optimal regimen for TNBC.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Patients with core needle biopsy confirmed pathological diagnosis of IIA ∼ IIIC invasive breast cancer, negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER2 by immunohistochemistry, and with indication for NACT were eligible in this study. The biopsy tumor tissues were tested for CK5/6, CK14, EGFR and Ki67. The patients received paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) on day 1, carboplatin at an area under the curve 5 mg×min/ml on day 2 of every 21 days. The clinical response was evaluated every 2 cycles according to Standard RECIST 1.0 criteria and surgery was done after four to six cycles. Pathological complete remission (pCR) was defined if absence of invasive tumor in the breast and axillary lymph nodes samples or residual carcinoma in situ only.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Overall, thirty-one patients were enrolled from January 2008 to November 2010. The median age was 51 years and 83.9% of the patients were diagnosed as stage IIB to IIIC diseases. 30 Patients completed chemotherapy as planed while one patient changed regimen due to paclitaxel allergy. Twenty-eight patients could be evaluated for clinical efficacy, of which CR, PR, SD, PD were achieved in 4, 20, 3 and 1 women, respectively. The objective response rate was 85.7%. The expression rate of CK5/6, CK14 and EGFR were 88.9% (24/27), 59.3% (16/27) and 63% (17/27), respectively. Among 27 patients who received modified radical mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery, 11 patients obtained pCR, with a pCR rate of 40.7% (95%CI 22.2% - 59.3%). Five of six CK5/6- and CK14-positive patients achieved pCR. All the 31 patients could be evaluated for toxicity according to the NCI-CTC v3.0 criteria. The major toxicities were neutropenia (93.5%), vomiting (45.2%) and ALT/AST increase (32.3%), and grade 3-4 toxicities accounted for 74.2%, 3.2%, 0, respectively. Until December 2011, at a median follow-up of 28.9 months (range 5 - 47.9), eight patients developed recurrence including 5 patients died. Among 11 patients with pCR, one suffered from lung metastasis at 45 months after diagnosis and survived with tumor until now. The other ten were alive and disease free. The 3-year DFS and OS were 62% and 74.7%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>As a neoadjuvant treatment for triple-negative breast cancer, carboplatin plus paclitaxel regimen achieves notable higher objective response rate and pCR rate compared with the anthracycline plus paclitaxel regimen reported in the literature, and is well tolerable. It is an optimized regimen for TNBC.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Carboplatin , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Neutropenia , Paclitaxel , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen , Metabolism , Receptors, Progesterone , Metabolism , Remission Induction , Survival Rate , Young Adult
15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 381-384, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303291

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To characterize the sites of distant recurrence and clinical outcomes in a cohort of Chinese patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and thirty-four patients with metastatic TNBC treated at Cancer Hospital of CAMS from January 1999 to December 2007 were included in this study. The clinicopathological features and long-term survival of the patients were retrospectively analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The median age of the patients was 45 years. Most patients (72.7%) had a higher predilection for visceral metastasis and early recurrence within the first two years of follow-up. Six patients (4.5%) presented with stage IV disease, 14 patients were diagnosed with locoregional recurrence after mastectomy, 75 patients with distant metastases, and 45 patients with both locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis. The most common site of first recurrence was the lung, and 62(51.7%)of the patients had more than two sites of metastasis. By July 30, 2009, 75 patients died of breast cancer (56.0%). The median overall survival (OS) was 26.5 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 20.5 - 32.6 months]. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survivals (OS) were 80.9%,37.1% and 30.1%, respectively. The median overall survival time of 58 patients with single site of metastasis was 28.5 months, longer than that of patients with more than two sites of metastases. Patients whose initial distant recurrence was bone metastasis only (7 patients) had better prognosis, with a median OS of 84.2 months. The median OS (28.5 vs. 12.6 months, P = 0.0001) differed significantly between patients who received first-line chemotherapy and those who did not. Forty-five of the 96 patients with measurable disease achieved complete/partial response (CR/PR), 39 patients had stable disease (SD), and 12 patients had disease progression (PD). The median OS was 36.1 months in patients with CR/PR, 20.8 months with SD, and 14 months with PD, respectively. The median OS of patients with CR/PR was significantly longer than that of patients with SD/PD (P = 0.0108). Distant metastasis, first-line chemotherapy and clinical response were significantly related with OS by univariate analysis. Furthermore, first-line chemotherapy and the clinical response were demonstrated to be an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Recurrence risk and mortality are considerably higher in TNBC patients within the early years of follow-up. TNBC patients have a higher risk of multiple and visceral metastases, and poorer survival, which might attribute to its aggressive clinical behavior and lack of effective regimens. Our findings also suggest that chemotherapy can effectively improve the clinical outcome of those patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Bone Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , General Surgery , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , General Surgery , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mastectomy , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen , Metabolism , Receptors, Progesterone , Metabolism , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Young Adult
16.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 327-335, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294516

ABSTRACT

Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is associated with poor prognosis. This single-arm open-label trial (EGF109491; NCT00508274) was designed to confirm the efficacy and safety of lapatinib in combination with capecitabine in 52 heavily pretreated Chinese patients with HER2-positive MBC. The primary endpoint was clinical benefit rate (CBR). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), time to response (TTR), duration of response (DoR), central nervous system (CNS) as first site of relapse, and safety. The results showed that there were 23 patients with partial responses and 7 patients with stable disease, resulting in a CBR of 57.7%. The median PFS was 6.34 months (95% confidence interval, 4.93-9.82 months). The median TTR and DoR were 4.07 months (range, 0.03-14.78 months) and 6.93 months (range, 1.45-9.72 months), respectively. Thirteen (25.0%) patients had new lesions as disease progression. Among them, 2 (3.8%) patients had CNS disease reported as the first relapse. The most common toxicities were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (59.6%), diarrhea (48.1%), rash (48.1%), hyperbilirubinemia (34.6%), and fatigue (30.8%). Exploratory analyses of oncogenic mutations of PIK3CA suggested that of 38 patients providing a tumor sample, baseline PIK3CA mutation status was not associated with CBR (P = 0.639) or PFS (P = 0.989). These data confirm that the lapatinib plus capecitabine combination is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for Chinese women with heavily pretreated MBC, irrespective of PIK3CA status.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Asians , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Capecitabine , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Deoxycytidine , Diarrhea , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Exanthema , Female , Fluorouracil , Hand-Foot Syndrome , Humans , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neoplasm Staging , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Genetics , Quinazolines , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Metabolism , Remission Induction
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 199-204, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321470

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Although chemotherapy is one of the most important treatments of breast cancer, it is limited by significant inter-individual variations in response and toxicity. The metabolism of epirubicin (EPI) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) is mainly mediated by cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). It has been well-known that the activities of these enzymes are polymorphic in population due to their genetic polymorphisms. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A, GSTP1 and MDR1 genes on treatment response and side-effects of breast cancer patients receiving EPI/CTX chemotherapy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and twenty patients with stage II or III invasive breast cancer were recruited and treated with three to four cycles of EPI 80 mg/m(2) and CTX 600 mg/m(2) every two weeks. The AJCC TNM staging system (sixth edition) was used to evaluate the pathological response of primary tumor and axillary lymph nodes. The genotypes of gene polymorphisms were determined by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Patients carrying GSTP1 (105)Ile/Val or (105)Ile/Ile genotype were more likely to have good response (OR, 0.40; 95%CI, 0.16 - 0.96; P = 0.024) and light toxicity (OR, 0.35; 95%CI, 0.13 - 0.78; P = 0.006) than those carrying (105)Val/Val genotypes. The response to the treatment was not correlated with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her2/neu status of tumors. No correlation was found between toxicity effect and patient's age, tumor staging, menopause status, and dose intensity of the drugs.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>GSTP1 polymorphism was associated with the chemotherapy response or adverse effects of EPI and CTX regimens.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Cyclophosphamide , Therapeutic Uses , Epirubicin , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Genotype , Glutathione S-Transferase pi , Genetics , Humans , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetics
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 520-525, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320181

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anastrozole, a new generation aromatase inhibitor, on the lipid metabolism in postmenopausal Chinese women with early breast cancer, and observe the adverse reactions as well.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Postmenopausal women with early breast cancer patients took anastrozole 1 mg per day. The lipid profiles of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein were assessed before taking the drug, 3 months, 6 months after taking medication, and later once a year, until the end of medication or follow-up. Patients taking lipid-lowering drugs were excluded. The adverse reactions during the process of taking medication was followed-up by telephone.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Two hundred and eighty-five postmenopausal breast cancer patients took part in the trial from Jan. 2003 to Jun. 2009. All patients had completed primary surgery and demonstrated a postmenopausal status. ER or PR positivity was confirmed by histopathology. Taking the medication from a minimum of one year to a maximum of 5 years, with a median time of 3.61 years. During the medication time, anastrozole significantly increased the levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol after 6 months of treatment, continuing to 5 years, from (3.08 ± 0.90) mmol/L to (3.59 ± 0.59) mmol/L, with a maximal increase of 18.2% higher than that before medication. Anastrozole significantly increased the levels of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol after 1 years of treatment. Anastrozole significantly reduced the levels of triglycerides after 1 years of treatment. Anastrozole showed no significant effect on serum lipids in the patients with pre-existing hyperlipidemia. A more significant effect on blood lipids was observed in patients aged ≥ 60-years than that in patients less than 60 years of age. The rate of other adverse events were similar to that reported in foreign patients.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>For the postmenopausal patients with breast cancer, taking anastrozole may lead to an abnormal lipid metabolism. Anastrozole significantly increases the levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and significantly reduces the level of triglycerides. The rate of other adverse events were similar to that reported in foreign patients. it is suggested that the blood lipid levels should be regularly assessed in patients with long-term anastrozole treatment. The rate of other adverse events similar to that reported with foreign patients, and patients tolerate this treatment well.</p>


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal , Therapeutic Uses , Aromatase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Breast Neoplasms , Blood , Drug Therapy , General Surgery , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cholesterol , Blood , Cholesterol, HDL , Blood , Cholesterol, LDL , Blood , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Blood , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Blood , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Nitriles , Therapeutic Uses , Postmenopause , Triazoles , Therapeutic Uses , Triglycerides , Blood
19.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 529-532, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-293543

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the relationship between P-glycoprotein function in peripheral blood cells and primary multidrug resistance in breast carcinoma.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>P-gp function was investigated by flow cytometry in NK cells of 16 breast cancer patients treated with anthracyclines and taxanes. Among all the patients, 8 were in chemotherapy-sensitive group and 8 in chemotherapy-resistant group. P-gp function was determined by rhodamine 123 (Rh123)-ejection test. Mathematical model was established by a regression of the fluorescence-time curve. The efflux rate constants of the chemotherapy-sensitive and -resistant groups were compared.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There was no significant difference of Rh123 accumulation, retention or efflux between the two groups. The mathematical model of F(t) = F(0) · e(-kt) was established. K was the efflux rate constant, which was significantly different between the chemotherapy-sensitive and -resistant groups (P = 0.025). When k > 3.9 was used as diagnostic criterium for primary resistance, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 75.0%, 100% and 87.5%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>P-glycoprotein function in peripheral blood cells is associated with primary multidrug resistance in breast carcinoma. The efflux rate constant may be a good predictor for chemotherapy sensitivity.</p>


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1 , Blood , Adult , Aged , Anthracyclines , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Metabolism , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Rhodamine 123 , Metabolism , Taxoids
20.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 128-131, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260453

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in young patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor(PR)-negative, and Her-2-negative (triple-negative) breast cancer (TNBC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>94 young patients (< or = 35 years old) with TNBC at the Cancer Hospital of CAMS between January 1999 and December 2007 were included in this study. The clinicopathological features and prognosis of those 94 patients were retrospectively evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 786 young patients with breast cancer, 94 patients (12.0%) were triple-negative. The median age of the 94 young TNBC patients was 31 years.81 patients (86.2%) were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma. 82.0% of the patients were classified as T1 or T2. The TNM stages included: 17 patients in stage I (18.1%), 48 in stage II (51.1%), 28 in stage III (29.8%) and 1 in stage IV (1.1%). 14 patients (14.9%) were diagnosed with lymphovascular invasion. The 1-, 3-, 5- and 7-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 88.3%, 66.9%, 59.7% and 59.7%, respectively. The corresponding overall survival (OS) rate was 98.9%, 85.6%, 72.9% and 69.6%, respectively. The univariate analysis showed that T stage, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage and lymphovascular invasion were correlated with the overall survival. However, only vascular invasion was showed to be an independent prognostic factor assessed by multivariate analysis. 33 patients developed recurrence or metastatic TNBC during the follow-up period. Among those 33 cases, 29 had recurrent or metastatic diseases within 3 years postoperatively and the other 4 cases after 3 years following surgery.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Young patients with TNBC represent distinctive clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics. Progression on tailored treatment for such population is still crucial. Further studies on rational individualized treatment regimen are warranted.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Brain Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , General Surgery , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , General Surgery , Carcinoma, Medullary , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , General Surgery , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mastectomy , Methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Proportional Hazards Models , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen , Metabolism , Receptors, Progesterone , Metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Young Adult
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