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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2316-2324, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981307

ABSTRACT

Patchoulol is an important sesquiterpenoid in the volatile oil of Pogostemon cablin, and is also considered to be the main contributing component to the pharmacological efficacy and fragrance of P. cablin oil, which has antibacterial, antitumor, antioxidant, and other biological activities. Currently, patchoulol and its essential oil blends are in high demand worldwide, but the traditional plant extraction method has many problems such as wasting land and polluting the environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a new method to produce patchoulol efficiently and at low cost. To broaden the production method of patchouli and achieve the heterologous production of patchoulol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the patchoulol synthase(PS) gene from P. cablin was codon optimized and placed under the inducible strong promoter GAL1 to transfer into the yeast platform strain YTT-T5, thereby obtaining strain PS00 with the production of(4.0±0.3) mg·L~(-1) patchoulol. To improve the conversion rate, this study used protein fusion method to fuse SmFPS gene from Salvia miltiorrhiza with PS gene, leading to increase the yield of patchoulol to(100.9±7.4) mg·L~(-1) by 25-folds. By further optimizing the copy number of the fusion gene, the yield of patchoulol was increased by 90% to(191.1±32.7) mg·L~(-1). By optimizing the fermentation process, the strain was able to achieve a patchouli yield of 2.1 g·L~(-1) in a high-density fermentation system, which was the highest yield so far. This study provides an important basis for the green production of patchoulol.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes/metabolism , Pogostemon , Oils, Volatile/metabolism
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2284-2297, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981304

ABSTRACT

Heterologous biomimetic synthesis of the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is a new mode of resource acquisition and has shown great potential in the protection and development of TCM resources. According to synthetic biology and by constructing biomimetic microbial cells and imitating the synthesis of active ingredients in medicinal plants and animals, the key enzymes obtained from medicinal plants and animals are scientifically designed and systematically reconstructed and optimized to realize the heterologous synthesis of the active ingredients in microorganisms. This method ensures an efficient and green acquisition of target products, and also achieves large-scale industrial production, which is conducive to the production of scarce TCM resources. Additiona-lly, the method playes a role in agricultural industrialization, and provides a new option for promoting the green and sustainable deve-lopment of TCM resources. This review systematically summarized the important progress in the heterologous biomimetic synthesis of TCM active ingredients from three research areas: biosynthesis of terpenoids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids and other active ingredients, key points and difficulties in heterologous biomimetic synthesis, and biomimetic cells with complex TCM ingredients. This study facilitated the application of new generation of biotechnology and theory to the development of TCM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Biomimetics , Plants, Medicinal , Alkaloids
3.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 73-77, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970986

ABSTRACT

Patients with congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens (CUAVD) manifest diverse symptoms from normospermia to azoospermia. Treatment for CUAVD patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA) is complicated, and there is a lack of relevant reports. In this study, we describe the clinical features and evaluate the treatments and outcomes of CUAVD patients with OA. From December 2015 to December 2020, 33 patients were diagnosed as CUAVD with OA in Shanghai General Hospital (Shanghai, China). Patient information, ultrasound findings, semen analysis, hormone profiles, and treatment information were collected, and the clinical outcomes were evaluated. Of 33 patients, 29 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Vasoepididymostomy (VE) or cross VE was performed in 12 patients, the patency rate was 41.7% (5/12), and natural pregnancy was achieved in one of the patients. The other 17 patients underwent testicular sperm extraction as the distal vas deferens (contralateral side) was obstructed. These findings showed that VE or cross VE remains an alternative treatment for CUAVD patients with OA, even with a relatively low rate of patency and natural pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Male , Vas Deferens/abnormalities , Azoospermia/surgery , Epididymis/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , China , Semen
4.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 248-250, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994018

ABSTRACT

The 2023 American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary (ASCO-GU) Cancers Symposium reported on the research progress in the field of precision diagnosis and evaluation, molecular detection, clinical treatment, and exploration of new drugs/mechanisms for prostate cancer. This article interprets and reviews important studies to help clinical treatment decisions.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1619-1628, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978728

ABSTRACT

Valencene, a kind of sesquiterpenoid with a citrus flavor, is mainly found in Valencia orange and is commonly used in cosmetics and food additives, as well as industrial synthetic nootkatone. In this study, synthetic biology was used to create a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell factory to produce valencene. Fistly, valencene synthase gene (CnVS) from Callitropsis nootkatensis was inserted into the chromosome of the chassis strain YTT-T5. The resulting strain VAL-01 could produce 1.1 mg·L-1 valencene. Protein fusion technique was used, different valencene synthases were compared and the copy number of key genes was adjusted, yielding valencene to 436.4 mg·L-1. Then, knocking-out the transcription factor ROX1 resulted in valencene improvement by 17.4%. Moreover, the induction system of galactose was regulated, transcription factor PDR3 and INO2 were overexpressed. The engineered strain VAL-10 could produce 2 798.6 mg·L-1 valencene by high cell density fermentation method (nearly 2 500 times higher than VAL-01). This study provides a basis for green production of valencene.

6.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 147-153, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928543

ABSTRACT

Individualized treatment of prostate cancer depends on an accurate stratification of patients who are sensitive to various treatments. Interleukin-23 (IL-23) was reported to play a significant role in prostate cancer. Here, we aimed to explore the clinical value of IL-23-secreting (IL-23+) cells in prostate cancer patients. We evaluated interleukin-23A (IL-23A) expression in The Cancer Genome Atlas database and retrospectively enrolled 179 treatment-naïve metastatic prostate cancer patients diagnosed in our institute between June 2012 and December 2014. IL-23+ cells were stained and evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Further, survival and multivariate Cox regression analyses were conducted to explore the prognostic value of IL-23+ cells. We found that IL-23A expression correlated with disease progression, while IL-23+ cells were clearly stained within prostate cancer tissue. Patients with higher Gleason scores and multiple metastatic lesions tended to have more IL-23+ cell infiltration. Further analyses showed that patients with higher levels of IL-23+ cells had significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.996, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.812-4.955; P = 0.001) and a higher risk of developing castration resistance (HR = 2.725, 95% CI: 1.865-3.981; P = 0.001). Moreover, subgroup analyses showed that when patients progressed to a castration-resistant status, the prognostic value of IL-23+ cells was observed only in patients treated with abiraterone instead of docetaxel. Therefore, we showed that high IL-23+ cell infiltration is an independent prognosticator in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. IL-23+ cell infiltration may correlate with abiraterone effectiveness in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Abiraterone Acetate/therapeutic use , Androstenes , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Interleukin-23/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 50-55, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928506

ABSTRACT

The purpose of our study is to investigate the prognostic value of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression in patients with de novo metastatic castration naïve prostate cancer (mCNPC). A total of 205 patients with mCNPC at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (Shanghai, China) were retrospectively examined. Immunohistochemical staining of PTEN was performed on prostate biopsy samples of these patients. Associations among clinicopathological features, patient survival and PTEN protein expression were analyzed. PTEN loss occurred in 58 of 205 (28.3%) patients. Loss of PTEN was significantly correlated with high metastatic volume (P = 0.017). No association between PTEN expression and Gleason score was observed. Patients with PTEN loss had significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS, P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS, P < 0.001) compared with patients with intact PTEN expression. Multivariate analysis showed that elevated alkaline phosphatase, high metastatic volume and PTEN loss were independent poor prognostic factors for PFS. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS)#8805; 2 and PTEN loss were independent poor prognostic factors for OS. The adjusted hazard ratio of PTEN loss for PFS and OS was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.43, P = 0.008) and 1.95 (95% CI: 1.23-3.10, P = 0.005), respectively. PTEN loss was also significantly associated with shorter PFS (P = 0.025) and OS (P < 0.001) in patients with low-volume metastatic disease. Our data showed that PTEN loss is an independent predictor for shorter PFS and OS in patients with de novo mCNPC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , China/epidemiology , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/genetics , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 897-905, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928007

ABSTRACT

Monoterpenes are widely used in cosmetics, food, medicine, agriculture and other fields. With the development of synthetic biology, it is considered as a potential way to create microbial cell factories to produce monoterpenes. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce monoterpenes has been a research hotspot in synthetic biology. In S. cerevisiae, the production of geranyl pyrophosphate(GPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate(FPP) is catalyzed by a bifunctional enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase(encoded by ERG20 gene) which is inclined to synthesize FPP essential for yeast growth. Therefore, reasonable control of FPP synthesis is the basis for efficient monoterpene synthesis in yeast cell factories. In order to achieve dynamic control from GPP to FPP biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae, we obtained a novel chassis strain HP001-pERG1-ERG20 by replacing the ERG20 promoter of the chassis strain HP001 with the promoter of cyclosqualene cyclase(ERG1) gene. Further, we reconstructed the metabolic pathway by using GPP and neryl diphosphate(NPP), cis-GPP as substrates in HP001-pERG1-ERG20. The yield of GPP-derived linalool increased by 42.5% to 7.6 mg·L~(-1), and that of NPP-derived nerol increased by 1 436.4% to 8.3 mg·L~(-1). This study provides a basis for the production of monoterpenes by microbial fermentation.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Geranyltranstransferase/genetics , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 651-658, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927947

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rh_2 is a rare active ingredient in precious Chinese medicinal materials such as Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and Panacis Quinquefolii Radix. It has important pharmacological activities such as anti-cancer and improving human immunity. However, due to the extremely low content of ginsenoside Rh_2 in the source plants, the traditional way of obtaining it has limitations. This study intended to apply synthetic biological technology to develop a cell factory of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce Rh_2 by low-cost fermentation. First, we used the high protopanaxadiol(PPD)-yielding strain LPTA as the chassis strain, and inserted the Panax notoginseng enzyme gene Pn1-31, together with yeast UDP-glucose supply module genes[phosphoglucose mutase 1(PGM1), α-phosphoglucose mutase(PGM2), and uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase(UGP1)], into the EGH1 locus of yeast chromosome. The engineered strain LPTA-RH2 produced 17.10 mg·g~(-1) ginsenoside Rh_2. This strain had low yield of Rh_2 while accumulated much precursor PPD, which severely restricted the application of this strain. In order to further improve the production of ginsenoside Rh_2, we strengthened the UDP glucose supply module and ginsenoside Rh_2 synthesis module by engineered strain LPTA-RH2-T. The shaking flask yield of ginsenoside Rh_2 was increased to 36.26 mg·g~(-1), which accounted for 3.63% of the dry weight of yeast cells. Compared with those of the original strain LPTA-RH2, the final production and the conversion efficiency of Rh_2 increased by 112.11% and 65.14%, respectively. This study provides an important basis for further obtaining the industrial-grade cell factory for the production of ginsenoside Rh_2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fermentation , Ginsenosides , Panax/genetics , Panax notoginseng , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Uridine Diphosphate Glucose
10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 291-296, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935213

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical efficacy of fertility-preserving therapy in patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and early endometrial carcinoma (EC). Methods: The general condition, pathological type, treatment plan, tumor outcomes and pregnancy outcomes of 110 patients with AEH and EC treated with fertility-preserving therapy in Peking University People's Hospital from December 2005 to September 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Kaplan-Meier and Log rank tests were used for survival analysis. Results: The response rate of 110 cases of AEH (62 cases) and EC (48 cases) was 94.5% (104/110) after fertility-preserving therapy. There were 93 cases (84.5%) achieved complete response and 11 cases (10.0%) achieved partial response, and the recurrence rate was 29.0% (27/93). The complete response rates of AEH and EC were 90.3% (56/62) and 77.1% (37/48), respectively, without significant difference (P=0.057). The recurrence rates of EC were significantly higher than that of AEH (40.5% vs 21.4%; P=0.022). Forty-one patients with complete response had pregnancy intention, the pregnancy rate was 70.7% (29/41), and the live birth rate was 56.1% (23/41). The live birth rate of AEH was 68.2% (15/22) and that of EC was 42.1% (8/19), the difference was statistically significant (P=0.032). The pathological type was related with the recurrence (P=0.044). Conclusions: Patients with AEH and EC can obtain high complete response rate and pregnancy rate after fertility-preserving therapy. The recurrence rate of EC is higher than that of AEH, while the live birth rate of AEH is higher than that of EC.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Endometrial Hyperplasia/surgery , Endometrial Neoplasms/surgery , Fertility , Fertility Preservation , Retrospective Studies
11.
Chinese Journal of Postgraduates of Medicine ; (36): 436-442, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931185

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a nomogram model for individualized prediction of poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis of esophagogastric variceal bleeding (EGVB), and verify its efficacy, so as to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of EGVB.Methods:The clinical data of 389 patients with cirrhosis of EGVB from January 2010 to December 2018 in Hangzhou Hospital of Zhejiang Medical and Health Group were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were followed up for 3 years, including 232 cases with poor prognosis (poor prognosis group) and 157 cases with good prognosis (good prognosis group). The general clinical data and laboratory results were compared between 2 groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the optimal cut-off value of poor prognosis factors in patients with cirrhosis of EGVB; multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze independent risk factors of poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis of EGVB. A nomogram model to predict poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis of EGVB was established with R language software 4.0 "rms" package. Internal validation of the nomogram model was performed using correction curves, and the prediction efficiency of the nomogram model was evaluated using decision curves.Results:The age, ascites rate, liver surface roughness rate, end-stage liver disease model score (MELD score), Child-Turcotte-Pugh score (CTP score), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), international standard ratio (INR) and total bilirubin (TBIL) in poor prognosis group were significant higher than those in good prognosis group: (62.48 ± 6.21) years old vs. (58.71 ± 5.93) years old, 51.29% (119/232) vs. 35.03% (55/157), 60.78% (141/232) vs. 42.03% (66/157), (13.89±1.93) scores vs. (11.32 ± 1.69) scores, (8.93 ± 0.77) scores vs. (7.46 ± 0.63) scores, (37.73 ± 5.21) U/L vs. (32.13 ± 5.03) U/L, (64.19 ± 11.31) U/L vs. (57.36 ± 10.29) U/L, 1.73 ± 0.41 vs. 1.61 ± 0.39 and (24.31 ± 2.63) μmol/L vs. (19.86 ± 2.17) μmol/L, the albumin, hemoglobin and serum sodium were significantly lower than those in good prognosis group: (36.21 ± 4.51) g/L vs. (39.12 ± 4.96) g/L, (86.31 ± 8.27) g/L vs. (92.28 ± 9.67) g/L and (136.58 ± 18.24) mmol/L vs. (141.21 ± 19.26) mmol/L, and there were statistical differences ( P<0.01 or<0.05). ROC curve analysis results show that the optimal cut-off values of age, MELD score, CTP score, albumin, ALT, AST, hemoglobin, INR, TBIL and serum sodium for predicting poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis of EGVB were 55 years old, 14.20 scores, 9.30 scores, 35 g/L, 38 U/L, 67 U/L, 88 g/L, 1.90 scores, 25 μmol/L and 135 mmol/L, respectively. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis results showed that age≥55 years old, ascites, MELD score ≥14.20 scores, CTP score ≥9.30 scores, albumin<35 g/L and INR≥1.90 were independent risk factors for poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis of EGVB ( HR = 1.528, 1.439, 1.637, 1.795, 1.521 and 1.596; 95% CI 1.165 to 1.891, 1.088 to 1.790, 1.308 to 1.966, 1.385 to 2.205, 1.262 to 1.780 and 1.259 to 1.933; P<0.05 or<0.01). To construct a nomogram model that integrates independent risk factors for poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis of EGVB, the predictive power of the model was good (C-index 0.839, 95% CI 0.781 to 0.948). The corrected curve of nomogram model to predict poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis of EGVB was close to the ideal curve; when the high risk threshold>0.02, nomogram model provided a significant additional clinical net benefit to predict poor outcome in patients with cirrhosis of EGVB, which was higher than the individual risk factors. Conclusions:The nomogram model based on age, ascites, MELD score, CTP score, albumin, INR and other independent risk factors that affect the high risk of poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis of EDVB has great clinical value in screening and identifying high risk of poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis of EDVB.

12.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 622-625, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953840

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in wild mice in Shitai County, Anhui Province, so as to provide insights into precise control of the source of S. japonicum infections. Methods Wild mice were captured using the trapping method for three successive nights at snail-infested settings from Jitan Village of Jitan Township, and Shiquan Village and Xibai Village of Dingxiang Township, Shitai County, Anhui Province in June and October, 2018. All trapped wild mice were sacrificed and liver and mesenteric vein specimens were collected for detection of S. japonicum eggs using microscopy, while the fecal samples in mouse intestines were collected for identification of S. japonicum infections using Kato-Katz technique. In addition, the population density of trapped wild mice was estimated and the prevalence of S. japonicum infection was calculated in trapped wild mice. Results A total of 376 wild mice were trapped from three villages in Shitai County. The population density of trapped wild mice was 9.1% (376/4 124), and the prevalence of S. japonicum infection was 24.2% (91/376) in trapped wild mice. The highest prevalence of S. japonicum infection was detected in Shiquan Village of Dingxiang Township (30.1%), and the lowest prevalence was seen in Xibai Village of Dingxiang Township; however, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of S. japonicum infection in trapped wild mice among three villages (χ2= 4.111, P > 0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of S. japonicum infection in wild mice captured between on June (26.8%, 34/127) and October (22.9%, 57/249) (χ2 = 0.690, P = 0.406). The trapped wild mice included 6 species, including Rattus norvegicus, Niviventer niviventer, R. losea, Apodemus agrarius, Mus musculus and N. coning, and the two highest prevalence of S. japonicum infection was detected in R. losea (34.9%, 22/63) and R. norvegicus (31.2%, 44/141). Conclusions The prevalence of S. japonicum infections is high in wild mice in Shitai County, and there is a natural focus of schistosomiasis transmission in Shitai County.

13.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 535-539, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957423

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the efficacy and safety of radium-223 in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with bone metastasis.Methods:The clinical data of 48 patients with mCRPC treated with radium-223(55 kBq/kg, once every 4 weeks, planned to use for 6 cycles)from February 2021 to May 2022 were analyzed retrospectively. All patients had symptomatic bone metastasis without visceral metastasis, which the number of bone metastasis was more than one site.They were all classified as IVb stage. The average age was 70.5 (ranging 49-90) years. The median PSA was 44.70(ranging 0.15-1 864.00) ng/ml. The median ALP was 162 (ranging 43-1 589) U/L. The median time from mCRPC diagnosis to radium-223 use was 10 (ranging 3-47) months. 9, 18 and 11 patients had received first-line, second-line and third-line treatment for mCRPC before enrollment respectively, 10 patients had received at least fourth-line treatment. 38 (79.1%), 31 (64.5%), 30 (62.5%) and 7 (14.6%) patients had used abiraterone, enzalutamide, docetaxel and olaparib before enrollment. The probability of PSA level decrease >30%, ALP level decrease >30%, symptom improvement rate, median overall survival (OS), as well as the occurrence of treatment-related adverse reactions and the reasons for withdraw treatment were analyzed.Results:The median follow-up time was 8 (ranging 1-16) months. 11 patients completed all 6 courses of treatment. The median number of completed courses was 4 (ranging 1-6). 27 patients (56.2%) received radium-223 and bone protection drugs (Bisphosphate/ Denosumab). PSA decreased by >30% was recorded in 10 patients (20.8%) and ALP decreased by >30% was recorded in 25 patients (52.1%). 23 cases (47.9%) reported bone pain relief during treatment. Among the 9 patients who had received first-line of mCRPC previously, 6 cases (66%) had relief of bone pain symptoms, and 4 cases (44%) had a decrease of PSA >30%. Among the 18 patients who had previously received second-line mCRPC treatment, 11 cases (61%) had relief of bone pain symptoms, and 4 cases (22%) had a decrease of PSA >30%. Among the 21 patients who had received third-line or more mCRPC treatment in the past, 6 (28.5%) had symptom relief, and 2 (9.5%) had PSA decrease >30%. The median overall survival (OS) was not reached, and the OS was estimated to be 12.5 months using the Kaplan-Meier method. The most common hematological adverse effects were thrombocytopenia (15 cases, 31.2%; grade 3 in 6 cases and grade 4 in 0), followed by leucopenia (11 cases, 22.9%; grade 3 in 4 cases and grade 4 in 1 case) and anemia (8 cases, 16.7%; grade 3 in 3 cases and grade 4 in 0). Non-hematological adverse reactions included fever in 1 case (2.1%), constipation in 4 cases (8.3%), nausea and vomiting in 10 cases (20.8%), diarrhea in 7 cases (14.6%), dizziness in 1 case (2.1%) and fatigue in 11 cases (22.9%). Seven cases were discontinued due to intolerable adverse reactions (median 2 courses), 14 cases were discontinued due to disease progression or death (median 2 courses), and 5 cases were discontinued due to other reasons (median 1 course).Conclusions:Radium-223 has a good performance in symptom control for mCRPC patients who have previously received first-line or second-line therapy. Due to the high incidence of hematological adverse reactions, more attention should be paid to the changes of hemogram during the treatment, and timely treatment should be carried out to improve the drug tolerance of patients.

14.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 529-534, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957422

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the value of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in prostate cancer management.Methods:We retrospectively analyzed the data of 92 consecutive hormonal sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) patients treated with GnRH antagonist from Jan 2019 to March 2022 in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. The median (IQR) age at diagnosis was 70(65-76)years old. Median(IQR) serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before treatment was 98.30 (32.50-436.75)ng/ml. The median (IQR) testosterone level was 12.30(1.51-18.44)nmol/L. Twenty-six(28.3%)cases were in M 0 stage, while 66(71.7%) were in M 1 stage at diagnosis. There were 67(72.8%)cases in ≥T 3 stage, and 54(58.7%)cases in N 1 stage.The Gleason score of 80(87.0%)cases was ≥8.The second generation androgen inhibitor was used in 58(63.0%)cases, and 21(22.8%)cases had specific gene mutation. Patients received a subcutaneously 240mg Degarelix in the first 28 days and 80 mg Degarelix following every 28 days. The pre-injection and 3 months post injection PSA and testosterone (T) level were collected. According to the proportion of patients with the largest decrease in PSA, the patients were divided into high response group (PSA decrease ≥99% after 3 months of use of Degarelix) and low response group (PSA decrease <99% after 3 months of use of Degarelix). Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis were used to analyze the risk factors affecting the treatment response of Degarelix. Results:Among the 92 prostate cancer patients, after 3 months Degarelix treatment, the median PSA value decreased to 0.64ng/ ml ( P <0.001), and the median testosterone value decreased to 0.45nmol/L ( P <0.001). After treatment, there were 48 cases in the high reaction group and 44 cases in the low reaction group. Before treatment, the median PSA in the high-response group was 100.00(67.11-444.25) ng/ml, higher than 88.50 (9.91-582.25) ng/ml in the low-response group, but not statistically significant ( P=0.077). The median testosterone level in the high response group was 13.82 (7.53-19.43) nmol/L, which was significantly higher than that in the low response group [4.61 (0.75-16.12) nmol/L, P =0.030]. After treatment, the median PSA in the high-response group was 0.22 (0.09-0.82) ng/ml, significantly lower than that in the low-response group [3.22 (0.19-15.88) ng/ ml, P<0.001]. The median testosterone value of the high reaction group was 0.40 (0.09-0.80) nmol/L and that of the low reaction group was 0.45 (0.02-0.65) nmol/L, which showed no significant difference ( P =0.826), and both reached the level of castration (<1.7nmol/L). Univariate analysis showed that age ≤ 65 years old was a good prognostic factor ( OR=0.333, 95% CI 0.119-0.810, P =0.017); T stage ( P =0.540), N stage ( P =0.363), M stage ( P =0.660), Gleason score ( P =0.834), application of second-generation antiandrogens ( P=0.238) and gene mutation ( P =0.525) were not related to Degarelix hyperresponsiveness. In multivariate analysis, age was the only independent favorite prognostic factors( OR=0.913, 95% CI 0.847-0.983, P=0.016). Conclusions:In the real world, GnRH antagonists significantly reduced the levels of testosterone and PSA in HSPC patients after 3 months of treatment regardless of TNM stage, Gleason score, and the second generation androgen inhibitor using.

15.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 484-489, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957414

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore clinical value of prostate target biopsy guided by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and 68Ga-labeled prostate specific membrane antigen ligand imaging positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography ( 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT) image fusion. Methods:The data of 50 patients admitted to Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from January 2021 to February 2022 who underwent mpMRI and 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT to guide prostate biopsy were retrospectively analyzed. The median age was 70 (63-79) years, the median serum tPSA value was 8.1 (6.8-83.0) ng/ml, and the prostate volume was 45.5 (30-80) ml. 36 cases were positive by mpMRI, including PI-RADS score 3 in 5 cases, 4 score in 19 cases, 5 score in 12 cases. 32 cases were positive by 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT examination, of which 30 cases were double positive and the fusion of both imaging techniques was positive, referred to as PET/CT-MRI. The patient's mpMRI and 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images were imported into the MIM fusion software, and the outline of the prostate and the target area were outlined respectively. When PET/CT and MRI double positive cases were biopsied, the two images were alternately fused, calibrated and locked with the real-time prostate ultrasound interface(PET/CT-MRI). Single-positive cases were guided by positive images to complete targeted biopsy, and 12-needle systematic biopsies were completed after targeted biopsy and double-negative cases. The advantages of targeted biopsy and systematic biopsy was evaluated, and the diagnostic performance (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value) was analyzed. Results:Among the 50 biopsy patients in this group, 31 (62%) had prostate cancer, of which 22 (44%) were CsPCa. There was no significant difference in the detection rate of prostate cancer between targeted biopsy and systematic biopsy [78.9% (30/38) and 62.0% (31/50), P=0.088], and there was no significant difference in the detection rate of CsPCa [57.9% (22/38) and 40.0% (20/50), P=0.096]. The positive rate of the biopsy needles number was significantly different [86.3% (69/80) and 19.0% (114/ 600), P<0.001]. The detection rates of prostate cancer in mpMRI positive, PET/CT positive and PET/CT-MRI positive cases were 83.3% (30/36), 90.6% (29/32) and 96.6% (29/30) respectively, the detection rates of CsPCa were 61.1% (22/36), 68.8% (22/32) and 73.3% (22/30) respectively.The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of mpMRI in the diagnosis of prostate cancer were 96.8%(30/31), 68.4%(13/19), 83.3%(30/36)and 92.9%(13/14), respectively.Those values in 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT were 93.5%(29/31), 84.2%(16/19), 90.6%(29/32)and 88.9%(16/18), respectively.Those values in PET/CT-MRI were 93.8%(29/31), 94.7%(18/19), 96.7%(29/30)and 90.0%(18/20), respectively. The above four indicators of mpMRI diagnosis of CsPCa were 100.0%(22/22), 50.0%(14/28), 61.1%(22/36)and 100.0%(14/14), respectively.Those indicators in 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT were 100.0%(22/22), 64.3%(18/28), 68.8%(22/32)and 100.0%(18/18), respectively.Those indicators in PET/CT-MRI was 100.0%(22/22), 71.4%(20/28), 73.2%(22/30)and 100.0%(20/20), respectively. The detection efficiency of PET/CT-MRI was better than that of mpMRI (Kappa value was 0.737, P=0.031). Conclusions:PET/CT-MRI image fusion-guided targeted prostate biopsy can effectively improve the detection efficiency of prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer, and increase the positive rate.

16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2190-2196, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879177

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of self-assembled nanoparticles from Shaoyao Gancao Decoction(SGD-SAN) on the encapsulation, in vitro release and intestinal absorption of the main components of Baishao. Particle size analysis and morphological observation were used to verify the formation of SGD-SAN in the decoction. The entrapment efficiency(EE) of SGD-SAN on the main components of Baishao was determined by ultrafiltration centrifugation. The dialysis bag method was used to study the in vitro release of the main components of Baishao with pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution as the release media. Single-pass intestinal perfusion study was performed to investigate the effect of SGD-SAN on the absorption of the main components of Baishao. The results showed that there were nanoparticles in the SGD, and the particle sizes and PDI of SGD-SAN were about 200 nm and 0.38, respectively. SGD-SAN was irregularly spherical under transmission electron microscope(TEM). The EEs of albiflorin, paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin in SGD-SAN were 33.78%±1.03%,33.61%±0.90%,88.53%±0.58%, respectively. The release characteristics of albiflorin, paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin from SGD-SAN showed a slow-release effect on pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution media. SGD-SAN could significantly enhance the absorption of albiflorin, paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin in the ileum. The results of this study indicated that SAN could be formed during the mixed decoction of Baishao and Gancao, and SGD-SAN could encapsulate the components of Baishao, with a certain slow-release effect, and the formation of SAN facilitated the absorption of drugs in the ileum.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Intestinal Absorption , Intestines , Nanoparticles
17.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 54-58, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911176

ABSTRACT

Retrospectively analyze the clinicopathological data of a patient with metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer, and review relevant literature. The patient was male, 68 years old. Complaints of dysuria and urgency for half a year. Blood PSA>100 ng/ml, magnetic resonance showed that the prostate was occupying space, the boundary with the seminal vesicle gland was not clear, and the pelvic cavity had multiple bone lesions. Bone scan revealed multiple bone metastases. The prostate biopsy showed adenocarcinoma, Gleason score 5+ 5. The clinical stage was T 3N 0M 1b.A palliative transurethral resection of the prostate was performed due to urination obstruction, and endocrine therapy with medical castration combined with abiraterone and prednisone. PSA was continuously controlled at <0.006 ng/ml. After half a year of treatment, the prostate-specific membrane antigen single-photon emission computerized tomography and magnetic resonance examination revealed sternal and parasternal soft tissue lesions. Local radiotherapy and continuous endocrine therapy were given. The disease was under long-term control.There are various treatment options for metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer. Medical castration treatment combined with abiraterone and prednisone can effectively control the disease with mild adverse reactions. Palliative transurethral resection of the prostate can improve the symptoms of urinary obstruction and may also improve the prognosis of patients.

18.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 670-674, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911093

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the clinical effect and safety of regional lymph node dissection in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer(mCRPC).Methods:The clinical data of 22 patients with mCRPC who underwent regional lymph node dissection in our hospital from August 2015 to May 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had undergone radical prostatectomy and entered mCRPC, metastatic lymph nodes limited to pelvic or retroperitoneal without other metastasis were determined by PSMA-PET in 5 cases and PSMA-SPECT in 17 cases. The median time from radical surgery to mCRPC was 32 (4-96) months, and the median time from discovery of mCRPC to regional lymph node dissection was 4 (1-43) months. The median PSA before regional lymph node dissection was 4.44 (2.00-22.15) ng/ml. Image of local examination showed pelvic lymph node metastasis in 16 cases, retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis in 3 cases, pelvic together with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis in 3 cases. Before regional lymph node dissection, 18 patients were treated with drug castration combined with first-generation antiandrogens, and 4 patients were treated with drug castration combined with abiraterone. The lymph node dissection range was determined according to the location of metastatic lymph nodes. Obturator lymph nodes and lymph node metastasis around external iliac and internal iliac vessels: the range of dissection includes fibrous adipose tissue around external iliac vein and internal iliac vein, and obturator lymph adipose tissue. Common iliac and pelvic floor lymph node metastasis: dissect lymphoid adipose tissue around common iliac vessels on the basis of the original dissection range as far as the aortic bifurcation. Retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis: remove all lymph node adipose tissue located between the bifurcation of renal artery and aorta. The PSA remission rate, PSA remission time, surgical complications and other relevant clinicopathological features were analyzed.Results:Among the 22 cases, 6 cases underwent unilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, 10 cases underwent bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, 3 cases underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, and 3 cases underwent pelvic and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection at the same time. 19 cases (86.3%) showed positive lymph nodes by pathology. An average of 9.8 (3-29) lymph nodes were dissected in each patient, with an average of 4.1 (0-12) positive lymph nodes. All 22 cases continued to use the previous anti-androgen therapy after lymph node dissection. 17 cases (77.3%) achieved PSA remission after operation, of which 9 cases developed PSA progression, and the median PSA progression time was 12 (2-36) months. Univariate analysis showed that PSA value during radical operation ( P=0.029), N stage during radical operation ( P=0.057), the number of positive lymph nodes during regional lymph node dissection ( P=0.069) and the location of lymph node metastasis during regional lymph node dissection ( P =0.005) were related to the progression time of PSA. Postoperative complications: lymphatic leakage in 7 cases; 5 cases of postoperative fever, of which 1 case was confirmed to have pelvic bacterial infection. One patient suffered from massive intra-operative bleeding due to the invasion of blood vessels by metastatic lymph nodes. After timely hemostasis during the operation, the patient returned to the ward and was discharged 6 days later. One case of intestinal obstruction, and 1 case of body surface wound infection. 6 cases of lymphatic leakage healed within 1 month after operation, and 1 case of lymphatic leakage healed within 3 months after operation. Conclusions:For mCRPC patients with lymph node metastasis which could be surgically removed, regional lymph node dissection may further delay the starting time of posterior drugs, and the complications are relatively controllable.

19.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 662-665, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911091

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the clinical value of cryoablation technology in the treatment of patients with primary tumor recurrence after radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer.Methods:The clinical data of 21 patients with prostate cancer recurrence after radical radiotherapy in the Fudan University Affiliated Cancer Hospital from August 2017 to February 2021 was retrospectively analyzed. The average age was 73.1 (57.3-85.0) years old, and the Gleason score was 6 in 5 cases, 7 in 8 cases, and ≥8 in 8 cases. The clinical stage of the first diagnosis: 13 cases of cT 2 stage; 8 cases of cT 3 stage. The baseline PSA before radiotherapy was 35.3 (6.4-78.5) ng/ml, and the lowest PSA after radiotherapy was 1.8 ng/ml. After a median follow-up of 8 (3-12) months, all patients were detected with persistently elevated PSA. Pelvic MRI and PSMA SPECT showed that the primary prostate lesion had recurred. PSA before cryoablation was 4.1 (1.8-14.4) ng/ml. Comprehensive assessment of preoperative examination showed that the patient only had a recurrence of the primary tumor, and no lymph node or distant metastasis was seen. An argon-helium cryogenic surgical treatment system was used to place 1 to 3 cryo-needles for recurring lesions, and cryoablation was performed using two cold and hot cycles. Observation indicators include prognostic indicators such as PSA, recurrence and metastasis, and the occurrence of adverse reactions. Results:Complications after cryoablation include: 2 cases of urinary retention, 1 case of urinary tract infection, and 2 cases of urination with tissue shedding. The PSA of 11 cases decreased rapidly 2 to 3 months after operation, and dropped to the lowest median value of 0.4 (0.003 to 2.8) ng/ml. After cryoablation, the median follow-up was 18 (6-51) months. Imaging examinations in 1 case showed that the prostate still had limited diffusion or increased PSMA uptake, and 4 cases had PSA progression but no recurrence or metastasis. The median recurrence time for advanced patients was 13 (4-36) months. Larger prostate volume ( P<0.001) and higher blood PSA before ablation( P=0.021) were related to biochemical recurrence. Conclusions:Prostate cryoablation could delay the progression of the primary tumor after radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The incidence of complications such as urinary retention and urinary tract infection is not high, and it is generally safe and controllable.

20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5504-5510, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878787

ABSTRACT

To prepare a new dosage form that can improve the drug loading of the film--ginkgolide B nanosuspension lyophilized powder orodispersible film(GB-NS-LP-ODF) and to evaluate its quality. Firstly, ginkgolide B nanosuspension(GB-NS) was prepared by media milling method, and then ginkgolide B nanosuspension lyophilized powder(GB-NS-LP) was prepared with freeze-drying method. The mannitol was used as lyoprotectant and its dosage was also investigated. GB-NS-LP-ODF was prepared by solvent casting method and its formulation was screened by single factor test method and optimized by orthogonal test. The appearance, mechanical properties, content uniformity and in vitro dissolution of the optimized GB-NS-LP-ODF were investigated. The particle size of prepared GB-NS was about 201 nm, and the optimal dosage of mannitol was 8%. According to the optimal formula, the GB-NS-LP-ODF was prepared with GB-NS-LP 35.6%, PVA 0588 49.4%, PEG 400 10.7% and CMS-Na 4.3%, and completely disintegrated in about 30 s, and the particle size of reconstituted GB nanoparticles from ODF was about 210 nm. The film with smooth appearance and good mechanical properties was stable within 30 days and the content uniformity(A+2.2 S<15) conformed to the regulations. Scanning electron microscope(SEM) showed that GB-NS-LP-ODFs were evenly distributed and the particle size was about 200 nm. X-rays diffraction(XRD) showed that its crystallinity was significantly lower than that of GB raw drug and GB-ODF. The results of in vitro release test showed that the drug film was completely dissoluted within 10 minutes. These results indicated that nanosuspension lyophilized powder was prepared by freeze drying of nanosuspensions, and then loaded into the orodispersible film to effectively increase the drug loading of the ODF and have broad application prospects.


Subject(s)
Ginkgolides , Lactones , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Powders , Solubility , Suspensions
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