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1.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 225-237, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic and intractable disease that can severely deteriorate patients’ quality of life. Recently, stem cell therapy has been introduced as a promising alternative treatment for IC in animal models. We aimed to verify the efficacy and safety of the human perirenal adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) in an IC rat model. @*METHODS@#From eight-week-old female rats, an IC rat model was established by subcutaneous injection of 200 lg of uroplakin3A. The SVF was injected into the bladder submucosal layer of IC rats, and pain scale analysis, awakening cytometry, and histological and gene analyses of the bladder were performed. For the in vivo safety analysis, genomic DNA purification and histological analysis were also performed to check tumorigenicity and thrombus formation. @*RESULTS@#The mean pain scores in the SVF 20 ll group were significantly lower on days 7 and 14 than those in the control group, and bladder intercontraction intervals were significantly improved in the SVF groups in a dose-dependent manner. Regeneration of the bladder epithelium, basement membrane, and lamina propria was observed in the SVF group.In the SVF groups, however, bladder fibrosis and the expression of inflammatory markers were not significantly improved compared to those in the control group. @*CONCLUSION@#This study demonstrated that a perirenal adipose tissue-derived SVF is a promising alternative for the management of IC in terms of improving bladder pain and overactivity.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 32-48, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966698

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare recommendations of the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2022 (KMAP-BP 2022) with other recently published guidelines for treating bipolar disorder. We reviewed a total of six recently published global treatment guidelines and compared treatment recommendation of the KMAP-BP 2022 with those of other guidelines. For initial treatment of mania, there were no significant differences across treatment guidelines. All guidelines recommended mood stabilizer (MS) or atypical antipsychotic (AAP) monotherapy or a combination of an MS with an AAP as a first-line treatment strategy in a same degree for mania. However, the KMAP-BP 2022 recommended MS + AAP combination therapy for psychotic mania, mixed mania and psychotic depression as treatment of choice. Aripiprazole, quetiapine and olanzapine were the first-line AAPs for nearly all phases of bipolar disorder across guidelines. Some guideline suggested olanzapine is a second-line options during maintenance treatment, related to concern about long-term tolerability. Most guidelines advocated newer AAPs (asenapine, cariprazine, long-acting injectable risperidone, and aripiprazole once monthly) as first-line treatment options for all phases while lamotrigine was recommended for depressive and maintenance phases. Lithium and valproic acid were commonly used as MSs in all phases of bipolar disorder. KMAP-BP 2022 guidelines were similar to other guidelines, reflecting current changes in prescription patterns for bipolar disorder based on accumulated research data. Strong preference for combination therapy was characteristic of KMAP-BP 2022, predominantly in the treatment of psychotic mania, mixed mania and psychotic depression.

3.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 188-196, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966683

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) is a relatively specific test for bipolar disorders designed to assess the main functioning problems experienced by patients. This brief instrument includes 24 items assessing impairment or disability in 6 domains of functioning: autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning, financial issues, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time. It has already been translated into standardized versions in several languages. The aim of this study is to measure the validity and reliability of the Korean version of FAST (K-FAST). @*Methods@#A total of 209 bipolar disorder patients were recruited from 14 centers in Korea. K-FAST, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered, and psychometric analysis of the K-FAST was conducted. @*Results@#The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the K-FAST was 0.95. Test-retest reliability analysis showed a strong correlation between the two measures assessed at a 1-week interval (ICC = 0.97; p < 0.001). The K-FAST exhibited significant correlations with GAF (r = −0.771), WHOQOL-BREF (r = −0.326), YMRS (r = 0.509) and BDRS (r = 0.598). A strong negative correlation with GAF pointed to a reasonable degree of concurrent validity. Although the exploratory factor analysis showed four factors, the confirmatory factor analysis of questionnaires had a good fit for a six factors model (CFI = 0.925; TLI = 0.912; RMSEA = 0.078). @*Conclusion@#The K-FAST has good psychometric properties, good internal consistency, and can be applicable and acceptable to the Korean context.

4.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 74-79, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926008

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#There has been increased use of medications in treating depressive disorders.Nowadays, patient value is an important part of prescribing medications. This study examines depressive patients’ perspectives on the side effects of medications. @*Methods@#We administered questionnaires nationwide to 364 patients with depressive disorders. Intent or willingness to endure 21 side effects from the Antidepressant Side-Effect Checklist (ASEC) were examined and compared in patients who are less than mildly ill and who are more than moderately ill. @*Results@#In the population, decreased appetite, yawning, increased body temperature, dry mouth, sweating, and constipation are regarded as generally endurable side effects. In contrast, dizziness, light-headedness, nausea or vomiting, headaches, disorientation, problems with urination, and difficulty sleeping are hard to endure. There were differences between patients who are less than mildly ill and those who are more than moderately ill regarding the willingness to endure drowsiness, decreased appetite, sexual dysfunction, palpitations, and weight gain. @*Conclusion@#This nationwide study revealed a general willingness in depressed patients to endure side effects. Sensitive and premeditative discussions of patient value with regard to medications might contribute to finding successful treatments.

5.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 98-109, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926005

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder is complex. A treatment guideline or algorithm can help clinicians implement better practices and clinical decisions. Therefore, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was revised through expert consensus on pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder. @*Methods@#We revised the KMAP-BP 2018 questionnaire and conducted a survey of expert clinicians. Out of ninety-three members of the review committee, eighty-seven completed the survey. We analyzed the answers, discussed the data, and held a clinician hearing. Here, we report the results from KMAP-BP 2022. @*Results@#The preferred first-step strategies for acute euphoric mania are a combination of a mood stabilizer (MS) and an atypical antipsychotic (AAP), MS monotherapy, and AAP monotherapy. For psychotic mania, an MS and AAP combination, and AAP monotherapy are preferred. For hypomania, MS monotherapy and AAP monotherapy are preferred. The first-step strategies for mild to moderate bipolar depression are MS monotherapy, lamotrigine (LMT) monotherapy, AAP monotherapy, an MS+AAP combination, and an AAP+LMT combination. For non-psychotic severe depression, the MS+AAP combination, the AAP+LMT combination, and the MS+LMT combination are preferred. For psychotic severe depression, MS+AAP and AAP+LMT are preferred. @*Conclusion@#We obtained expert consensus and developed KMAP-BP 2022. Compared with KMAP-BP 2018, we can figure out clinicians’ preferences and decisions in real clinical situations more clearly. The preference for AAP increased, and that of MS and an antidepressant decreased. We hope KMAP-BP 2022 is helpful for clinicians who treat patients with bipolar disorder.

6.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 110-122, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926004

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorders, we updated KMAP-BP to provide more timely information for clinicians. @*Methods@#We conducted a survey using a questionnaire on treatments formanic/hypomanic episodes. Eighty-seven members among ninety-three members of the review committee (93.5%) completed the survey. Each treatment strategy or treatment option for manic/hypomanic episodes was evaluated with an overall score of 9, and the resulting 95% confidence interval treatment options were categorized into three recommendation levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary). The executive committee analyzed the results and discussed the final production of an algorithm by considering the scientific evidence. @*Results@#The combination of a mood stabilizer and an atypical antipsychotic, monotherapy with a mood stabilizer, or monotherapy with an atypical antipsychotic were recommended as the firstline pharmacotherapeutic strategy for the initial treatment of mania without psychotic features. The mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic combination was the treatment of choice, and atypical antipsychotic monotherapy was the first-line treatment for mania with psychotic features. When initial treatment fails, a combination of mood stabilizer+atypical antipsychotic and switching to another first-line agent is recommended. For hypomania, monotherapy with either mood stabilizer or atypical antipsychotic is the recommended first-line treatment, but the mood stabilizer+atypical antipsychotic combination is recommended as well. @*Conclusion@#It is notable that there were changes in the preferences for the use of individual atypical antipsychotics, and the preference for the use of mood stabilizer increased for treatment-resistant mania.

7.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 123-132, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926003

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#After the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was developed in 2002, its fifth revision was completed in 2022 to reflect the recent rapid developments and research into bipolar disorder and its psychopharmacology. @*Methods@#According to the methodology for previous versions, the depressive episode section of KMAP-BP 2022 was revised based on a survey consisting of 11 questions. Among ninetythree experts, eighty-seven members of the review committee (93.5%) completed the survey.The executive committee analyzed the results and discussed the final production of an algorithm by considering the scientific evidence. @*Results@#Overall, the results from this study showed little change in comparison with previous versions of KMAP-BP. However, there have been significant changes in recommendations over the span of about 20 years. The preferences for lamotrigine and atypical antipsychotics, especially aripiprazole, quetiapine, and olanzapine, have shown a tendency to continuously increase, but the preferences for risperidone and ziprasidone have not increased, but have decreased. Moreover, the preference for typical antipsychotics has significantly decreased. Additionally, concerns over the use of antidepressants in bipolar depression have been raised, and their use is not recommended in KMAP-BP 2022 as a first-line treatment. @*Conclusion@#Pharmacotherapy for acute depressive episodes with various clinical progressions and various subtypes still shows diversity, compared to pharmacotherapy for mania. We look forward to the development of bipolar depressive, episode-specific therapeutic drugs in the future, and hope the fifth update of KMAP-BP will be a complementary option for clinicians and their patients with bipolar disorder.

8.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 133-142, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926002

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Treatment guidelines or an algorithm can help clinicians implement better practices and clinical decisions. Therefore, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2022 (KMAP-BP 2022) was revised again through a consensus of expert opinion. The diagnosis and treatment of mixed features are not simple, and there are many things to discuss. We describe the preferences and recommendations from KMAP-BP 2022 for the treatment of mood episodes with mixed features. @*Methods@#We revised the KMAP-BP 2018 questionnaire and conducted the survey with expert clinicians. Out of ninety-three members of the review committee, eighty-seven completed the survey. We analyzed the answers, discussed the data, and held a clinician hearing. @*Results@#In first-step strategies for mixed features with more manic symptoms, a combination of a mood stabilizer and an atypical antipsychotic is the treatment of choice. Mood stabilizer monotherapy and atypical antipsychotic monotherapy are preferred strategies. For mixed features with more depressive symptoms, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic, a combination of atypical antipsychotic and lamotrigine (LMT), atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, a combination of mood stabilizer and LMT, and mood stabilizer monotherapy are preferred. For mixed features with similar manic symptoms and depressive symptoms, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic, atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, and mood stabilizer monotherapy are preferred. @*Conclusion@#For mixed features, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic is generally preferred, and LMT is preferred for depressive symptoms. Compared with KMAP-BP 2018, more diverse strategies and drugs are being attempted for the treatment of mixed features.

9.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 37-50, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924836

ABSTRACT

The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) first was published in 2002, and has been revised four times, in 2006, 2012, 2017, and 2021. In this review, we compared recommendations from the recently revised KMAP-DD 2021 to four global clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for depression published after 2010. The recommendations from the KMAP-DD 2021 were similar to those from other CPGs, although there were some differences. The KMAP-DD 2021 reflected social culture and the healthcare system in Korea and recent evidence about pharmacotherapy for depression, as did other recently published evidence-based guidelines. Despite some intrinsic limitations as an expert consensus-based guideline, the KMAP-DD 2021 can be helpful for Korean psychiatrists making decisions in clinical settings by complementing previously published evidence-based guidelines, especially for some clinical situations lacking evidence from rigorously designed clinical trials.

10.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry ; (3): 12-24, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875091

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:This study was aimed to investigate the changes in metabolic syndrome (MetS) status and long-term impact of its components over a 10-year period in severe mental illness (SMI) patients in a national mental hospital. @*Methods@#:A total of 93 patients (schizophrenia=88, bipolar disorder=5) who met the diagnosis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) and participated in the MetS study in 2011 were included. MetS was defined by revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (revised NCEP-ATP-III) guidelines. @*Results@#:The prevalence of MetS was significantly increased from 40.9% in 2011 to 60.2% in 2020. There were significant differences in admission status and hospitalization months, compared to the groups with and without MetS. Upon reviewing the changes over a decade, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was a significant factor in the group without MetS. In the group with MetS, SBP, waist circumference, and BMI (body mass index) were significant factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that hospitalization during follow-up periods [odds ratio (OR)=0.969, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.948-0.991] and BMI (OR=1.426, 95% CI: 1.196-1.701) were significantly associated with MetS in subjects. @*Conclusion@#:The prevalence of MetS in patients with SMI significantly increased over time. The admission status and hospitalization were also confirmed to be the significant values of MetS.

11.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 751-772, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914067

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In the 19 years since the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology and the Korean Society for Affective Disorders developed the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) in 2002, four revisions have been conducted. @*Methods@#To increase survey efficiency in this revision, to cover the general clinical practice, and to compare the results with previous KMAP-DD series, the overall structure of the questionnaire was maintained. The six sections of the questionnaire were as follows: 1) pharmacological treatment strategies for major depressive disorder (MDD) with/without psychotic features; 2) pharmacological treatment strategies for persistent depressive disorder and other depressive disorder subtypes; 3) consensus for treatment-resistant depression; 4) the choice of an antidepressant in the context of safety, adverse effects, and comorbid physical illnesses; 5) treatment strategies for special populations (children/adolescents, elderly, and women); and 6) non-pharmacological biological therapies. Recommended first-, second-, and third-line strategies were derived statistically. @*Results@#There has been little change in the four years since KMAP-DD 2017 due to the lack of newly introduced drug or treatment strategies. However, shortened waiting time between the initial and subsequent treatments, increased preference for atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), especially aripiprazole, and combination strategies with AAPs yield an active and somewhat aggressive treatment trend in Korea. @*Conclusion@#We expect KMAP-DD to provide clinicians with useful information about the specific strategies and medications appropriate for treating patients with MDD by bridging the gap between clinical real practice and the evidence-based world.

12.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 174-185, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900084

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for depressive disorders, we have undertaken a fourth revision of the KMAP-DD. @*Methods@#The review committee for the new version of the KMAP-DD (KMAP-DD 2021) included 143 Korean psychiatrists with clinical experience in the field of depressive disorders. Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine, and the treatment option was categorized into the three levels of recommendation of primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#The first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for mild to moderate major depressive episodes (MDE) was antidepressant (AD) monotherapy. For severe MDE without psychotic features, AD monotherapy or the combination of AD and atypical antipsychotics (AAP) was the first-line strategy. The combination of AD and AAP was recommended as the first-line for the MDE with psychotic features as well. When treatment response to initial AD monotherapy was insufficient, a combination of AAP or another AD was recommended. In the case of unsatisfactory response to initial treatment with an AD and AAP combination, switching to another AAP or adding another AD was recommended. @*Conclusion@#Generally, there were no significant changes in the recommendations for MDE management in the KMAP-DD 2021 compared to previous versions. However, it was notable that the preference for the use of AAP and AD with the novel mechanism of action including vortioxetine and agomelatine increased.

13.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 186-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900083

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) was developed in 2002 and revised in 2006, 2012, 2017. In 2021, the fifth edition was published.This edition reflected new findings and the latest trends in the areas of pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study is to present strategies and treatment options according to the subtype of depression using data from the KMAP-DD-2021. @*Methods@#Ninety-seven psychiatrists with clinical experience in depressive disorder were selected. The questionnaires for KMAP-DD 2021 were sent to participants via mail. KMAP-DD 2021 consists of overall treatment strategies and treatment options under specific circumstances.Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine and was divided into the three phases of recommendation that include primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#For persisting depressive disorder, antidepressant monotherapy including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (escitalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine), serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) (desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran), vortioxetine, and mirtazapine, was recommended as first-line medications. For melancholia of major depressive disorder, SSRI, SNRI, vortioxetine, and mirtazapine also were recommended as first-line medications. For mixed features, SSRI, bupropion, mirtazapine, SNRI, except for duloxetine, and milnacipran were recommended as first-line medications. For anxious distress, SSRI, mirtazapine, and SNRI, except milnacipran, were recommended as first-line medications. @*Conclusion@#The preferences of antidepressants by experts differed according to the subtype of depression. These findings suggest that experts treat patients with a major depressive disorder after considering the subtype of depression involved.

14.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 193-203, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900082

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2021 (KMAP-DD 2021) was a revision of previous works. The main purpose of the current study was to amend guidelines for the treatment of a major depressive disorder (MDD) for children and adolescents. @*Methods@#The survey consisted of 21 questionnaires for children and adolescents. A total of 33 of the 46 experts in child and adolescent psychiatry answered the survey. @*Results@#Antidepressant (AD) monotherapy was selected as the 1st line option for MDD with mild to moderate severity. As the 1st line of treatment for MDD severe without psychotic features in children and adolescents, AD monotherapy and AD augmented with atypical antipsychotics (AAP) were recommended. For MDD with psychotic features, AD augmented with AAP was preferred as the 1st line of treatment. @*Conclusion@#We developed an algorithm for child and adolescent populations with depressive disorders, more specifically than the KMAP-DD 2017. We expect this algorithm will provide clinicians useful information and help in the treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders.

15.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 174-185, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892380

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for depressive disorders, we have undertaken a fourth revision of the KMAP-DD. @*Methods@#The review committee for the new version of the KMAP-DD (KMAP-DD 2021) included 143 Korean psychiatrists with clinical experience in the field of depressive disorders. Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine, and the treatment option was categorized into the three levels of recommendation of primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#The first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for mild to moderate major depressive episodes (MDE) was antidepressant (AD) monotherapy. For severe MDE without psychotic features, AD monotherapy or the combination of AD and atypical antipsychotics (AAP) was the first-line strategy. The combination of AD and AAP was recommended as the first-line for the MDE with psychotic features as well. When treatment response to initial AD monotherapy was insufficient, a combination of AAP or another AD was recommended. In the case of unsatisfactory response to initial treatment with an AD and AAP combination, switching to another AAP or adding another AD was recommended. @*Conclusion@#Generally, there were no significant changes in the recommendations for MDE management in the KMAP-DD 2021 compared to previous versions. However, it was notable that the preference for the use of AAP and AD with the novel mechanism of action including vortioxetine and agomelatine increased.

16.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 186-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892379

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) was developed in 2002 and revised in 2006, 2012, 2017. In 2021, the fifth edition was published.This edition reflected new findings and the latest trends in the areas of pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study is to present strategies and treatment options according to the subtype of depression using data from the KMAP-DD-2021. @*Methods@#Ninety-seven psychiatrists with clinical experience in depressive disorder were selected. The questionnaires for KMAP-DD 2021 were sent to participants via mail. KMAP-DD 2021 consists of overall treatment strategies and treatment options under specific circumstances.Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine and was divided into the three phases of recommendation that include primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#For persisting depressive disorder, antidepressant monotherapy including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (escitalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine), serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) (desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran), vortioxetine, and mirtazapine, was recommended as first-line medications. For melancholia of major depressive disorder, SSRI, SNRI, vortioxetine, and mirtazapine also were recommended as first-line medications. For mixed features, SSRI, bupropion, mirtazapine, SNRI, except for duloxetine, and milnacipran were recommended as first-line medications. For anxious distress, SSRI, mirtazapine, and SNRI, except milnacipran, were recommended as first-line medications. @*Conclusion@#The preferences of antidepressants by experts differed according to the subtype of depression. These findings suggest that experts treat patients with a major depressive disorder after considering the subtype of depression involved.

17.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 193-203, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892378

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2021 (KMAP-DD 2021) was a revision of previous works. The main purpose of the current study was to amend guidelines for the treatment of a major depressive disorder (MDD) for children and adolescents. @*Methods@#The survey consisted of 21 questionnaires for children and adolescents. A total of 33 of the 46 experts in child and adolescent psychiatry answered the survey. @*Results@#Antidepressant (AD) monotherapy was selected as the 1st line option for MDD with mild to moderate severity. As the 1st line of treatment for MDD severe without psychotic features in children and adolescents, AD monotherapy and AD augmented with atypical antipsychotics (AAP) were recommended. For MDD with psychotic features, AD augmented with AAP was preferred as the 1st line of treatment. @*Conclusion@#We developed an algorithm for child and adolescent populations with depressive disorders, more specifically than the KMAP-DD 2017. We expect this algorithm will provide clinicians useful information and help in the treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders.

18.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 110-118, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918524

ABSTRACT

Background@#Alcohol drinking among college students is socially permissible in Korea. However, this population’s tendency to consume alcohol excessively results in many alcohol-related problems, including psychiatric problems.This study aimed to identify the sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidities associated with hazardous alcohol drinking among college students. @*Methods@#In total, 2,571 college students participated in the study. Data were collected using the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-K), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, a modified Korean version of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire, the Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale-Version 1.1, and a stress-coping scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed on variables significantly correlated with hazardous alcohol drinking. @*Results@#In total, 633 students were grouped into the hazardous alcohol drinking group (AUDIT-K, ≥12). The associ-ated variables were age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; p<0.05), smoking (OR, 4.00; p<0.001), bipolar disorder (OR, 2.45; p<0.05), depressive disorder (OR, 1.35; p<0.05), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; OR, 1.44; p<0.05), and problem-focused stress coping (OR, 0.97; p<0.05). @*Conclusion@#In this study, hazardous alcohol drinking was associated with smoking, mood disorders, and ADHD. We suggest that alcohol use among college students be carefully monitored and managed in terms of its psychiatric comorbidities.

19.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 101-109, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918523

ABSTRACT

Background@#In this study, the relationship between depression and stress-coping strategies among public enterprise workers whose workplaces were relocated to a newly-built innovation city was investigated. @*Methods@#This study included a total of 922 public enterprise workers living in Naju Innovation City. Along with their sociodemographic data, each subject was assessed concerning depression, occupational stress, and stress-coping strategies using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale(CES-D), Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS), and stress-coping scale (SCS), respectively. Logistic regression was performed to investigate the impact of the relevant factors on depressive symptoms. @*Results@#The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 14%. Some sociodemographic variables, the total scores of the KOSS, and four subscales of the SCS revealed significant differences between the depressed and normal groups. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the KOSS (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; p<0.001) and SCS, such as problem-solving-focused (OR, 0.75; p<0.001), emotion-focused (OR, 1.15; p<0.05), and wishful-thinking-focused (OR, 1.10; p<0.05), were significantly associated with depression. @*Conclusion@#The results indicated that depressive symptoms were highly prevalent among workers whose workplaces were relocated. In addition, these symptoms were found to be related with occupational stress and stress-coping strategies. Our findings also suggest that promoting healthy stress-coping strategies and reducing occupational stress may help in preventing the occurrence of depression and managing depressed workers.

20.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 85-93, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918521

ABSTRACT

Background@#Depression is increasing among college students in general. Moreover, almost one-third of college students have been reported to suffer from depression. Thus, this study aimed to assess differences in stress coping strategies and resilience between depressed and normal-mood groups among college students. @*Methods@#A total of 3,306 college students participated in this study. The students responded to a questionnaire that included questions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, stress coping scale (SCS), and brief resilience scale. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of variables on depression. @*Results@#Using the CES-D (cutoff score ≥21), 423 (12.8%) college students were classified as depressed. Adjusting for individual demographic factors, the SCS results of the students with depression showed significantly higher scores in emotion-focused coping (p<0.001), wishful thinking (p<0.001), and lower problem-focused coping (p<0.001) than the normal-mood group. Moreover, they presented lower resilience scores. Students who had emotion-focused coping (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; p<0.001) and lower resilience scores (OR, 0.76; p<0.001) were associated with higher CES-D scores. @*Conclusion@#The study findings revealed significant differences between the depressed and normal-mood groups in terms of stress coping skills and resilience, suggesting the need for promoting stress coping strategies and resilience to lower depression-related problems among college students.

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