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1.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 173-182, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927060

ABSTRACT

Background@#Neurokinin-1 (NK1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) play a vital role in pain pathogenesis, and these proteins’ antagonists have attracted attention as promising pharmaceutical candidates. The authors investigated the antinociceptive effect of co-administration of the CGRP antagonist and an NK1 antagonist on pain models compared to conventional single regimens. @*Methods@#C57Bl/6J mice underwent sciatic nerve ligation for the neuropathic pain model and were injected with 4% formalin into the hind paw for the inflammatory pain model. Each model was divided into four groups: vehicle, NK1 antagonist, CGRP antagonist, and combination treatment groups. The NK1 antagonist aprepitant (BIBN4096, 1 mg/kg) or the CGRP antagonist olcegepant (MK-0869, 10 mg/ kg) was injected intraperitoneally. Mechanical allodynia, thermal hypersensitivity, and anxiety-related behaviors were assessed using the von Frey, hot plate, and elevated plus-maze tests. The flinching and licking responses were also evaluated after formalin injection. @*Results@#Co-administration of aprepitant and olcegepant more significantly alleviated pain behaviors than administration of single agents or vehicle, increasing the mechanical threshold and improving the response latency. Anxiety-related behaviors were also markedly improved after dual treatment compared with either naive mice or the neuropathic pain model in the dual treatment group. Flinching frequency and licking response after formalin injection decreased significantly in the dual treatment group. Isobolographic analysis showed a meaningful additive effect between the two compounds. @*Conclusions@#A combination pharmacological therapy comprised of multiple neuropeptide antagonists could be a more effective therapeutic strategy for alleviating neuropathic or inflammatory pain.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924948

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the hyperdynamic state, which is reversible after restoring euthyroidism. However, long-term follow-up of renal dysfunction in patients with hyperthyroidism has not been performed. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance database and biannual health checkup data. We included 41,778 Graves’ disease (GD) patients and 41,778 healthy controls, matched by age and sex. The incidences of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were calculated in GD patients and controls. The cumulative dose and duration of antithyroid drugs (ATDs) were calculated for each patient and categorized into the highest, middle, and lowest tertiles. @*Results@#Among 41,778 GD patients, 55 ESRD cases occurred during 268,552 person-years of follow-up. Relative to the controls, regardless of smoking, drinking, or comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease, GD patients had a 47% lower risk of developing ESRD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.76). In particular, GD patients with a higher baseline GFR (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.99), longer treatment duration (>33 months; HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.58) or higher cumulative dose (>16,463 mg; HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.57) of ATDs had a significantly reduced risk of ESRD. @*Conclusion@#This was the first epidemiological study on the effect of GD on ESRD, and we demonstrated that GD population had a reduced risk for developing ESRD.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892766

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the association between the mothers' use of home meal replacement (HMR) in their children's meals and the diet quality of their young children. @*Methods@#Three hundred and thirty-seven mothers with five-year-old kindergartners in Sejong city participated in the survey from June to July 2020. The questionnaire consisted of the status of HMR use in children's meals and questions for assessing the nutrition quotient for preschoolers (NQ-P). The subjects were classified into three groups according to the frequency of HMR use in children's meals: using HMR more than three times a week (high-frequency group; [HG], n = 65), one–two times a week (moderate-frequency group; [MG], n = 145), and less than once a week (low-frequency group; [LG], n = 130). @*Results@#The mothers' mean age was 38.3 years. The average monthly cost of purchasing HMRs was highest at 200,000–300,000 won in HG, 50,000–100,000 won in MG, and less than 50,000 won in LG (p < 0.001). The consumption frequency of processed meats, fast foods, processed beverages, and sweet & fatty snacks was significantly higher in the HG group than the other groups. The mean NQ-P score was 60.5 in HG, 63.0 in MG, and 64.5 in LG, showing a significant difference (p < 0.01). In the sub-score according to the three areas, there were no significant differences in balance and environment among the three groups. In the moderation area, however, the score was 44.1 in HG, 51.3 in MG, and 57.5 in LG Group, showing a significant difference (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The increase in HMR use was related to the decreased diet quality in the overall and moderation areas of children's diet. These results support the importance of nutrition education for mothers, which aims to reduce their children's access and exposure to processed foods, such as HMR.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900470

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the association between the mothers' use of home meal replacement (HMR) in their children's meals and the diet quality of their young children. @*Methods@#Three hundred and thirty-seven mothers with five-year-old kindergartners in Sejong city participated in the survey from June to July 2020. The questionnaire consisted of the status of HMR use in children's meals and questions for assessing the nutrition quotient for preschoolers (NQ-P). The subjects were classified into three groups according to the frequency of HMR use in children's meals: using HMR more than three times a week (high-frequency group; [HG], n = 65), one–two times a week (moderate-frequency group; [MG], n = 145), and less than once a week (low-frequency group; [LG], n = 130). @*Results@#The mothers' mean age was 38.3 years. The average monthly cost of purchasing HMRs was highest at 200,000–300,000 won in HG, 50,000–100,000 won in MG, and less than 50,000 won in LG (p < 0.001). The consumption frequency of processed meats, fast foods, processed beverages, and sweet & fatty snacks was significantly higher in the HG group than the other groups. The mean NQ-P score was 60.5 in HG, 63.0 in MG, and 64.5 in LG, showing a significant difference (p < 0.01). In the sub-score according to the three areas, there were no significant differences in balance and environment among the three groups. In the moderation area, however, the score was 44.1 in HG, 51.3 in MG, and 57.5 in LG Group, showing a significant difference (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The increase in HMR use was related to the decreased diet quality in the overall and moderation areas of children's diet. These results support the importance of nutrition education for mothers, which aims to reduce their children's access and exposure to processed foods, such as HMR.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898094

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIt is known that the painful sensation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) results in sleep problems in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is not known that the painless DPN also is associated with poor sleep quality in T2DM. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between painless DPN and poor sleep quality in T2DM.MethodsA total of 146 patients of T2DM who do not have any painful symptoms of DPN were recruited into the study. Among the patients, painless DPN was diagnosed by using the current perception threshold test. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire.ResultsThe percentage of painless DPN was significantly higher in the poor sleep quality group than the good sleep quality group (70.0% vs. 35.5%, PP=0.009; 34.3% vs. 18.4%, P=0.029; 40.0% vs. 19.7%, P=0.007, respectively). The association of painless DPN and poor sleep quality remained significant after adjustment for significant covariates (odds ratio, 3.825; 95% confidence interval, 1.674 to 8.742; PConclusionThe current study showed that painless DPN was associated with poor sleep quality. Future studies are required to clarify the pathophysiologic causal relationship between painless DPN and sleep quality.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916408

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To study the relationship between the levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-receptor autoantibodies (TRAbs) and thyroid eye disease (TED) activity and severity scores. @*Methods@#A cross-sectional study was performed. The medical records of 315 patients diagnosed with TED between March 2014 and December 2019 were reviewed. The clinical activity score (CAS) was used to assess TED activity and a modified NOSPECS score was used for severity grading. The serum TRAb level was measured using two assays: a TSHR binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) assay and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) bioassay. @*Results@#The TBII and TSI assay results were significantly positively correlated with the CAS (R = 0.113 and 0.211, respectively; p < 0.05), modified NOSPECS score (R = 0.173 and 0.316, respectively; p < 0.05), and proptosis (R = 0.136 and 0.167, respectively; p < 0.05). Both assays demonstrated significant differences in the level of TRAb between patients with and without compressive optic neuropathy or corneal epithelial defects. @*Conclusions@#The levels of TRAbs according to both TBII and TSI assays showed significant correlations with clinical signs of corneal involvement, optic neuropathy, and TED activity and severity.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890390

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIt is known that the painful sensation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) results in sleep problems in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is not known that the painless DPN also is associated with poor sleep quality in T2DM. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between painless DPN and poor sleep quality in T2DM.MethodsA total of 146 patients of T2DM who do not have any painful symptoms of DPN were recruited into the study. Among the patients, painless DPN was diagnosed by using the current perception threshold test. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire.ResultsThe percentage of painless DPN was significantly higher in the poor sleep quality group than the good sleep quality group (70.0% vs. 35.5%, PP=0.009; 34.3% vs. 18.4%, P=0.029; 40.0% vs. 19.7%, P=0.007, respectively). The association of painless DPN and poor sleep quality remained significant after adjustment for significant covariates (odds ratio, 3.825; 95% confidence interval, 1.674 to 8.742; PConclusionThe current study showed that painless DPN was associated with poor sleep quality. Future studies are required to clarify the pathophysiologic causal relationship between painless DPN and sleep quality.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874524

ABSTRACT

We investigated the cardiovascular complications and mortality rates of patients with diabetes in South Korea. The rates of hospitalization due to cardiovascular complications and mortality were analyzed using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. From 2006 to 2015, the rates of hospitalization due to major cardiovascular complications decreased, while those due to heart failure (from 72 to 146 and 124 to 161 per 10,000 men and women, respectively) and peripheral artery disease (from 39 to 55 and 19 to 35 per 10,000 men and women, respectively) increased. In the period 2007 to 2015, the mortality rates for cancer, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, heart disease, and hypertensive disease all decreased. However, the mortality rate for pneumonia increased. We observed a continuous reduction in cardiovascular complications and mortality in adults with diabetes. However, with the increase in some diabetes complications, more efforts are needed to prevent diabetes complications.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832421

ABSTRACT

Background@#Few studies have examined the relationship of sarcopenia with the microcirculation. The current study investigated the relationship of sarcopenia with microcirculatory function, as assessed by skin perfusion pressure (SPP), in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. @*Methods@#In total, 102 T2DM patients who underwent SPP measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. SPP was assessed using the laser Doppler technique. Sarcopenia was defined as low height-adjusted appendicular muscle mass (men, 50 mm Hg), and an SPP below 50 mm Hg was considered to reflect impaired microcirculation. @*Results@#Fourteen patients (13.7%) were diagnosed with impaired microcirculatory function of the lower limb based on SPP. The prevalence of sarcopenia in all subjects was 11.8%, but the percentage of patients with an SPP ≤50 mm Hg who had sarcopenia was more than triple that of patients with an SPP >50 mm Hg (28.6% vs. 9.1%, P=0.036). A significant positive correlation was found between SPP and appendicular muscle mass adjusted for height (P=0.041 for right-sided SPP). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that patients with sarcopenia had an odds ratio of 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 24.9) for having an SPP ≤50 mm Hg even after adjustment for confounding factors. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that sarcopenia may be significantly associated with impaired microcirculation in patients with T2DM. Nonetheless, the small number of patients and wide CI require cautious interpretation of the results.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832342

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is known that the painful sensation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) results in sleep problems in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is not known that the painless DPN also is associated with poor sleep quality in T2DM.The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between painless DPN and poor sleep quality in T2DM. @*Methods@#A total of 146 patients of T2DM who do not have any painful symptoms of DPN were recruited into the study. Among the patients, painless DPN was diagnosed by using the current perception threshold test. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. @*Results@#The percentage of painless DPN was significantly higher in the poor sleep quality group than the good sleep quality group (70.0% vs. 35.5%, P<0.001). In the subscale results, stimulus values at 2,000 Hz, hypoesthesia and hyperesthesia were more common in the poor sleep quality group than in the good sleep quality group (45.7% vs. 25.0%, P=0.009; 34.3% vs. 18.4%, P=0.029; 40.0% vs. 19.7%, P=0.007, respectively). The association of painless DPN and poor sleep quality remained significant after adjustment for significant covariates (odds ratio, 3.825; 95% confidence interval, 1.674 to 8.742; P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#The current study showed that painless DPN was associated with poor sleep quality. Future studies are required to clarify the pathophysiologic causal relationship between painless DPN and sleep quality.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902136

ABSTRACT

Background@#The Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service has conducted diabetes medical adequacy evaluation projects since 2010. This study aimed to evaluate the medical adequacy of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after the assessment project and help establish the direction of future projects. @*Methods@#Using data from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service (2010-2015), chi-square tests and t-tests were used to analyze the enforcement rate according to a combination of items for appropriate management methods. Logistic regression and linearity test were performed to assess the relationships among the evaluation group, appropriate test items, and prescription rate. @*Results@#We found that 33.6-39.8% of patients did not undergo any diabetes-related tests. Only about 7% of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) tests were performed, and 36% of cases were tested simultaneously with serum lipid profile tests. As age increased, the number of days taken to prescribe diabetes medications also increased.The prescription rate of diabetes drugs for 292 days or more was 61% in patients who had not been tested for adequacy, and the average prescription rate increased as the number of tests increased. @*Conclusions@#In older adults with a high prevalence of diabetes, it is necessary to establish a test rate for proper management of diabetes, including HbA1c, and related test items to increase the average prescription rate.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894432

ABSTRACT

Background@#The Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service has conducted diabetes medical adequacy evaluation projects since 2010. This study aimed to evaluate the medical adequacy of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after the assessment project and help establish the direction of future projects. @*Methods@#Using data from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service (2010-2015), chi-square tests and t-tests were used to analyze the enforcement rate according to a combination of items for appropriate management methods. Logistic regression and linearity test were performed to assess the relationships among the evaluation group, appropriate test items, and prescription rate. @*Results@#We found that 33.6-39.8% of patients did not undergo any diabetes-related tests. Only about 7% of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) tests were performed, and 36% of cases were tested simultaneously with serum lipid profile tests. As age increased, the number of days taken to prescribe diabetes medications also increased.The prescription rate of diabetes drugs for 292 days or more was 61% in patients who had not been tested for adequacy, and the average prescription rate increased as the number of tests increased. @*Conclusions@#In older adults with a high prevalence of diabetes, it is necessary to establish a test rate for proper management of diabetes, including HbA1c, and related test items to increase the average prescription rate.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763670

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the 6th Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2019. Targets of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were updated. The obese and overweight population is increasing steadily in Korea, and half of the Koreans with diabetes are obese. Evidence-based recommendations for weight-loss therapy for obesity management as treatment for hyperglycemia in T2DM were provided. In addition, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Korea , Obesity , Overweight
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, management, and comorbidities of diabetes among Korean adults aged 30 years and older. METHODS: This study used 2013 to 2016 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally-representative survey of the Korean population. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, current use of antidiabetic medication, a previous history of diabetes, or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%. RESULTS: In 2016, 14.4% (approximately 5.02 million) of Korean adults had diabetes. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 25.3% (8.71 million). From 2013 to 2016, the awareness, control, and treatment rates for diabetes were 62.6%, 56.7%, and 25.1%, respectively. People with diabetes had the following comorbidities: obesity (50.4%), abdominal obesity (47.8%), hypertension (55.3%), and hypercholesterolemia (34.9%). The 25.1%, 68.4%, and 44.2% of people with diabetes achieved HbA1c <6.5%, blood pressure <140/85 mm Hg, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL. Only 8.4% of people with diabetes had good control of all three targets. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that diabetes is as an important public health problem. Efforts should be made to increase awareness, detection, and comprehensive management of diabetes to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Pressure , Cholesterol, LDL , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Fasting , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia , Hypertension , Korea , Mortality , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity , Obesity, Abdominal , Prevalence , Public Health , Republic of Korea
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762170

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma is a common disease that is expensive and burdensome for patients. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most important drugs for asthma treatment and are often prescribed long-term. However, the use of ICS has been reported to increase pneumonia, though this remains controversial. We evaluated whether the use of ICS increases the risk of pneumonia in asthmatic patients using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database in Korea. METHODS: The Asthma Management Adequacy Assessment was performed by the HIRA in Korea. Patients with claimed insurance benefits for asthma disease codes and who were prescribed asthma medications more than 2 times were enrolled. Patient demographics, asthma medications, healthcare use, and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: The total number of asthma patients was 831,613. Patients using ICS were older and had more comorbidities than those not using ICS; they also visited outpatient clinics and emergency departments, and were more often hospitalized. Pneumonia and other complications occurred more often in patients using ICS, and they used more respiratory medications, except for theophylline. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ICS prescription was associated with pneumonia (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.41). Age, sex, medical care, use of secondary and tertiary hospitals, and hospitalization due to asthma in the previous year were also associated with pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: ICS use was associated with increasing pneumonia in asthmatic patients in Korea. Therefore, it is critical to acknowledge that the use of ICS may increase the risk of pneumonia and should be meticulously monitored in asthmatics.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Asthma , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Demography , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Insurance Benefits , Insurance, Health , Korea , Logistic Models , Pneumonia , Prescriptions , Steroids , Tertiary Care Centers , Theophylline
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are expected to improve the liver function of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) combined type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by its characteristic mechanism. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dapagliflozin, one of the SGLT2i, on the liver function of T2DM with NAFLD when combined with metformin. METHODS: Among patients who received dual oral hypoglycemic agents within the 3 months of diagnosing NAFLD, patients who had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (>40 IU/L) were included. Patients were divided into two groups: metformin+dapagliflozin group and metformin+dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) group. Demographic data, biochemical data and the clinical and treatment histories of all patients were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were included (dapagliflozin group, n=50; DPP4i group, n=52). Dapagliflozin group showed more weight loss and more ALT decline than DPP4i group (−2.9 kg vs. −0.4 kg, P=0.005; −21.1 U/L vs. −9.5 U/L, P=0.008, respectively) and the proportion of patients with ALT normalization after treatment was also significantly higher in the dapagliflozin group (80.0% vs. 61.5%, P=0.041). The effect of dapagliflozin with metformin on ALT normalization remained significant after adjustment for confounding variables including body weight loss (odds ratio, 3.489; P=0.046). CONCLUSION: ALT improvement was statistically significant in the dapagliflozin than the DPP4i when combined with metformin and the result was consistent after adjustment for confounding variables including body weight loss.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Alanine , Body Weight , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Liver , Metformin , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Weight Loss
17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 216-219, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713787

ABSTRACT

Fulminant type 1 diabetes is a distinct subtype of type 1 diabetes mellitus that is characterized by sudden, complete destruction of pancreatic beta cells at the disease onset. Since the disease was first described in 2000 in Japan, a number of case reports have also been published in Korea. However, this disease entity is still not well defined. A 48-year old man with no medical history was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis. Fulminant type 1 diabetes was diagnosed and he was discharged with multiple insulin injections. His serum glucose level was well controlled in the outpatient clinic. A month later, diabetic ketoacidosis occurred again following a diagnostic colonoscopy. This case suggests that fulminant type 1 diabetes is an aggressive disease in which small stimuli can provoke ketoacidosis. Therefore, for tests that require fasting, close observation by medical staff and patient education about the disease is essential.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Blood Glucose , Colonoscopy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Fasting , Humans , Insulin , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Japan , Ketosis , Korea , Medical Staff , Patient Education as Topic
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194645

ABSTRACT

An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass found in an imaging examination performed for reasons unrelated to suspected adrenal disease. The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma increases with age; there is no gender difference, but it is often accompanied by obesity, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. The detection of adrenal incidentaloma is expected to rise with the rapid development of imaging technology and increasing frequency of imaging studies. The Korean Endocrine Society is promoting appropriate practice guidelines to meet the rising incidence of adrenal incidentaloma, in cooperation with the Korean Adrenal Gland and Endocrine Hypertension Study Group. In this paper, we discuss important core issues for treating adrenal incidentaloma, along with the most important factors for healthcare providers who treat and manage affected patients. Initially, we identified 47 recommendations using the Delphi technique, after evaluating core propositions. We reduced these to the 20 most critical recommendations.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Delphi Technique , Diabetes Mellitus , Health Personnel , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Obesity , Prevalence
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161476

ABSTRACT

An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass found in an imaging study performed for other reasons unrelated to adrenal disease and often accompanied by obesity, diabetes, or hypertension. The prevalence and incidence of adrenal incidentaloma increase with age and are also expected to rise due to the rapid development of imaging technology and frequent imaging studies. The Korean Endocrine Society is promoting an appropriate practice guideline to meet the rising incidence of adrenal incidentaloma, in cooperation with the Korean Adrenal Gland and Endocrine Hypertension Study Group. In this paper, we discuss important core issues in managing the patients with adrenal incidentaloma. After evaluating core proposition, we propose the most critical 20 recommendations from the initially organized 47 recommendations by Delphi technique.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Delphi Technique , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Obesity , Prevalence
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oversight on the bioethical compliance of national R&D projects or research personnel is currently conducted exclusively by IRB (Institutional Review Board) within the relevant research institute. Considering current state of affairs in Korea, there is an imperative to establish a national oversight system for bioethical compliance, conduct comprehensive oversight on bioethical compliance of national R&D projects, and enhance subject protection system. METHODS: We examined opinions from researchers and IRB personnels regarding ethical oversight system on R&D projects. Additionally, we looked at IRB assessment by KAIRB (Korea Association of Institutional Review Board) in order to identify status and problems with current IRB system in Korea. Assessment was also done for four other countries (US, UK, Germany, Singapore) through in-person visits as well as surveys in writing for a total of 6 months (2012.12.1~2013.5.31). The research comprised of two aspects: system management and R&D project audit. Based on this, we examined current status and problems of the existing system in Korea and made recommendations for improvement. RESULTS: Regulatory objectives and backgrounds of biomedical researches are different from each country due to different characteristics of bioethical oversight system. This shows that each country sets up its own regulations and procedures to fit each situation. Bioethical compliance oversight system greatly varied between the countries. From this study, it can be seen that improvement of existing procedures and oversight system or establishment of new ones are essential in Korea. CONCLUSION: In terms of system management, a dedicated government organization need to be established for bioethical compliance, subject protection, IRB inspection, training, evaluation, and certification of systems, and also support for IRB e-system. Regarding R&D project oversight, it is essential to confirm IRB review results before start of a research, to conduct a review on ethical aspects of research plans, and to carry out continued oversight on bioethical compliance through interim reports.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Certification , Compliance , Ethics Committees, Research , Germany , Humans , Korea , Research Personnel , Social Control, Formal , Writing
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