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1.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 46-59, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda (AY) has remarkable bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-cancer activities. On the other hand, the effects of AY against obesity-induced insulin resistance have not been reported. Therefore, this study examined the potential of AY against obesity-associated insulin resistance in highfat diet (HFD)-fed mice.MATERIALS/METHODS: An obesity model was established by feeding C57BL/6J mice a 60% HFD for 16 weeks. The C57BL6/When ethyl acetate fraction from AY (EFAY) at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day was administered orally to mice fed a HFD for the last 4 weeks. Normal and control groups were administered water orally. The body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured every week. Dietary intake was measured every other day. After dissection, blood and tissues were collected from the mice. @*RESULTS@#The administration of EFAY reduced body and organ weights significantly compared to HFD-fed control mice. The EFAY-administered groups also improved the serum lipid profile by decreasing the triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein compared to the control group. In addition, EFAY ameliorated the insulin resistance-related metabolic dysfunctions, including the fasting blood glucose and serum insulin level, compared to the HFD-fed control mice. The EFAY inhibited lipid synthesis and insulin resistance by down-regulation of hepatic fatty acid synthase and up-regulation of the AMPactivated protein kinase pathway. EFAY also reduced lipid peroxidation in the liver, indicating that EFAY protected hepatic injury induced by obesity. @*CONCLUSIONS@#These results suggest that EFAY improved obesity-associated insulin resistance by regulating the lipid and glucose metabolism, suggesting that AY could be used as a functional food to prevent obesity and insulin resistance.

2.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 279-293, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#The steamed ginger has been shown to have antioxidative effects and a protective effect against obesity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of steamed ginger (SGE) on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model.MATERIALS/METHODS: The protective effects of SGE on adipogenesis were examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by measuring lipid accumulations and genes involved in adipogenesis.Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND, 10% fat w/w), a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat w/w), and HFD supplemented with either 40 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg of SGE for 12 weeks.Serum chemistry was measured, and the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined in the adipose tissue. Histological analysis and micro-computed tomography were performed to identify lipid accumulations in epididymal fat pads. @*RESULTS@#In 3T3-L1 cells, SGE significantly decreased lipid accumulation, with concomitant decreases in the expression of adipogenesis-related genes. SGE significantly attenuated the increase in body, liver, and epididymal adipose tissue weights by HFD. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in SGE fed groups compared to HFD. In adipose tissue, SGE significantly decreased adipocyte size than that of HFD and altered adipogenesis-related genes. @*CONCLUSIONS@#In conclusion, steamed ginger exerted anti-obesity effects by regulating genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cell and epididymal adipose tissue of DIO mice.

3.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 279-293, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#The steamed ginger has been shown to have antioxidative effects and a protective effect against obesity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of steamed ginger (SGE) on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model.MATERIALS/METHODS: The protective effects of SGE on adipogenesis were examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by measuring lipid accumulations and genes involved in adipogenesis.Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND, 10% fat w/w), a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat w/w), and HFD supplemented with either 40 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg of SGE for 12 weeks.Serum chemistry was measured, and the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined in the adipose tissue. Histological analysis and micro-computed tomography were performed to identify lipid accumulations in epididymal fat pads. @*RESULTS@#In 3T3-L1 cells, SGE significantly decreased lipid accumulation, with concomitant decreases in the expression of adipogenesis-related genes. SGE significantly attenuated the increase in body, liver, and epididymal adipose tissue weights by HFD. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in SGE fed groups compared to HFD. In adipose tissue, SGE significantly decreased adipocyte size than that of HFD and altered adipogenesis-related genes. @*CONCLUSIONS@#In conclusion, steamed ginger exerted anti-obesity effects by regulating genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cell and epididymal adipose tissue of DIO mice.

4.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 268-268, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760601

ABSTRACT

The final version uploaded in NRP and PMC are different. Somehow, the PMC version is not the final version of this publication. The PMC version is the version before final revision. Also the authors found out that there is an error in Table 1. These errors did not influence the subsequent analyses/statistics at all. Thus, changes for these errors do not impact the conclusions of the paper

5.
Journal of Nutrition and Health ; : 1-13, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740545

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This review article provides an overview of the trends of research papers on the health benefits of kimchi and kimchi lactic acid bacteria published from 1995 to 2017. METHODS: All publications from 1995 to 2017 regarding kimchi and kimchi lactic acid bacteria were collected, reviewed, and classified. This review article covers the publications of the health benefits of kimchi and kimchi lactic acid bacteria on experimental, clinical trials, and epidemiology studies. RESULTS: The number of publications on kimchi over the period were 590: 385 publications in Korean and 205 publications in English. The number of publications on the health benefits of kimchi and kimchi lactic acid bacteria were 95 in Korean and 54 in English. The number of publications on kimchi and kimchi lactic acid bacteria were 84 and 38, respectively, in the experimental models. Ten research papers on kimchi in clinical trials and 7 publications in epidemiology were found. Kimchi or kimchi lactic acid bacteria had protective effects against oxidative stress, mutagenicity, toxicity, cancer, dyslipidemia, hypertension, immunity, and inflammation in in vitro, cellular, and in vivo animal models. Moreover, kimchi had effects on the serum lipids, intestinal microbiota, iron status, obesity, and metabolic parameters in human clinical trials. In epidemiology, kimchi had effects on hypertension, asthma, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, cholesterol levels, and free radicals. CONCLUSION: This review focused on the publications regarding the health benefits of kimchi and kimchi lactic acid bacteria, suggesting the future directions of studies about kimchi and kimchi lactic acid bacteria by producing a database for an evaluation of the health benefits of kimchi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Bacteria , Cholesterol , Dermatitis, Atopic , Dyslipidemias , Epidemiology , Free Radicals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hypertension , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Insurance Benefits , Iron , Lactic Acid , Models, Animal , Models, Theoretical , Obesity , Oxidative Stress , Rhinitis
6.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 503-511, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ginger, a root vegetable, is known to have antioxidant and antiobesity effects. Preparation, such as by steaming, can affect the chemical composition of prepared root vegetables or herbs and can change their functional activities. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of steamed ginger against oxidative stress and steatosis in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS: The levels of polyphenols and flavonoids in two different extracts of steamed ginger, i.e., water extract (SGW) and ethanolic extract (SGE); as well, their antioxidant activities were examined. Forty male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND, n = 10), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat, w/w, n = 10), HFD supplemented with 200 mg/kg of SGE or garcinia (GAR) by weight (SGED or GARD, respectively, n = 10) for 12 weeks. Serum chemistry was examined, and the expressions of genes involved in lipid metabolism were determined in the liver. Histological analysis was performed to identify lipid accumulations in epididymal fat pads and liver. RESULTS: The SGE had higher contents of polyphenols and flavonoids and higher DPPH and ABTS⁺ free radical scavenging activities compared to those of SGW. Treatment with SGE or GAR significantly decreased the HFD-induced weight gain. Both SGE and GAR significantly reduced the high serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein levels induced by HFD. Compared to ND, HFD significantly increased hepatic TC and TG levels. SGE or GAR supplementation significantly decreased the increase of hepatic lipids by HFD. Interestingly, SGE had a more significant effect in reducing hepatic TC and TG levels than GAR. Furthermore, hepatic genes involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis were altered in both the SGED and GARD groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that steamed ginger supplementation can decrease plasma TC and TG and can inhibit liver steatosis by regulating the expressions of hepatic genes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Adipose Tissue , Chemistry , Cholesterol , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Ethanol , Fatty Liver , Flavonoids , Garcinia , Zingiber officinale , Lipid Metabolism , Lipogenesis , Lipolysis , Lipoproteins , Liver , Obesity , Oxidative Stress , Plasma , Polyphenols , Steam , Triglycerides , Vegetables , Water , Weight Gain
7.
Journal of Nutrition and Health ; : 543-551, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182492

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to determine whether fermentation can increase the protective effects of blueberry liquid in a high-fat diet-induced obese mice model. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HD, 60% fat, w/w,), HD supplemented with 10 ml/kg BW/day of blueberry liquid (BHD, blueberry high-fat diet), or HD supplemented with 10 ml/kg BW/day of fermented blueberry liquid (FBHD, fermented blueberry high-fat diet) for 10 weeks. RESULTS: There were significant decreases in the body, epididymal adipose tissue, and liver weights of blueberry-fed groups compared to HD, whereas there were no significant differences in food intake among the groups. Furthermore, blueberry liquid groups, especially fermented blueberry liquid, significantly attenuated the contents of hepatic triglycerides and total cholesterol induced by HD. Serum LDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in the BHD and FBHD-fed groups, whereas FBHD significantly increased the serum HDL-cholesterol level compared to the control. Concentrations of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and leptins in serum were also reduced by blueberry liquid supplementation. The mRNA expression of hepatic acetyl CoA carboxylase was significantly reduced in both the BHD and FBHD groups compared to HD. Furthermore, FBHD altered the mRNA expression level of hepatic lipolysis genes. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these results suggest that blueberry, especially fermented blueberry liquid, may improve obesity-related abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase , Adipose Tissue , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blueberry Plants , Cholesterol , Diet, High-Fat , Eating , Fermentation , Leptin , Lipolysis , Liver , Mice, Obese , RNA, Messenger , Triglycerides , Weights and Measures
8.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 494-500, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration. RESULTS: No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Adipose Tissue , Anthocyanins , Blueberry Plants , Cytokines , Diet , Fruit , Glucose , Inflammation , Insulin , Intestines , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Macrophages , Muscle, Skeletal , Obesity , Plasma , RNA, Messenger , Rubus , Superoxide Dismutase , Triglycerides , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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