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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 588-596, ago. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346511

ABSTRACT

Abstract Up to 15% of all strokes affect young patients and the incidence of ischemic stroke in this population is rising. Nevertheless, there is limited information of cerebrovascular events in this population both in our country and in Latin America. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of young adults with stroke in Argentina. This is a prospective, multicenter study of stroke in young adults (18 - 55 years) in Argentina. Patients presenting with a cerebrovascular event within 180 days were included. Stroke subtypes were classified according to TOAST criteria. A total number of 311 patients were enrolled (men 53.9%, mean age: 43.3 years). Ischemic strokes occurred in 91.8% (brain infarcts 82.6%, transient ischemic attack 9.2%) and hemorrhagic strokes in 8.2%. The most frequent vascular risk factors (including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes) were: hypertension 120 (41%), smoking 92 (31.4%), dyslipidemia 81 (27.6%) and, over weight/obesity: 74 (25.3%). Stroke subtypes were: large artery disease 12.3%, cardioembolism 7.5, small artery occlusion 11.5%, other defined etiology 27.1%, and undetermined etiology 41.6%. Our study demonstrates that vascular risk factors are very frequent in young adults with stroke. Our findings underline that urgent strategies are required for primary and secondary stroke prevention in this group of patients.


Resumen Aproximadamente un 15% de todos los ataques cerebrovasculares afectan a pacientes jóvenes y su incidencia estaría en aumento. Existe escasa información sobre el ataque cerebral en esta población tanto en nuestro país como en Latinoamérica. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar las características clínicas y los factores de riesgo de los adultos jóvenes con ictus en Argentina. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo y multicéntrico en adultos jóvenes (18-55 años) en Argentina, que presentaron un evento cerebrovascular dentro de los 180 días previos. Los subtipos de ictus se clasificaron según los criterios de TOAST. Se incluyeron un total de 311 pacientes (hombres 53.9%, edad media: 43,3 años). Los ataques cerebrovasculares isquémicos ocurrieron en el 91.8% (infartos cerebrales 82.6%, ataque isquémico transitorio 9.2%) y los eventos hemorrágicos correspondieron al 8.2%. Los factores de riesgo vascular más frecuentes (incluyendo los eventos isquémicos y hemorrágicos) fueron: hipertensión 120 (41%), tabaquismo 92 (31.4%), dislipidemia 81 (27.6%) y sobrepeso/obesidad: 74 (25.3%). Los subtipos de ictus isquémicos fueron: arteriopatía de gran vaso 12.3%, cardioembolismo 7.5%, oclusión de pequeña arteria 11.5%, otra etiología definida 27.1% y etiología indeterminada 41.6%. Los factores de riesgo vascular son muy frecuentes en los adultos jóvenes con ictus. Nuestros hallazgos subrayan que se requieren estrategias urgentes para la prevención primaria y secundaria del ictus en este grupo particular de pacientes en nuestro país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.2): 1-46, mayo 2019. ilus, graf, map
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012666

ABSTRACT

El accidente cerebrovascular es la tercera causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad en la Argentina. Los eventos isquémicos constituyen el 80% de los casos. Los accidentes vasculares cerebrales requieren la implementación de protocolos sistematizados que permitan reducir los tiempos en la atención, la morbilidad y mortalidad. En el consenso participaron especialistas de nueve sociedades médicas relacionadas con la atención de pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular. Se consensuó un temario separado en capítulos y para la redacción de los mismos se conformaron grupos de trabajo con miembros de diferentes especialidades médicas. Se discutió y acordó para cada tema el nivel de recomendación en base a la mejor evidencia clínica disponible para cada tópico. Se realizó una adaptación al ámbito local de las recomendaciones cuando se consideró necesario. El sistema de la American Heart Association se utilizó para redactar las recomendaciones y su grado de evidencia. La corrección y edición fue realizada por cinco revisores externos, que no participaron en la redacción y con amplia experiencia en enfermedad vascular. Finalizado el documento preliminar, se organizó una reunión general con todos los integrantes de los grupos de trabajo y los revisores para redactar las recomendaciones definitivas. El consenso abarca la atención del paciente con accidente cerebrovascular isquémico en la fase pre-hospitalaria, evaluación inicial en la central de emergencias, terapias de recanalización (trombolisis y/o trombectomía mecánica), craniectomía descompresiva, neuroimágenes y cuidados clínicos en la internación.


Stroke is the third cause of death and the first cause of disability in Argentina. Ischemic events constitute 80% of cases. It requires the implementation of systematized protocols that allow reducing the time of care, morbidity and mortality. Specialists from nine medical societies related to the care of patients with cerebrovascular disease participated in the consensus. A separate agenda was agreed upon in chapters and for the writing of them, work groups were formed with members of different medical specialties. The level of recommendation was discussed and agreed upon for each topic based on the best clinical evidence available for each of them. An adaptation to the local scope of the recommendations was made when it was considered necessary.The American Heart Association system was used to draft the recommendations and their level of evidence. The correction and editing were done by five external reviewers, who did not participate in the writing and with extensive experience in vascular pathology. Once the preliminary document was finalized, a general meeting was held with all the members of the working groups and the reviewers to reach final recommendations. The consensus covers the management of ischemic stroke in the pre-hospital phase, initial evaluation in the emergency center, recanalization therapies (thrombolysis and/ or mechanical thrombectomy), decompressive craniectomy, neuroimaging and clinical care in the hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Argentina
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 90-94, abr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002613

ABSTRACT

Misdiagnosis is a challenging risk in young patients with ischemic stroke that leads to delayed recognition, prevents thrombolytic therapy and increases morbidity and mortality. To assess the frequency and reasons for misdiagnosis of ischemic stroke in young adults in the emergency department, we retrospectively evaluated 101 consecutive patients. The diagnosis required both the presence of an ischemic lesion in diffusion-weighted MRI as well as neurological symptoms. Twenty-three individuals were misdiagnosed (15 females, mean age 43 years [range 26-55 years]). The most common diagnostic errors included headache/ neck pain n = 11 (48%) and peripheral vertigo n = 4 (17.3%), and the most common missed etiology was arterial dissection (AD) n = 15 (65.2%). The initial diagnosis was made by emergency physicians in 22 persons. The group with misdiagnosis had a significantly higher frequency of AD at 15 vs. 8 (p < 0.01), posterior territory involvement at 12 vs. 6 (p < 0.01), and female predominance. Misdiagnosis occurred in a third of young patients with an ischemic stroke and was more frequent in those with arterial dissection involving the posterior circulation and presenting with non-specific symptoms.


El error diagnóstico es una situación riesgosa en pacientes jóvenes con infarto cerebral, ya que conduce a demora en el reconocimiento, previene la administración de terapia trombolítica e incrementa la morbimortalidad. Para valorar la frecuencia y las razones de errores en esta población, evaluamos retrospectivamente 101 pacientes consecutivos. El diagnóstico de infarto cerebral requirió tanto la presencia de lesión isquémica aguda en resonancia magnética como también la presencia de síntomas neurológicos. Veintitrés pacientes fueron mal diagnosticados (15 mujeres, edad media 43 años, [rango 26-55 años]). El error más frecuente incluyó cefalea/cervicalgia n = 11 (48%) y vértigo periférico n = 4 (17.3%). La etiología menos sospechada fue disección arterial n = 15 (62.2%). La evaluación inicial en 22 pacientes fue realizada por emergentólogos. El grupo con errores tuvo significativamente mayor frecuencia de disección arterial 15 vs. 8 (p < 0.01), afectación del territorio posterior 12 vs. 6 (p < 0.01) y sexo femenino. En conclusión, los errores diagnósticos ocurrieron en un tercio de los pacientes jóvenes con infarto cerebral, y fueron más frecuentes en aquellos con disección arterial, compromiso del territorio posterior y síntomas de presentación inespecífica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors/statistics & numerical data , Argentina/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Stroke/epidemiology
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(12): 858-861, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888282

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Nontraumatic convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage is an increasingly recognized subtype of subarachnoid bleeding. Objective: Our aim was to describe the etiology and clinical features of a cohort of patients with convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed all cases of convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to our hospital between January 2012 and April 2017. Demographic features, clinical characteristics, complementary investigations, etiology and mortality were assessed. Twenty patients (65% females) were identified. Mean age: 53 years (range, 15-86 years). Results: Symptoms on admission: headache (65%), sensory and/or motor symptoms (50%) and seizures (35%). Commonest causes: cerebral vein thrombosis (20%), reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (20%) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (20%). Two patients died. Conclusion: Convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage may be related to a wide spectrum of etiologies. In our patients, an increased prevalence of cerebral vein thrombosis was observed. Mortality was low and not related to the bleeding itself.


RESUMO A hemorragia subaracnóidea não traumática da convexidade é um subtipo cada vez mais reconhecido de sangramento subaracnóideo. Objetivo: Nosso objetivo foi descrever a etiologia e as características clínicas de uma coorte de pacientes com hemorragia subaracnóidea da convexidade. Métodos: Foram analisados retrospectivamente todos os casos de hemorragia subaracnóidea da convexidade admitidos em nosso hospital entre janeiro de 2012 e abril de 2017. Foram avaliados os aspectos demográficos, características clínicas, investigações complementares, etiologia e mortalidade. Vinte pacientes (65% mulheres) foram identificados. Média de idade: 53 anos (intervalo, 15-86). Resultados: Sintomas na admissão: dor de cabeça (65%), sintomas sensitivos e/ou motores (50%) e convulsões (35%). Causas mais comuns: trombose venosa cerebral (20%), síndrome de vasoconstrição cerebral reversível (20%) e angiopatia amilóide cerebral (20%). Dois pacientes morreram. Conclusão: A hemorragia subaracnóidea da convexidade pode estar relacionada a um amplo espectro de etiologias. Em nossos pacientes, observou-se uma maior prevalência de trombose venosa cerebral. A mortalidade foi baixa e não relacionada à própria hemorragia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/etiology , Argentina , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Angiography , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
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