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1.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal ; : 175-181, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002672

ABSTRACT

Laundry detergent pod (LDP) exposure has been reported to be fatal in children younger than 2 years, leading to respiratory or central nervous system depression. While gastrointestinal irritation is the most common symptom, there are reported cases of severe acidosis with respiratory depression or pneumonia, resulting in mortality. To our best knowledge, there is no report on a case of LDP exposure presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Here, we present a case of a child with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome following LDP exposure, who was successfully treated with veno-pulmonary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and steroids.

2.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 465-482, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897323

ABSTRACT

Lipids, which along with carbohydrates and proteins are among the most important nutrients for the living organism, have a variety of biological functions that can be applied widely in biomedicine. A fatty acid, the most fundamental biological lipid, may be classified by length of its aliphatic chain, and the short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acids and each have distinct biological activities with therapeutic relevance. For example, short-chain fatty acids have immune regulatory activities and could be useful against autoimmune disease; medium-chain fatty acids generate ketogenic metabolites and may be used to control seizure; and some metabolites oxidized from long-chain fatty acids could be used to treat metabolic disorders. Glycerolipids play important roles in pathological environments, such as those of cancers or metabolic disorders, and thus are regarded as a potential therapeutic target. Phospholipids represent the main building unit of the plasma membrane of cells, and play key roles in cellular signaling. Due to their physical properties, glycerophospholipids are frequently used as pharmaceutical ingredients, in addition to being potential novel drug targets for treating disease. Sphingolipids, which comprise another component of the plasma membrane, have their own distinct biological functions and have been investigated in nanotechnological applications such as drug delivery systems. Saccharolipids, which are derived from bacteria, have endotoxin effects that stimulate the immune system. Chemically modified saccharolipids might be useful for cancer immunotherapy or as vaccine adjuvants. This review will address the important biological function of several key lipids and offer critical insights into their potential therapeutic applications.

3.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 465-482, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889619

ABSTRACT

Lipids, which along with carbohydrates and proteins are among the most important nutrients for the living organism, have a variety of biological functions that can be applied widely in biomedicine. A fatty acid, the most fundamental biological lipid, may be classified by length of its aliphatic chain, and the short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acids and each have distinct biological activities with therapeutic relevance. For example, short-chain fatty acids have immune regulatory activities and could be useful against autoimmune disease; medium-chain fatty acids generate ketogenic metabolites and may be used to control seizure; and some metabolites oxidized from long-chain fatty acids could be used to treat metabolic disorders. Glycerolipids play important roles in pathological environments, such as those of cancers or metabolic disorders, and thus are regarded as a potential therapeutic target. Phospholipids represent the main building unit of the plasma membrane of cells, and play key roles in cellular signaling. Due to their physical properties, glycerophospholipids are frequently used as pharmaceutical ingredients, in addition to being potential novel drug targets for treating disease. Sphingolipids, which comprise another component of the plasma membrane, have their own distinct biological functions and have been investigated in nanotechnological applications such as drug delivery systems. Saccharolipids, which are derived from bacteria, have endotoxin effects that stimulate the immune system. Chemically modified saccharolipids might be useful for cancer immunotherapy or as vaccine adjuvants. This review will address the important biological function of several key lipids and offer critical insights into their potential therapeutic applications.

4.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 314-324, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937281

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a significant issue in young febrile patients due to potential long-term complications. Early detection of UTI is crucial in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs). We developed a tool to predict UTIs in children. @*Methods@#Clinical data of patients <24 months of age with a fever and UTI or viral infection were extracted from the fever registry collected in two PEDs. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to establish predictors of identified eligible clinical variables for the derivation of the prediction model. @*Results@#A total of 1,351 patients were included in the analysis, 643 patients from A hospital (derivation set) and 708 patients from B hospital (validation set). In the derivation set, there were more girls and a lower incidence of a past history of UTI, older age, less fever without source, and more family members with upper respiratory symptoms in the viral infection group. The stepwise regression analysis identified sex (uncircumcised male), age (≤12 months), a past history of UTI, and family members with upper respiratory symptoms as significant variables. @*Conclusion@#Young febrile patients in the PED were more likely to have UTIs if they were uncircumcised boys, were younger than 12 months of age, had a past history of UTIs, or did not have families with respiratory infections. This clinical prediction model may help determine whether to perform urinalysis in the PED.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e357-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831694

ABSTRACT

Peroxisomal D-bifunctional protein (DBP), encoded by the HSD17B4 gene, catalyzes β-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). The deficiency of this peroxisomal enzyme leads to the accumulation of VLCFAs, causing multisystemic manifestations including the brain, retina, adrenal gland, hearing, and skeletal system. Herein, we report the first Korean neonatal case of peroxisomal DBP deficiency and the clinical prognosis over 2 years. This patient showed craniofacial dysmorphism, club foot, and seizures with cyanosis one day after birth. Elevated VLCFAs levels were indicative of a peroxisomal disorder.Targeted exome sequencing was performed and two missense mutations p.Asp117Val and p.Phe279Ser in the HSD17B4 gene were identified. The patient had type III DBP deficiency;therefore, docosahexaenoic acid and non-soluble vitamins were administered. However, progressive nystagmus, optic nerve atrophy, and bilateral hearing defects were observed and follow-up brain imaging revealed leukodystrophy and brain atrophy. Multiple anti-epileptic drugs were required to control the seizures. Over two years, the patient achieved normal growth with home ventilation and tube feeding. Hereby, the subject's parents had support during the second pregnancy from the proven molecular information. Moreover, targeted exome sequencing is an effective diagnostic approach, considering genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger spectrum disorders.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e102-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831495

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previous studies on inter-rater reliability of pediatric triage systems have compared triage levels classified by two or more triage providers using the same information about individual patients. This overlooks the fact that the evaluator can decide whether or not to use the information provided. The authors therefore aimed to analyze the differences in the use of vital signs for triage modification in pediatric triage. @*Methods@#This was an observational cross-sectional study of national registry data collected in real time from all emergency medical services beyond the local emergency medical centers (EMCs) throughout Korea. Data from patients under the age of 15 who visited EMC nationwide from January 2016 to December 2016 were analyzed. Depending on whether triage modifications were made using respiratory rate or heart rate beyond the normal range by age during the pediatric triage process, they were divided into down-triage and non-down-triage groups. The proportions in the down-triage group were analyzed according to the triage provider's profession, mental status, arrival mode, presence of trauma, and the EMC class. @*Results@#During the study period, 1,385,579 patients' data were analyzed. Of these, 981,281 patients were eligible for triage modification. The differences in down-triage proportions according to the profession of the triage provider (resident, 50.5%; paramedics, 47.7%; specialist, 44.9%; nurses, 44.2%) was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The triage provider's professional down-triage proportion according to the medical condition of the patients showed statistically significant differences except for the unresponsive mental state (P = 0.502) and the case of air transport (P = 0.468). @*Conclusion@#Down-triage proportion due to abnormal heart rates and respiratory rates was significantly different according to the triage provider's condition. The existing concept of inter-rater reliability of the pediatric triage system needs to be reconsidered.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e21-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fentanyl for sedation therapy in mechanically ventilated children. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of mechanically ventilated patients between 2 months and 18 years of age. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the control group with midazolam alone, and the combination group with both fentanyl and midazolam. The sedation level was evaluated using the Comfort Behavior Scale (CBS), and the infusion rates were adjusted according to the difference between the measured and the target CBS score. RESULTS: Forty-four patients were recruited and randomly allocated, with 22 patients in both groups. The time ratio of cumulative hours with a difference in CBS score (measured CBS–target CBS) of ≥ 4 points (i.e., under-sedation) was lower in the combination group (median, 0.06; interquartile range [IQR], 0–0.2) than in the control group (median, 0.15; IQR, 0.04–0.29) (P < 0.001). The time ratio of cumulative hours with a difference in CBS score of ≥ 8 points (serious under-sedation) was also lower in the combination group (P < 0.001). The cumulative amount of midazolam used in the control group (0.11 mg/kg/hr; 0.07–0.14 mg/kg/hr) was greater than in the combination group (0.07 mg/kg/hr; 0.06–0.11 mg/kg/hr) (P < 0.001). Two cases of hypotension in each group were detected but coma and ileus, the major known adverse reactions to fentanyl, did not occur. CONCLUSION: Fentanyl combined with midazolam is safe and more effective than midazolam alone for sedation therapy in mechanically ventilated children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02172014


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Coma , Fentanyl , Hypotension , Ileus , Midazolam , Respiration, Artificial
8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e308-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the structure, organization, management, and staffing of pediatric critical care (PCC) in Korea. METHODS: We directed a questionnaire survey for all Upper Grade General Hospitals (n = 43) in Korea in 2015. The first questionnaire was mainly about structure, organization, and staffing and responses were obtained from 32 hospitals. The second questionnaire was mainly about patients and management. Responses to second questionnaire were obtained from 18 hospitals. RESULTS: Twelve from 32 Upper Grade General Hospitals had pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and 11 of them had the PICU which was exclusive for children. Total number of PICU beds in Korea was 113. The ratio of the number of PICU beds to the number of children was 1:77,460 in Korea and this ratio is lower than that of other developed countries. The mean number of beds in the PICUs was 9.4 ± 9.3 (range, 2–30). There were 16 medical doctors who were assigned for PCC and only 5 of them were full time pediatric intensivists. In the 18 Upper Grade General Hospitals that responded to the second questionnaire survey, there were 97 patients in the PICUs with an average number of 5.7 ± 7.2 (range, 0–22) on the survey day. The mean age of the patients was 3.4 ± 5.6 years. The mean length of hospital stay was 82 ± 271 days. The mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality score III was 9.4 ± 7.8 at the time of admission to the PICUs. CONCLUSION: There is a considerable shortage of PICU beds compared to those in developed countries. In addition, the proportion of PICUs with PCC specialists is much lower than those in the US and European countries.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Critical Care , Developed Countries , Hospitals, General , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Korea , Length of Stay , Mortality , Specialization
9.
The Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 211-217, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770988

ABSTRACT

Acute cerebral infarctions are rare in children, however, they can occur as a complication of a Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection due to direct invasion, vasculitis, or a hypercoagulable state. We report on the case of a 5-year-old boy who had an extensive stroke in multiple cerebrovascular territories 10 days after the diagnosis of MP infection. Based on the suspicion that the cerebral infarction was associated with a macrolide-resistant MP infection, the patient was treated with levofloxacin, methyl-prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and enoxaparin. Despite this medical management, cerebral vascular narrowing progressed and a decompressive craniectomy became necessary for the patient's survival. According to laboratory tests, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical manifestations, the cerebral infarction in this case appeared to be due to the combined effects of hypercoagulability and cytokineinduced vascular inflammation.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Brain , Cerebral Infarction , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diagnosis , Enoxaparin , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Levofloxacin , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Stroke , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Vasculitis
10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1702-1707, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16260

ABSTRACT

Initial vital signs of children at the emergency department may be abnormal because of anxiety and irritability, resulting in unrealistic triage levels. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of pediatric triage by clinical decision based on the patient's general condition. The Pediatric Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (PedKTAS) has been used nationwide for triage since 2016. The triage level, as assessed by an experienced triage nurse and based on the patient's clinical condition, was defined as the ‘real practice (RP)-level,’ while the re-calculated triage level, as assessed by the direct application of initial vital signs, was defined as the ‘simulation (S)-level.’ A total of 22,841 patients were triaged during the study period. The hospitalization rate according to RP-PedKTAS levels exhibited a significant correlation with the expected hospitalization rate suggested by the Pediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) (P = 0.002), whereas the S-PedKTAS levels did not (P = 0.151). Compared with the previously reported pediatric CTAS level-specific hospitalization rate and intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, RP-PedKTAS was significantly correlated with both hospitalization rate and ICU admission rate (P = 0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively). However, S-PedKTAS showed no significant correlation in both (P = 0.267 and P = 0.188, respectively). The determination of triage levels based on clinical decision rather than the direct application of abnormal initial vital signs to PedKTAS is more accurate in predicting the hospitalization rate and ICU admission rate.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anxiety , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Triage , Vital Signs
11.
Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 211-217, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200975

ABSTRACT

Acute cerebral infarctions are rare in children, however, they can occur as a complication of a Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection due to direct invasion, vasculitis, or a hypercoagulable state. We report on the case of a 5-year-old boy who had an extensive stroke in multiple cerebrovascular territories 10 days after the diagnosis of MP infection. Based on the suspicion that the cerebral infarction was associated with a macrolide-resistant MP infection, the patient was treated with levofloxacin, methyl-prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and enoxaparin. Despite this medical management, cerebral vascular narrowing progressed and a decompressive craniectomy became necessary for the patient's survival. According to laboratory tests, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical manifestations, the cerebral infarction in this case appeared to be due to the combined effects of hypercoagulability and cytokineinduced vascular inflammation.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Brain , Cerebral Infarction , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diagnosis , Enoxaparin , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Levofloxacin , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Stroke , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Vasculitis
14.
The Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 329-335, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770897

ABSTRACT

Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) is a rare syndrome characterized by concurrent nevus flammeus (capillary malformation) and pigmentary nevus. According to current research, the major pathophysiologic mechanism in PPV is venous dysplasia with resultant compensatory collateral channels and venous hypertension. Arterial involvement is rare. We herein report our experience on renovascular hypertension, intermittent claudication, and severe rhabdomyolysis due to diffuse stenosis of multiple arteries in a patient with PPV type IIb associated with SWS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arteries , Constriction, Pathologic , Hypertension , Hypertension, Renovascular , Intermittent Claudication , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neurocutaneous Syndromes , Nevus , Port-Wine Stain , Rhabdomyolysis , Sturge-Weber Syndrome , Vascular Diseases
15.
Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 329-335, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25373

ABSTRACT

Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) is a rare syndrome characterized by concurrent nevus flammeus (capillary malformation) and pigmentary nevus. According to current research, the major pathophysiologic mechanism in PPV is venous dysplasia with resultant compensatory collateral channels and venous hypertension. Arterial involvement is rare. We herein report our experience on renovascular hypertension, intermittent claudication, and severe rhabdomyolysis due to diffuse stenosis of multiple arteries in a patient with PPV type IIb associated with SWS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arteries , Constriction, Pathologic , Hypertension , Hypertension, Renovascular , Intermittent Claudication , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neurocutaneous Syndromes , Nevus , Port-Wine Stain , Rhabdomyolysis , Sturge-Weber Syndrome , Vascular Diseases
16.
The Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 331-335, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-645114

ABSTRACT

Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most severe neonatal infections, and can have devastating consequences without early proper treatment. However, the administration of acyclovir can often be delayed because the symptoms and signs of HSV infection are non-specific and because HSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results may be negative early in the course of HSV infection. We report a case of disseminated neonatal HSV infection that was diagnosed by type 1 HSV PCR on day 8 of admission. Despite delayed administration of acyclovir, the patient was cured and subsequently discharged after 30 days of admission. Fortunately, this patient was treated successfully, but delayed administration of acyclovir has the potential to lead to significant problems. Considering the seriousness of neonatal HSV infection, empirical acyclovir therapy should be considered if HSV infection is suspected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Acyclovir , Herpes Simplex , Methylmethacrylates , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polystyrenes , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Simplexvirus
17.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 415-421, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of carbapenem versus non-carbapenem antimicrobial therapy for pediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2006 to 2011, 42 episodes of UTI caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were diagnosed at Seoul National University Children's Hospital. Patients were grouped according to the antimicrobials they received into a carbapenem group and a non-carbapenem group. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to assess treatment outcome, time to defervescence after initiation of treatment, and relapse rate. RESULTS: There were 36 children with 42 episodes of UTI caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Twenty-seven cases (64%) had an underlying urologic disease, 28 (67%) cases were caused by Escherichia coli, and 14 (33%) cases were caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Four (10%) cases were treated with carbapenem, 23 cases (55%) were treated with non-carbapenem, and 15 (36%) cases were treated by switching from a carbapenem to a non-carbapenem and vice versa. There was no treatment failure at the time of antimicrobial discontinuation. Between the carbapenem and the non-carbapenem treatment groups, there were no significant differences in bacterial etiology (P = 0.59), time to defervescence after the initiation of antimicrobials (P = 0.28), and relapse rate (P = 0.50). In vitro susceptibility to non-carbapenem antimicrobials did not affect the time to defervescence after the initiation of antimicrobial treatment, and the relapse rate in the non-carbapenem group. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no significant difference in the treatment outcome between pediatric patients treated with carbapenem and those treated with non-carbapenem antimicrobials for UTI caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, the initially administered non-carbapenem can be maintained in UTI patients showing clinical improvement.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , beta-Lactamases , Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Medical Records , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Treatment Failure , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract , Urologic Diseases
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