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1.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 97-108, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925416

ABSTRACT

We aimed to review whether pretreatment inflammatory markers reflect the short- and long-term outcomes of patients with colon cancer, rectal cancer, colon and rectal cancers, and metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). We found that pretreatment complete blood count and blood chemistry tests reflect short-term and long-term oncological outcomes in patients with CRC. Specifically, in patients with colon cancer, hypoalbuminemia was associated with worse postoperative morbidity, mortality, and inferior survival. In patients with rectal cancer, elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and thrombocytosis were associated with postoperative complications, poor overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS). A high C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) was associated with poor OS and DFS. In patients with metastatic CRC, increased NLR and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were associated with poor OS, DFS, and progression-free survival (PFS). In addition, high CAR and a low albumin/globulin ratio on blood chemistry tests were associated with poor OS and PFS. Although universal cut-off values were not available, various types of pretreatment laboratory markers could be utilized as adjuncts to predict prognosis in patients with CRC.

2.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 185-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902670

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hypothermic treatment is known to protect organs against cardiac arrest (CA) and improves survival rate. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of hypothermia on CA-induced liver damages. This study was designed to analyzed the possible protective effects of hypothermia on the liver after asphyxial CA (ACA). Rats were randomly subjected to 5 min of ACA followed by return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Body temperature was controlled at 37 ± 0.5 °C (normothermia group) or 33 ± 0.5 °C (hypothermia group) for 4 h after ROSC. Liver tissues were extracted and examined at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ROSC. @*Results@#The expression of infiltrated neutrophil marker CD11b and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP9) was investigated via immunohistochemistry. Morphological damage was assessed via hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. Hypothermic treatment improved the survival rate at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ACA. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of CD11b and MMP9 was significantly increased from 6 h after ACA in the normothermia group. However, the expressions of CD11b and MMP9 was significantly decreased in the hypothermia group compared with that of the normothermia group. In addition, in the results of H & E, sinusoidal dilatation and vacuolization were apparent after ACA; however, these ACA-induced structural changes were reduced by the 4 h-long hypothermia. @*Conclusions@#In conclusion, hypothermic treatment for 4 h inhibited the increases in CD11b and MMP9 expression and reduced the morphological damages in the liver following ACA in rats. This study suggests that hypothermic treatment after ACA reduces liver damages by regulating the expression of CD11b and MMP9.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902648

ABSTRACT

Background@#Aging is one of major causes triggering neurophysiological changes in many brain substructures, including the hippocampus, which has a major role in learning and memory. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a class of small redox proteins. Among the Trx family, Trx2 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential and is controlled by TrxR2. Hitherto, age-dependent alterations in Trx2 and TrxR2 in aged hippocampi have been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine changes in Trx2 and TrxR2 in mouse and rat hippocampi by age and to compare their differences between mice and rats. @*Results@#Trx2 and TrxR2 levels using Western blots in mice were the highest at young age and gradually reduced with time, showing that no significant differences in the levels were found between the two subfields. In rats, however, their expression levels were the lowest at young age and gradually increased with time. Nevertheless, there were no differences in cellular distribution and morphology in their hippocampi when it was observed by cresyl violet staining. In addition, both Trx2 and TrxR2 immunoreactivities in the CA1-3 fields were mainly shown in pyramidal cells (principal cells), showing that their immunoreactivities were altered like changes in their protein levels. @*Conclusions@#Our current findings suggest that Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the brain may be different according to brain regions, age and species. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the reasons of the differences of Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the hippocampus between mice and rats.

4.
Asian Oncology Nursing ; : 140-154, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897223

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) on depression among patients with lung cancer. @*Methods@#A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted focusing on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies. A literature search was performed through PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and five Korean databases in November 2020. Data were analyzed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Ver. 3.0 and Review Manager Ver. 5.4 programs. @*Results@#A total of 37 studies, including 25 RCTs and 12 quasi-experimental studies, were identified; 27 studies reported data suitable for meta-analysis. In meta-analysis, the overall effect sizes for NPIs of RCTs and quasi-experimental studies were −0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.90, −0.31) and −0.40 (95% CI: −0.59, −0.21), respectively. Among the types of NPI in RCTs, the effect size of psychological therapy was the largest with −0.68 (95% CI: −1.13, −0.23). In addition, information & communication technology (ICT) had a larger effect size of −0.68 (95% CI: −1.13, −0.23), compared to face-to-face intervention. @*Conclusion@#NPIs may have a significant effect in reducing depressive symptoms in patients with lung cancer. It is suggested that further studies develop and apply structured NPIs considering intervention components such as type and mode of ICT delivery.

5.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 185-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894966

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hypothermic treatment is known to protect organs against cardiac arrest (CA) and improves survival rate. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of hypothermia on CA-induced liver damages. This study was designed to analyzed the possible protective effects of hypothermia on the liver after asphyxial CA (ACA). Rats were randomly subjected to 5 min of ACA followed by return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Body temperature was controlled at 37 ± 0.5 °C (normothermia group) or 33 ± 0.5 °C (hypothermia group) for 4 h after ROSC. Liver tissues were extracted and examined at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ROSC. @*Results@#The expression of infiltrated neutrophil marker CD11b and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP9) was investigated via immunohistochemistry. Morphological damage was assessed via hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. Hypothermic treatment improved the survival rate at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ACA. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of CD11b and MMP9 was significantly increased from 6 h after ACA in the normothermia group. However, the expressions of CD11b and MMP9 was significantly decreased in the hypothermia group compared with that of the normothermia group. In addition, in the results of H & E, sinusoidal dilatation and vacuolization were apparent after ACA; however, these ACA-induced structural changes were reduced by the 4 h-long hypothermia. @*Conclusions@#In conclusion, hypothermic treatment for 4 h inhibited the increases in CD11b and MMP9 expression and reduced the morphological damages in the liver following ACA in rats. This study suggests that hypothermic treatment after ACA reduces liver damages by regulating the expression of CD11b and MMP9.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894944

ABSTRACT

Background@#Aging is one of major causes triggering neurophysiological changes in many brain substructures, including the hippocampus, which has a major role in learning and memory. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a class of small redox proteins. Among the Trx family, Trx2 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential and is controlled by TrxR2. Hitherto, age-dependent alterations in Trx2 and TrxR2 in aged hippocampi have been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine changes in Trx2 and TrxR2 in mouse and rat hippocampi by age and to compare their differences between mice and rats. @*Results@#Trx2 and TrxR2 levels using Western blots in mice were the highest at young age and gradually reduced with time, showing that no significant differences in the levels were found between the two subfields. In rats, however, their expression levels were the lowest at young age and gradually increased with time. Nevertheless, there were no differences in cellular distribution and morphology in their hippocampi when it was observed by cresyl violet staining. In addition, both Trx2 and TrxR2 immunoreactivities in the CA1-3 fields were mainly shown in pyramidal cells (principal cells), showing that their immunoreactivities were altered like changes in their protein levels. @*Conclusions@#Our current findings suggest that Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the brain may be different according to brain regions, age and species. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the reasons of the differences of Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions in the hippocampus between mice and rats.

7.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 300-306, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918573

ABSTRACT

Chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes photoaging, which represents skin damage, disrupts skin barrier function, and promotes wrinkle formation. We investigated that the polysaccharide extract of an edible basidiomycetous white jelly mushroom, Tremella fuciformis, (TF-Glucan ® ) exhibited statistically photoprotective activity by inhibiting matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and increasing collagen synthesis, and an antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines at the concentrations of less than 1000 μg/ml, which is not cytotoxic (p < 0.05). Additionally, TF-Glucan ® increased the expression of involucrin and filaggrin to prevent the disruption of UVB-induced barrier function (p < 0.05). TF-Glucan ® was assessed as a safe material by the human primary skin irritation (1, 3, 5%), human repeated insult patch test (no sensitization at 5%), 3T3 NRU phototoxicity assay (no phototoxicity, PIF < 2, MPE < 0.1), eye irritation test test by BCOP (no category, IVIS ≤ 3) and local lymph node assay (negative at 10, 25, 50%) for identifying potential skin sensitizing. These results suggest that TF-Glucan ® may be useful as an anti-photoaging ingredient for developing cosmeceuticals.

8.
Asian Oncology Nursing ; : 140-154, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889519

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) on depression among patients with lung cancer. @*Methods@#A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted focusing on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies. A literature search was performed through PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and five Korean databases in November 2020. Data were analyzed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Ver. 3.0 and Review Manager Ver. 5.4 programs. @*Results@#A total of 37 studies, including 25 RCTs and 12 quasi-experimental studies, were identified; 27 studies reported data suitable for meta-analysis. In meta-analysis, the overall effect sizes for NPIs of RCTs and quasi-experimental studies were −0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.90, −0.31) and −0.40 (95% CI: −0.59, −0.21), respectively. Among the types of NPI in RCTs, the effect size of psychological therapy was the largest with −0.68 (95% CI: −1.13, −0.23). In addition, information & communication technology (ICT) had a larger effect size of −0.68 (95% CI: −1.13, −0.23), compared to face-to-face intervention. @*Conclusion@#NPIs may have a significant effect in reducing depressive symptoms in patients with lung cancer. It is suggested that further studies develop and apply structured NPIs considering intervention components such as type and mode of ICT delivery.

9.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 188-196, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836909

ABSTRACT

Brain Factor-7® (BF-7), silk fibroin peptide, is known to be effective in improvement of memory and learning ability. In this study, the effects of BF-7 (10 mg/kg, p.o., pre-treatment for 7 days and post-treatment for 7 days) on neuroprotection and memory and learning functions were investigated in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia and a gerbil model of transient global forebrain ischemia. Furthermore, to find the mechanism of BF-7, we examined the neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of BF-7 in vitro using neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. In vivo model, treatment with BF-7 significantly reduced the number of errors in 8-arm maze test and significantly increased latency time in passive avoidance test at 7 days after focal ischemia compared to those in the vehicle-treated group. In addition, treatment with BF-7 significantly decreased the infarct size or neuronal death at 7 day following transient ischemia compared to that in the vehicle-treated group. In vitro model, 10 or 20 μg/ml of BF-7 treatment significantly increased cell viability in dose-dependent manner. In addition, oxidative stress was significantly attenuated in the ischemic cells, showing that 10 or 20 μg/ml of BF-7 treatment significantly reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to that in the ischemic cells. These results indicate that BF-7 treatment can attenuate ischemic damages and improve memory deficits via reduction of ROS generation.

10.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 229-238, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836905

ABSTRACT

Obesity has been known as an independent risk factor for stroke. Effects of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity on neuronal damage in the somatosensory cortex of animal models of cerebral ischemia have not been studied yet. In this study, HFD-induced obesity was used to study the impact of obesity on neuronal damage/loss and microgliosis in the somatosensory cortex of a gerbil model of 5-min transient forebrain ischemia. We used gerbils fed normal diet (ND) and HFD and chronologically examined microgliosis (microglial cell activation) by ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) immunohistochemistry. In addition, we examined neuronal damage or death by using neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN, a neuronal marker) immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B, a marker for neuronal degeneration) histofluorescence staining. We found that ischemia-induced microgliosis in ND-fed gerbils was increased from 2 days post-ischemia; however, ischemia-mediated microgliosis in HFD-fed gerbils increased from 1 day post-ischemia and more accelerated with time than that in the ND-fed gerbils. Ischemia-induced neuronal death/loss in the somatosensory cortex in the ND-fed gerbils was apparently found at 5 days post-ischemia. However, in the HFD-fed gerbils, neuronal death/loss was shown from 2 days post-ischemia and progressively exacerbated at 5 days post-ischemia. Our findings indicate that HFD can evoke earlier microgliosis and more detrimental neuronal death/loss in the somatosensory cortex after transient ischemia than ND evokes.

11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 909-922, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833389

ABSTRACT

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively.The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918395

ABSTRACT

Histone-binding protein RbAp48 has been known to be involved in histone acetylation, and epigenetic alterations of histone modifications are closely associated with the pathogenesis of ischemic reperfusion injury. In the current study, we investigated chronological change of RbAp48 expression in the hippocampus following 5 min of transient ischemia in gerbils. RbAp48 expression was examined 1, 2, 5, and 10 days after transient ischemia using immunohistochemistry. In sham operated gerbils, RbAp48 immunoreactivity was strong in pyramidal and non-pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. After transient ischemia, RbAp48 immunoreactivity was changed in the cornu ammonis 1 subfield (CA1), not in CA2/3. RbAp48 immunoreactivity in CA1 pyramidal neurons was gradually decreased and not detected at 5 and 10 days after ischemia. RbAp48 immunoreactivity in non-pyramidal cells was maintained until 2 days post-ischemia and significantly increased from 5 days post-ischemia. Double immunohistofluorescence staining revealed that RbAp48 immunoreactive non-pyramidal cells were astrocytes. At 5 days post-ischemia, death of pyramidal neurons occurred only in the CA1. These results showed that RbAp48 immunoreactivity was distinctively altered in pyramidal neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampal CA1 following 5 mins of transient ischemia. Ischemia-induced change in RbAp48 expression may be closely associated with neuronal death and astrocyte activation following 5 min of transient ischemia.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effects of microelectric treatment by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on functional recovery and histological changes in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI).SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: The effects of TENS on spasticity and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#SCI was induced by a 1.5-mm impactor with 200,000–260,000 dyne after laminectomy. Rats were divided into the following groups: group I (normal control), group II (microelectric treatment of 0 A), group III (microelectric treatment of 100 µA for 1 hr/day), group IV (microelectric treatment of 400 µA for 1 hr/day), and group V (microelectric treatment of 400 µA for 24 hr/day). After inducing SCI, rats were assessed by a sensory test with von Frey filaments and the locomotor recovery test (BBB rating scale) at 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. To evaluate spinal cord damage, histopathological studies were performed with hematoxylin and eosin. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB immunohistochemistry studies were performed at 28 days.@*RESULTS@#In groups IV and V, the BBB score had significantly improved on days 21 and 28 after SCI, and the TENS-treated groups showed significant neuronal recovery. After SCI, groups IV and V showed a significant recovery of locomotor function and the motor sensory response of the withdrawal threshold to 3.5 g. In addition, necrotic tissue and cystic spaces in the spinal cord were significantly reduced and BDNF/TrkB-positive cells were highly expressed in groups III, IV, and V.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Microelectric treatment can play a role in facilitating the recovery of locomotion following SCI.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To measure the accuracy and usability of an the image-processing based pill identifier application that we have developed. METHODS: The subjects selected were medical residents and nurses. Five nurses and five physicians were randomly assigned to use either an the image-processing based pill identifier application (n=10), or the conventional pill identifier application (n=10). They were instructed to examine 10 pills using the application assigned to them, and searches that took <3 minutes to find candidate drugs were recognized as successes. Among these successful searches, the accuracy was defined to identify the correct names of the drugs and the times needed in the correctly identifications were also measured. After using one application the subjects were instructed to use the other one and repeat the same process. Finally, they answered a questionnaire on the usability of the applications. RESULTS: The average proportion searches completed within 3 minutes was 91% for the the image-processing based pill identifier application, slightly, but not significantly, higher than that for the conventional pill identifier application (85%). The accuracies of the the image-processing based and conventional pill identifier applications were similar, 89% and 83%, respectively. In the usability examination, the the image-processing based pill identifier application yielded higher scores for the desirable, usable, findable and useful qualities than the conventional pill identifier application. CONCLUSION: The the image-processing based pill identifier application application has a similar accuracy to the existing conventional pill identifier application, and its usability was also found to be good.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765625

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Animal study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of microelectric treatment by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on functional recovery and histological changes in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: The effects of TENS on spasticity and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SCI was induced by a 1.5-mm impactor with 200,000–260,000 dyne after laminectomy. Rats were divided into the following groups: group I (normal control), group II (microelectric treatment of 0 A), group III (microelectric treatment of 100 µA for 1 hr/day), group IV (microelectric treatment of 400 µA for 1 hr/day), and group V (microelectric treatment of 400 µA for 24 hr/day). After inducing SCI, rats were assessed by a sensory test with von Frey filaments and the locomotor recovery test (BBB rating scale) at 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. To evaluate spinal cord damage, histopathological studies were performed with hematoxylin and eosin. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB immunohistochemistry studies were performed at 28 days. RESULTS: In groups IV and V, the BBB score had significantly improved on days 21 and 28 after SCI, and the TENS-treated groups showed significant neuronal recovery. After SCI, groups IV and V showed a significant recovery of locomotor function and the motor sensory response of the withdrawal threshold to 3.5 g. In addition, necrotic tissue and cystic spaces in the spinal cord were significantly reduced and BDNF/TrkB-positive cells were highly expressed in groups III, IV, and V. CONCLUSIONS: Microelectric treatment can play a role in facilitating the recovery of locomotion following SCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Immunohistochemistry , Laminectomy , Locomotion , Models, Animal , Muscle Spasticity , Neurons , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764736

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine mediating effects of pleasurable activities on the relationship between depression and suicidal ideation among the elderly moderated by living arrangement such as those living alone (LA) versus those living with others (LWO). METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional and correlational design using secondary data analysis of the 2017 Korean National Survey on the Elderly (2,416 for the LA group, and 6,106 for the LWO group). Logistic regression analysis was conducted comparing effects of pleasurable activities on suicidal ideation between the two groups. RESULTS: For suicidal ideation, there were significant differences in suicidal ideation by sex, religion, and senior center visits in the LA group, while the LWO group had no significant differences identified. Both groups showed significantly different associations of suicidal ideation by socioeconomic status, gathering, meaningful interaction, and depression. Senior center visits were statistically significant in the LA group, while there was not significant in the LWO group. CONCLUSION: Visiting senior centers can reduce suicidal ideation of the LA group. To prevent suicidal ideation of the elderly living alone, mental health specialists should provide community-cooperative environments to address these issues, especially LA elderly.


Subject(s)
Aged , Depression , Humans , Leisure Activities , Logistic Models , Mental Health , Negotiating , Residence Characteristics , Senior Centers , Social Class , Specialization , Statistics as Topic , Suicidal Ideation
17.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 341-347, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786425

ABSTRACT

Luffa cylindrica (LC) is a very fast-growing climber and its fruit have been considered as agricultural wastes. We conducted to check the comparative qualities of ethanol solvent extraction (LCE) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (LCS) of L. cylindrica fruit and seed. LCS had higher antioxidant and polyphenol contents than LCE. LCS were significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-a and involucrin expression as epidermal differentiation marker in 3D skin equivalent model. LCS also showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, a causative bacteria in atopic dermatitis. In addition, LCS inhibited the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. When treated with the extract at a concentration of 100 µg/mL, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway reporter luciferase activity of HEK 293-TOP cells was increased approximately by 2-folds compared to that of the untreated control group. These results indicate that L. cylindrica supercritical carbon dioxide extract may serve as a cosmeceutical for improving skin barrier function and the treatment of obesity.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes , Bacteria , Carbon Dioxide , Carbon , Dermatitis, Atopic , Ethanol , Fruit , Luciferases , Luffa , Obesity , Peroxisomes , Skin , Staphylococcus aureus
18.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 140-147, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786393

ABSTRACT

P53 and its family member p63 play important roles in cellular senescence and organismal aging. In this study, p53 and p63 immunoreactivity were examined in the hippocampus of young, adult and aged mice by using immunohistochemistry. In addition, neuronal distribution and degeneration was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry and fluoro-Jade B fluorescence staining. Strong p53 immunoreactivity was mainly expressed in pyramidal and granule cells of the hippocampus in young mice. p53 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal and granule cells was significantly reduced in the adult mice. In the aged mice, p53 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal and granule cells was more significantly decreased. p63 immunoreactivity was strong in the pyramidal and granule cells in the young mice. p63 immunoreactivity in these cells was apparently and gradually decreased with age, showing that p63 immunoreactivity in the aged granule cells was hardly shown. However, numbers of pyramidal neurons and granule cells were not significantly decreased in the aged mice with normal aging. Taken together, this study indicates that there are no degenerative neurons in the hippocampus during normal aging, showing that p53 and p63 immunoreactivity in hippocampal neurons was progressively reduced during normal aging, which might be closely related to the normal aging processes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Animals , Cellular Senescence , Fluorescence , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Neurons , Pyramidal Cells
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718234

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important diseases that cause significant mortality and morbidity in young children. Data on TB transmission from an infected child are limited. Herein, we report a case of disseminated TB in a child and conducted a contact investigation among exposed individuals. METHODS: A 4-year-old child without Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination was diagnosed as having culture-proven disseminated TB. The child initially presented with symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease, and nosocomial and kindergarten exposures were reported. The exposed individuals to the index case were divided into 3 groups, namely household, nosocomial, or kindergarten contacts. Evaluation was performed following the Korean guidelines for TB. Kindergarten contacts were further divided into close or casual contacts. Chest radiography and tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma-releasing assay were performed for the contacts. RESULTS: We examined 327 individuals (3 household, 10 nosocomial, and 314 kindergarten contacts), of whom 18 (5.5%), the brother of the index patient, and 17 kindergarten children were diagnosed as having latent TB infection (LTBI). LTBI diagnosis was more frequent in the children who had close kindergarten contact with the index case (17.1% vs. 4.4%, P=0.007). None of the cases had active TB. CONCLUSION: This is the first reported case of TB transmission among young children from a pediatric patient with disseminated TB in Korea. TB should be emphasized as a possible cause of chronic diarrhea and failure to thrive in children. A national TB control policy has been actively applied to identify Korean children with LTBI.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Failure to Thrive , Family Characteristics , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Korea , Mortality , Radiography , Siblings , Skin Tests , Thorax , Tuberculin , Tuberculosis , Vaccination
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There were previous studies which indicated that attitude toward suicide is able to influence the suicide outcome in both individual and group levels. In regard to the highest suicide rate in Korea, our study aims to explore the influence that attitude toward suicide has on suicide by comparing the national attitude towards suicide with a representative sample of the general population. METHODS: The target population was 20- to 59-year-old adults from South Korea, Japan, and the United States. The panel data were divided according to gender, age, and residential area of individuals, and an email with a hyperlink to our web survey was sent to the randomly selected participants in each stratum. To measure the perceptual differences about suicide in different cultures, this study adopted the Attitudes Toward Suicide questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 2247 subjects in three countries participated in this study. According to results from factor analysis, there were different structure of factors and included items within factors in the three countries : five factors with nineteen items in South Korea, five factors with nineteen items in the United States, and five factors with twenty-five items in Japan. With regard to permissive attitude toward suicide, the mean value of permissiveness was not significantly different among countries, but permissiveness according to education level, gender, and marital status was different in each country. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first nationwide comparative study about attitude toward suicide with a representative sample. Our findings suggest that permissive attitude toward suicide influence the suicide phenomenon in each country ; however, its impact is not a mean score of permissiveness, but the detailed difference by various demographics.


Subject(s)
Adult , Demography , Education , Electronic Mail , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Japan , Korea , Marital Status , Middle Aged , Permissiveness , Suicide , United States
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