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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e59-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967422

ABSTRACT

Background@#Information on the effectiveness of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir against the omicron is limited. The clinical response and viral kinetics to therapy in the real world need to be evaluated. @*Methods@#Mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with risk factors for severe illness were prospectively enrolled as a treatment group with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir therapy versus a control group with supportive care. Serial viral load and culture from the upper respiratory tract were evaluated for seven days, and clinical responses and adverse reactions were evaluated for 28 days. @*Results@#A total of 51 patients were analyzed including 40 in the treatment group and 11 in the control group. Faster symptom resolution during hospitalization (P= 0.048) was observed in the treatment group. Only minor adverse reactions were reported in 27.5% of patients. The viral load on Day 7 was lower in the treatment group (P = 0.002). The viral culture showed a positivity of 67.6% (25/37) vs. 100% (6/6) on Day 1, 0% (0/37) vs. 16.7 (1/6) on Day 5, and 0% (0/16) vs. 50.0% (2/4) on Day 7 in the treatment and control groups, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir against the omicron was safe and resulted in negative viral culture conversion after Day 5 of treatment with better symptomatic resolution.

2.
Korean Journal of Community Nutrition ; : 363-375, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002136

ABSTRACT

Objectives@# The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with adolescent obesity, as well as any new factors that correlated with a change in the rate of obesity over time. @*Methods@# The study used 5-yearly data collected by the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey starting from the year 2006 up until 2021 (data from 2nd, 7th, 11th, and 17th surveys were analyzed). Factors such as demographics, dietary factors, health behavioral factors, and mental health factors were studied. All data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 27.0, employing chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. @*Results@# This study included data from a total of 255,200 participants. Factors contributing to obesity varied with time. Over the survey duration of 15 years, low academic achievement, parents with low levels of education, low frequency of fruit consumption, low frequency of fast food intake, long periods of being seated, and high levels of stress were significantly associated with a high rate of obesity. Factors that showed a new correlation with an increase in obesity rates included living with single parents, low frequency of muscle strengthening exercises, and experiencing intense sadness and despair in the past year. Factors that were correlated with a change in obesity rates over time included household economic status, frequency of carbonated beverage consumption, frequency of intense physical activity, and frequency of alcohol consumption. Breakfast intake and smoking were not significantly associated with obesity rates in the 15-year period. @*Conclusions@# While several factors associated with obesity remained consistent over time, several new factors have emerged in response to social, economic, and environmental changes contributed to a change in obesity rate over time. Therefore, to prevent and manage adolescent obesity, continuous research into the new emergent factors contributing to obesity is needed.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e272-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001224

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir is highly effective in preventing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in high-risk patients with mild-to-moderate severity. However, real-world performance data are limited, and the drug is not so acceptable to the COVID-19 patients at high risk who need it in Korea. @*Methods@#To evaluate the effectiveness of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir, we conducted a propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study on patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 at high risk for a severe disease who were hospitalized at four hospitals in South Korea from February 2022 to April 2022. A total of 236 patients in the treatment group (administered nirmatrelvir-ritonavir) and 236 in the matched control group (supportive care only) were analyzed for the primary outcome, i.e., the time to oxygen support-free survival. The secondary outcome was a composite result of disease progression. The reason for not prescribing nirmatrelvir-ritonavir to the indicated patients was also investigated. @*Results@#The treatment group showed significantly longer oxygen support-free survival than the matched control group (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01–0.31; P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (aHR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.07), National Early Warning Score-2 at admission (aHR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08–1.71), nirmatrelvir-ritonavir treatment, female sex (aHR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15–0.88), and time from symptom onset to admission (aHR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.95) were significantly associated with oxygen therapy. However, none of the factors were related to the composite outcome. In the unmatched control group, 19.9% of 376 patients had documented explanations for nirmatrelvir-ritonavir non-prescription, and 44.0% of these were due to contraindication criteria. In the treatment group, 10.9% of patients discontinued the medication primarily because of adverse events (71.4%), with gastrointestinal symptoms being the most common (50.0%). @*Conclusion@#Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir treatment significantly reduced oxygen therapy requirements in high-risk patients with COVID-19 during the omicron variant surge in South Korea. Physicians are encouraged to consider the active use of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and to be watchful for gastrointestinal symptoms during medication.

4.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 281-289, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999450

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Globally, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). There is a dearth of literature on the real-world morbidity and mortality associated with CKD comorbid with CRC. This study was performed to evaluate real-world survival outcomes of colorectal malignancy in Korean CKD patients. @*Methods@#The National Health Insurance Service of Korea provided data on patients who underwent surgical resection among patients diagnosed with CRC from 2002 to 2019. @*Results@#A total of 219,550 patients were included: 6,181 patients with underlying CKD and 213,369 patients without it.Each morbidity was significantly higher in the CKD-CRC group, and the postoperative mortality rates for the 30-day (3.11% vs. 1.78%, P < 0.001), 60-day (5.95% vs. 3.83%, P < 0.001), and 90-day mortality rate (8.12% vs. 5.32%, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the CKD group. The median survival time (MST, year) was significantly lower in the CKD-CRC group (5.63; interquartile range [IQR], 5.26–5.91) than in the non-CKD-CRC group (8.71; IQR, 8.37–8.93). MST was significantly lower among CKD patients who received chemotherapy after adjustment by multivariate analysis (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37–1.49; P < 0.001]). Subgroup analysis showed that in the CKD-CRC group, MST was lower in patients who received dialysis than in those who did not, even after multivariate analysis (adjusted HR, 2.38;95% CI, 2.20–2.58; P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Prevention of CKD-to-end-stage renal disease progression should be adopted as a strategy to increase postoperative survival, along with active surveillance and cancer treatment.

5.
Genomics & Informatics ; : e2-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976802

ABSTRACT

Microglia, similar to peripheral macrophages, are the primary immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia exist in the resting state in the healthy CNS, but can be activated and polarized into either M1 or M2 subtypes for immune defense and the maintenance of CNS homeostasis by multiple stimuli. Several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) mediate human inflammatory diseases and neuropathologies by regulating their target genes. However, the function of common lncRNAs that contribute to microglial activation remains unclear. Thus, we used bioinformatic approaches to identify common lncRNAs involved in microglial activation in vitro. Our study identified several lncRNAs as common regulators of microglial activation. We identified 283 common mRNAs and 53 common lncRNAs during mouse M1 microglial activation processes, whereas 26 common mRNAs and five common lncRNAs were identified during mouse M2 microglial activation processes. A total of 648 common mRNAs and 274 common lncRNAs were identified during the activation of human M1 microglia. In addition, we identified 1,920 common co-expressed pairs in mouse M1 activation processes and 25 common co-expressed pairs in mouse M2 activation processes. Our study provides a comprehensive understanding of common lncRNA expression profiles in microglial activation processes in vitro. The list of common lncRNAs identified in this study provides novel evidence and clues regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying microglial activation.

6.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 115-124, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976739

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), or presbycusis, is caused by disorders of sensory hair cells and auditory neurons. Many studies have suggested that the accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage, the production of reactive oxygen species, noise, inflammation, and decreased antioxidant function are associated with subsequent cochlear senescence in response to aging stress. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been reported to play important roles in various diseases. However, the function of lncRNA in ARHL remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the common expression profiles of messenger RNA (mRNA) and lncRNA through ARHL-related RNA-sequencing datasets. @*Methods@#. We selected and downloaded three different sets of RNA-sequencing data for ARHL. We performed differential expression analysis to find common mRNA and lncRNA profiles in the cochleae of aged mice compared to young mice. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis was used for functional exploration. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate mRNAs and lncRNAs. In addition, we performed trans target prediction analysis with differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs to understand the function of these mRNAs and lncRNAs in ARHL. @*Results@#. We identified 112 common mRNAs and 10 common lncRNAs in the cochleae of aged mice compared to young mice. GO analysis showed that the 112 upregulated mRNAs were enriched in the defense response pathway. When we performed qRT-PCR with 1 mM H2O2-treated House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells, the qRT-PCR results were consistent with the RNA-sequencing analysis data. lncRNA-mRNA networks were constructed using the 10 common lncRNAs and 112 common mRNAs in ARHL. @*Conclusion@#. Our study provides a comprehensive understanding of the common mRNA and lncRNA expression profiles in ARHL. Knowledge of ARHL-associated mRNAs and lncRNAs could be useful for better understanding ARHL and these mRNAs and lncRNAs might be a potential therapeutic target for preventing ARHL.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 25-34, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968885

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hypoxaemia is a significant adverse event during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) under monitored anaesthesia care (MAC); however, no model has been developed to predict hypoxaemia. We aimed to develop and compare logistic regression (LR) and machine learning (ML) models to predict hypoxaemia during ERCP under MAC. @*Materials and Methods@#We collected patient data from our institutional ERCP database. The study population was randomly divided into training and test sets (7:3). Models were fit to training data and evaluated on unseen test data. The training set was further split into k-fold (k=5) for tuning hyperparameters, such as feature selection and early stopping. Models were trained over k loops; the i-th fold was set aside as a validation set in the i-th loop. Model performance was measured using area under the curve (AUC). @*Results@#We identified 6114 cases of ERCP under MAC, with a total hypoxaemia rate of 5.9%. The LR model was established by combining eight variables and had a test AUC of 0.693. The ML and LR models were evaluated on 30 independent data splits. The average test AUC for LR was 0.7230, which improved to 0.7336 by adding eight more variables with an l 1 regularisation-based selection technique and ensembling the LRs and gradient boosting algorithm (GBM). The high-risk group was discriminated using the GBM ensemble model, with a sensitivity and specificity of 63.6% and 72.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#We established GBM ensemble model and LR model for risk prediction, which demonstrated good potential for preventing hypoxaemia during ERCP under MAC.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e31-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915534

ABSTRACT

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 variant B.1.1.529 (omicron) was first reported to the World Health Organization on November 24, 2021, the cases of the omicron variant have been detected in more than 90 countries over the last month. We investigated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the first 40 patients with the omicron variant who had been isolated at the National Medical Center in South Korea during December 4–17, 2021. The median age of the patients was 39.5 years. Twenty-two patients (55%) were women. Seventeen patients (42.5%) were fully vaccinated, and none were reinfected with the omicron. Eighteen (45%) had recent international travel history. Half of the patients (19, 47.5%) were asymptomatic, while the others had mild symptoms. Six patients (15%) showed lung infiltrations on chest image; however, none required supplemental oxygen. These mild clinical features are consistent with recent case reports on the omicron variant from other countries.

9.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 239-244, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937115

ABSTRACT

Background@#Intraoperative pulmonary aspiration is a rare but potentially fatal complication associated with various risk factors. Preoperative recognition of these risk factors can prevent aspiration events during general anesthesia or facilitate prompt corrective measures in patients experiencing this complication. Case: A 70-year-old female patient with hypertension underwent bilateral total knee arthroplasty under general anesthesia. Despite using a midnight nothing-per-oral (NPO) protocol, an unpredictable intraoperative aspiration event occurred during anesthesia induction. A detailed evaluation of the patient’s medical history and subsequent diagnostic imaging examinations indicated achalasia. She was treated for aspiration pneumonia for 2 weeks. After 2 months, rescheduled total knee arthroplasty was performed under spinal anesthesia without any complications. @*Conclusions@#Obtaining the patient’s medical history and assessing the risk factors are important to prevent unpredictable intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. High-risk patients should undergo adequate preoperative fasting and regional anesthesia or rapid-sequence intubation should be considered for safe induction of general anesthesia.

10.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 613-627, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Despite the widespread use of dietary assessment tools, the validity of food records has not been evaluated in Koreans. We assessed the accuracy of estimated food records and the effect of a short education session in young Korean women. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#Thirty women (aged 18–23 yrs) each completed 3 food records during a controlled-feeding study. One educational session was provided on day 2 of the study. Food records were analyzed for the accuracy of food items and portion size estimation according to food group (grains; meat, fish, eggs, and beans; vegetables; fruit; dairy; and oils and sugars) and type of dish (rice, kimchi, soup, side dishes, spreads, beverages, and snacks). Reported food items were categorized as exact, close, or far matches, exclusions, or intrusions. Portion sizes were evaluated as accurate, similar, or inaccurate estimates, or missing. The means of days 2 and 3 were used to assess post-education results. Paired t-tests were performed to assess the effects of the education session. @*RESULTS@#The mean percentages of exact matches, close matches, far matches, and exclusions on day 1 were 80.9%, 10.9%, 2.0%, and 6.2%, respectively, and mean intrusions observed were 0.1. The education session slightly increased the accuracy of recorded food items. The percentages of accurate, similar, and inaccurate estimates, and missing portion sizes were 11.7%, 19.8%, 12.2%, and 56.3%, respectively, at baseline. The percentage of missing portion size estimates decreased to 14.0% after the education session, resulting in an increase in the percentages of all other estimates. An increase was observed in the accuracy of reported portion sizes of vegetables, rice, and kimchi. @*CONCLUSIONS@#In young Korean women, estimated food records are highly accurate for food items but not for portion size estimates without prior education. A short education session can improve the accuracy of portion size estimation.

11.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 613-627, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Despite the widespread use of dietary assessment tools, the validity of food records has not been evaluated in Koreans. We assessed the accuracy of estimated food records and the effect of a short education session in young Korean women. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#Thirty women (aged 18–23 yrs) each completed 3 food records during a controlled-feeding study. One educational session was provided on day 2 of the study. Food records were analyzed for the accuracy of food items and portion size estimation according to food group (grains; meat, fish, eggs, and beans; vegetables; fruit; dairy; and oils and sugars) and type of dish (rice, kimchi, soup, side dishes, spreads, beverages, and snacks). Reported food items were categorized as exact, close, or far matches, exclusions, or intrusions. Portion sizes were evaluated as accurate, similar, or inaccurate estimates, or missing. The means of days 2 and 3 were used to assess post-education results. Paired t-tests were performed to assess the effects of the education session. @*RESULTS@#The mean percentages of exact matches, close matches, far matches, and exclusions on day 1 were 80.9%, 10.9%, 2.0%, and 6.2%, respectively, and mean intrusions observed were 0.1. The education session slightly increased the accuracy of recorded food items. The percentages of accurate, similar, and inaccurate estimates, and missing portion sizes were 11.7%, 19.8%, 12.2%, and 56.3%, respectively, at baseline. The percentage of missing portion size estimates decreased to 14.0% after the education session, resulting in an increase in the percentages of all other estimates. An increase was observed in the accuracy of reported portion sizes of vegetables, rice, and kimchi. @*CONCLUSIONS@#In young Korean women, estimated food records are highly accurate for food items but not for portion size estimates without prior education. A short education session can improve the accuracy of portion size estimation.

12.
Clinical Nutrition Research ; : 90-96, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914042

ABSTRACT

Calcium intake is essential for bone health, but young Korean women have low calcium intakes. Seaweeds have high calcium content, which may affect calcium metabolism. Twenty nine females aged 18–39 years with low calcium intake (< 400 mg/day) participated in a 19-day open-label randomized controlled trial. During the first five days, participants adhered to a controlled-feeding protocol followed by a two-week supplementation period in free-living conditions. The treatment group (n = 14) received an additional 200 mg Ca/day through Undaria pinnatifida and Porphyra in meals during the controlled-feeding period, and as U. pinnatifida noodles during days 6–19. Mineral intake (Ca, P, Mg, Na, and K) was assessed from diet composites and three 24-hour recalls during the controlled-feeding and free-living periods, respectively. Fasting serum levels of calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]D), phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed at baseline, day 6, and day 19. Statistical analyses were performed by Student's t-test and mixed ANOVA. Mean intakes of all minerals during days 1–5 and mean Ca and Mg intakes during days 6–19 were greater in the treatment group compared to the control group. No group effect or group and time interaction was observed in serum biomarkers. Serum 1,25(OH)D increased while PTH and ALP tended to decrease on day 6 but returned to baseline values on day 20. Short-term intake of U. pinnatifida and Porphyra does not affect calcium metabolism in young Korean women with low calcium intakes.

13.
The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics ; : 185-192, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837261

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study is to investigate dental students’ self-perception of clinical care ability after a denture treatment experience. @*Materials and methods@#Of the 58 fourth-year students at the dental school in 2019, 50 students completed the questionnaire concerning their denture treatment session, including treatment planning and pre-prosthetic treatment (4 questions), clinical and laboratory procedures (20 questions), and students’ opinions on clinical denture education (4 questions). Each question was answered on a five-point scale, of which points four and five, “agree” and “strongly agree” respectively, were classified as positive responses while points one and two, “disagree” and “strongly disagree” respectively, were classified as negative. @*Results@#All the items on clinical and laboratory procedures received a positive response rate of over 60%, and the overall self-perception of the students appeared to be positive. However, the questions on the ability to perform denture treatment independently after graduation received only 48% of positive answer. Those on patient management, explanations of denture precautions, customized tray production, boxing, and work model production were answered with the highest positive response rate whereas those on treatment planning, final impression acquisition, and surveying, were the lowest in each session. @*Conclusion@#The dental students with experience in denture treatment generally have a positive opinion of their clinical care ability, but further education may be necessary to improve their ability to treat their patients independently.

14.
Journal of the Korean Dysphagia Society ; (2): 97-106, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836356

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to analyze the prevalence and nutritional status of patients with dysphagia using the National Health Insurance Claim database collected from all Koreans. @*Methods@#According to the claim data from the National Health Insurance Service from 2007 to 2017, we calculated the prevalence, comorbidity, and direct medical costs of dysphagia patients. We analyzed the difference in medical costs according to the malnutrition rate and presence of malnutrition. @*Results@#The prevalence of dysphagia was 635.4 per 100,000 population in 2007 but increased to 1031.6 in 2017. The proportions of type insurance showed an increasing trend in both health insurance and national free medical care, while nursing hospitals showed a significant increase of 8.46%. Esophageal and gastrointestinal disorders accounted for the highest number of diseases with dysphagia. The average medical expense per person for dysphagia was 11,984,632 Korea Won (KRW), and the average length of hospital stay was 154.1 days. The malnutrition rate of patients with dysphagia was 686.8 out of 100,000 people in 2007 to 362.9 out of 100,000 people in 2017. The malnourished group had 70.7 more inpatient hospital stays and nine more outpatient visits than the non-malnourished group. @*Conclusion@#The proportion of nursing hospitals and medical expenses increased significantly in the number of patients with dysphagia, and the length of hospital stay and medical costs were higher with malnutrition. As incidence of dysphagia patients may increase due to aging, active management of dysphagia is required to improve the patient’s prognosis and quality of life.

15.
Gut and Liver ; : 377-386, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833146

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patients with an intermediate stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represent a highly heterogeneous population; therefore, many models have been proposed to predict the survival of these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic performance of a novel subclassification for tumors classified as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B using the Model to Estimate Survival in Ambulatory HCC patients (MESIAH). @*Methods@#This analysis was based on 377 patients with HCC treated at Seoul National University Hospital (training cohort) and 189 patients at the Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital (validation cohort). Four subclassification systems were tested: MESIAH; original BCLC B subclassification (B1, B2, B3, and B4); modified model A (B1, B2, and B3+B4); and modified model B (B1, B2+B3, and B4). @*Results@#Median survival progressively decreased from stage B1 through stages B2 to B3 according to the new MESIAH subclassification (p<0.001). Moreover, significantly different survival among contiguous stages was observed. In the multivariable Cox regression, the MESIAH subclassification was an independent predictor of overall survival (p<0.001). In terms of discrimination and calibration, MESIAH performed better than the original BCLC B subclassification, modified model A and modified model B. @*Conclusions@#The MESIAH model would be an effective tool for stratifying heterogeneous BCLC stage B cancer, and the ability of this model to predict survival is better than that of the other previously proposed models.

16.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 318-327, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832255

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Liver biopsy (LB) remains the gold standard for the evaluation of liver disease. However, over the past two decades, many noninvasive tests have been developed and utilized in clinical practice as alternatives to LB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use and safety of LB in the era of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included 1,944 consecutive cases of LB performed between 2001 and 2018 in a tertiary hospital. All of the LBs were conducted under ultrasonography guidance with 18-gauge cutting needles. @*Results@#LBs were performed an average of approximately 108 times per year during the study period. Chronic hepatitis B (25.3%) and suspected malignancy (20.5%) were the two most common indications for LB. The use of LB for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease increased from 8.1% to 17.2% in the past 5 years compared to the last 10 years, while that for viral hepatitis decreased from 40.3% to 18.9%. Discordance rate between the suspected diagnosis and the final diagnosis was 2.6% (51 cases). The overall rate of major adverse events was 0.05% (one case), which involved delayed bleeding at the biopsy site. Liver cirrhosis was observed in 563 cases (28.9%), and the presence of cirrhosis did not affect the frequency of complications (P=0.289). @*Conclusions@#LB is widely used in clinical practice as an irreplaceable diagnostic tool, even in the era of noninvasiveness. Ultrasonography-guided LB can be performed safely in patients with liver cirrhosis.

17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 301-308, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831067

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is affected by aging phenomenon and performance of screening test. In United States, PCa incidence is affected by period effect of U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation. However, no study has reported the effect of USPSTF recommendation or aging phenomenon on PCa incidence in South Korea. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate effects of age, period, and birth cohort on PCa incidence using age-period-cohort analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#Annual report of cancer statistics between 2003 and 2013 from National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) in South Korea for the number of PCa patients and Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS) data between 2003 and 2013 from national statistics in South Korea for the number of Korean male population were used. Age-period-cohort models were used to investigate effects of age, period, and birth cohort on PCa incidence. @*Results@#Overall PCa incidence in South Korea was increased 8.8% in annual percentage (95% confidential interval, 6.5 to 11.2; p < 0.001). It showed an increasing pattern from 2003 to 2011 but a decreasing pattern from 2011 to 2013. Age increased the risk of PCa incidence. However, the speed of increase was slower with increasing age. PCa incidence was increased 1.4 times in 2008 compared to that in 2003 or 2013. Regarding cohort effect, the risk of PCa incidence started to increase from 1958 cohort. @*Conclusion@#PCa incidence was affected by period of specific year. There was a positive cohort effect on PCa incidence associated with age structural change.

18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 309-319, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831065

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics of SJ-815, a novel oncolytic vaccinia virus lacking a functional thymidine kinase-encoding TK gene, and instead, having two human transgenes: the IFNB1 that encodes interferon β1, and the CES2 that encodes carboxylesterase 2, which metabolizes the prodrug, irinotecan, into cytotoxic SN-38. @*Materials and Methods@#Viral replication and dissemination of SJ-815 were measured by plaque assay and comet assay, respectively, and compared to the backbone of SJ-815, a modified Western Reserve virus named WI. Tumor cytotoxicity of SJ-815 (or mSJ-815, which has the murine IFNB1 transgene for mouse cancers) was evaluated using human and mouse cancer cells. Antitumor effects of SJ-815, with/without irinotecan, were evaluated using a human pancreatic cancer-bearing mouse model and a syngeneic melanoma-bearing mouse model. The SN-38/ irinotecan ratios in mouse melanoma tissue 4 days post irinotecan treatment were compared between groups with and without SJ-815 intravenous injection. @*Results@#SJ-815 demonstrated significantly lower viral replication and dissemination, but considerably stronger in vitro tumor cytotoxicity than WI. The combination use of SJ-815 plus irinotecan generated substantial tumor regression in the human pancreatic cancer model, and significantly prolonged survival in the melanoma model (hazard ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.02 to 0.50; p=0.013). The tumor SN-38/irinotecan ratios were over 3-fold higher in the group with SJ-815 than those without (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#SJ-815 demonstrates distinct characteristics gained from the inserted IFNB1 and CES2 transgenes. The potent antitumor effects of SJ-815, particularly when combined with irinotecan, against multiple solid tumors make SJ-815 an attractive candidate for further preclinical and clinical studies.

19.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 283-290, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830325

ABSTRACT

Background@#During pediatric epilepsy surgery, due to low circulating blood volume, intraoperative bleeding can result in significant hemodynamic instability, thereby requiring meticulous hemodynamic and transfusion strategies. Knowing the source of bleeding during the procedure would allow medical staff to better prepare the perioperative protocols for these patients. We compared intraoperative bleeding between the first (involving skin to meninges) and second (involving brain parenchyma) stages of epilepsy surgery to investigate the differences between various anatomical sites. @*Methods@#We reviewed the electronic medical records of 102 pediatric patients < 14 years old who underwent two-stage epilepsy surgeries during January 2012–2016. Invasive subdural grids were placed via craniotomy during Stage 1 and the epileptogenic zone was removed during Stage 2 of the surgery. We compared the volume of intraoperative bleeding between these two surgeries and identified variables associated with bleeding using multivariate regression analysis. @*Results@#Both surgeries resulted in similar intraoperative bleeding (24 vs. 26 ml/kg, P = 0.835), but Stage 2 required greater volumes of blood transfusion than Stage 1 (18.4 vs. 14.8 ml/kg, P = 0.011). Massive bleeding was associated with patients < 7 years old in Stage 1 and weighing < 18 kg in Stage 2. @*Conclusions@#The volume of intraoperative bleeding was similar between the two stages of pediatric epilepsy surgery and was large enough to require blood transfusions. Thus, blood loss during pediatric epilepsy surgery occurred at both anatomic sites. This indicates the necessity of early preparation for blood transfusion in both stages of pediatric epilepsy surgery.

20.
Clinical Nutrition Research ; : 182-194, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897823

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is mediated via several factors correlating with hepatic necroinflammation (adipokines/cytokines). This study was performed to analyze the level of inflammatory markers according to the presence of NAFLD and to identify related nutritional factors. A total of 80 adults were classified into 2 groups (healthy and NAFLD), and their body composition, blood tests, and eating habits were evaluated. In addition, inflammatory markers (adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [CRP], and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α]), nutrient intake status, and dietary quality were compared. The quality of diet was assessed according to the nutrient adequacy ratio and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR). The NAFLD group had a higher body mass index (p < 0.001) than the healthy group and also carried significantly higher CRP levels (p < 0.001) but lower adiponectin (p = 0.001). TNF-α levels increased significantly with fatty liver grade (p = 0.023). The NAFLD group showed significantly higher intake of energy, carbohydrates, iron, sodium, vitamin A and saturated fatty acids, but significantly lower intake of zinc and vitamin E than the healthy group. The MAR values were slightly higher in the NAFLD group but without any significant difference. The levels of adiponectin and vitamin E showed a significant inverse correlation (p < 0.05). Nutritional management of NAFLD patients is important, and the intake of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients such as zinc and vitamin E should be emphasized.

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