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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833468

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: A consensus regarding the ideal regimen for urokinase (UK) thrombolysis subsequent to stereotactic spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage aspiration has yet to be established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of UK thrombolysis relative to when the regimen is changed. @*Methods@#: Venous blood from 30 heathy volunteers was obtained for this in-vitro study. Various concentrations of UK solution were added to microcentrifuge tubes containing the clotted blood. The efficacy of UK thrombolysis was identified by checking the weight of lysed hematoma following various time intervals with different concentrations of UK solution. Group one, the “3×4” group involved four administrations every 3 hours over 12 hours, and group two, the “6×2” group involved two administrations every 6 hours over 12 hours. @*Results@#: More hematoma was lysed in the 3×4 group than the 6×2 group across all concentration levels (however, the differences were only significant between groups at the 500 and 1000 IU concentration levels, p<0.05). There were no significant differences of lysed hematoma among the various UK solution concentrations within groups. @*Conclusion@#: This study suggests that frequent administrations of UK thrombolysis may result in a greater degree of lysed hematoma in comparison to a higher concentration of UK.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788810

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While the risk of aneurysmal rebleeding induced by catheter cerebral angiography is a serious concern and can delay angiography for a few hours after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), current angiographic technology and techniques have been much improved. Therefore, this study investigated the risk of aneurysmal rebleeding when using a recent angiographic technique immediately after SAH.METHODS: Patients with acute SAH underwent immediate catheter angiography on admission. A four-vessel examination was conducted using a biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system that applied a low injection rate and small volume of a diluted contrast, along with appropriate control of hypertension. Intra-angiographic aneurysmal rebleeding was diagnosed in cases of extravasation of the contrast medium during angiography or increased intracranial bleeding evident in flat-panel detector computed tomography scans.RESULTS: In-hospital recurrent hemorrhages before definitive treatment to obliterate the ruptured aneurysm occurred in 11 of 266 patients (4.1%). Following a univariate analysis, a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression analysis revealed that modified Fisher grade 4 was a statistically significant risk factor for an in-hospital recurrent hemorrhage (p =0.032). Cerebral angiography after SAH was performed on 88 patients ≤3 hours, 74 patients between 3–6 hours, and 104 patients >6 hours. None of the time intervals showed any cases of intra-angiographic rebleeding. Moreover, even though the DSA ≤3 hours group included more patients with a poor clinical grade and modified Fisher grade 4, no case of aneurysmal rebleeding occurred during erebral angiography.CONCLUSION: Despite the high risk of aneurysmal rebleeding within a few hours after SAH, emergency cerebral angiography after SAH can be acceptable without increasing the risk of intra-angiographic rebleeding when using current angiographic techniques and equipment.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Catheters , Cerebral Angiography , Emergencies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension , Intracranial Aneurysm , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While the risk of aneurysmal rebleeding induced by catheter cerebral angiography is a serious concern and can delay angiography for a few hours after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), current angiographic technology and techniques have been much improved. Therefore, this study investigated the risk of aneurysmal rebleeding when using a recent angiographic technique immediately after SAH. METHODS: Patients with acute SAH underwent immediate catheter angiography on admission. A four-vessel examination was conducted using a biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system that applied a low injection rate and small volume of a diluted contrast, along with appropriate control of hypertension. Intra-angiographic aneurysmal rebleeding was diagnosed in cases of extravasation of the contrast medium during angiography or increased intracranial bleeding evident in flat-panel detector computed tomography scans. RESULTS: In-hospital recurrent hemorrhages before definitive treatment to obliterate the ruptured aneurysm occurred in 11 of 266 patients (4.1%). Following a univariate analysis, a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression analysis revealed that modified Fisher grade 4 was a statistically significant risk factor for an in-hospital recurrent hemorrhage (p =0.032). Cerebral angiography after SAH was performed on 88 patients ≤3 hours, 74 patients between 3–6 hours, and 104 patients >6 hours. None of the time intervals showed any cases of intra-angiographic rebleeding. Moreover, even though the DSA ≤3 hours group included more patients with a poor clinical grade and modified Fisher grade 4, no case of aneurysmal rebleeding occurred during erebral angiography. CONCLUSION: Despite the high risk of aneurysmal rebleeding within a few hours after SAH, emergency cerebral angiography after SAH can be acceptable without increasing the risk of intra-angiographic rebleeding when using current angiographic techniques and equipment.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Catheters , Cerebral Angiography , Emergencies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension , Intracranial Aneurysm , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172329

ABSTRACT

Glimepiride, a third generation sulfonylurea, is an antihyperglycemic agent widely used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, an untargeted urinary metabolomic analysis was performed to identify endogenous metabolites affected by glimepiride administration. Urine samples of twelve healthy male volunteers were collected before and after administration of 2 mg glimepiride. These samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and then subjected to multivariate data analysis including principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. Through this metabolomic profiling, we identified several endogenous metabolites such as adenosine 3′, 5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), quercetin, tyramine, and urocanic acid, which exhibit significant metabolomic changes between pre- and posturine samples. Among these, cAMP, which is known to be related to insulin secretion, was the most significantly altered metabolite following glimepiride administration. In addition, the pathway analysis showed that purine, tyrosine, and histidine metabolism was affected by pharmacological responses to glimepiride. Together, the results suggest that the pharmacometabolomic approach, based on LC-MS/MS, is useful in understanding the alterations in biochemical pathways associated with glimepiride action.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Histidine , Humans , Insulin , Least-Squares Analysis , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolism , Metabolomics , Principal Component Analysis , Quercetin , Statistics as Topic , Tyramine , Tyrosine , Urocanic Acid , Volunteers
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172324

ABSTRACT

This study describes the development of an analytical method to determine sumatriptan levels in human plasma using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in healthy Korean volunteers. A single 50 mg dose of sumatriptan was orally administered to twelve healthy volunteers (nine women and three men). The HPLC-MS/MS analytical method was validated with respect to its specificity, linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and stability. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 0.3–100 ng/mL (r > 0.999). The lower limit of quantitation for sumatriptan in plasma was 0.3 ng/mL. The accuracy and precision of the analytical method were acceptable within 15% at all quality control levels. We compared plasma concentration-time curves as well as pharmacokinetic parameters such as the area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)). Both the mean AUC and C(max) of sumatriptan were 1.56 times higher in women than in men. These differences could be largely explained by the difference in body weight (44%) between women and men. The outcomes may provide insights into developing appropriate individualized treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Body Weight , Calibration , Chromatography, Liquid , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Methods , Plasma , Quality Control , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectrum Analysis , Sumatriptan , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Volunteers
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), a small glycoprotein, has a pivotal role in diverse biological processes such as cellular proliferation and differentiation. We previously reported that LCN2 is implicated in osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). In the present study, we used a knockout mouse model to further investigate the role of LCN2 in osteoclast development. METHODS: Osteoclastogenesis was assessed using primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. RANKL and M-CSF signaling was determined by immunoblotting, cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and apoptosis by cell death detection ELISA. Bone morphometric parameters were determined using a micro-computed tomography system. RESULTS: Our results showed that LCN2 deficiency increases tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated osteoclast formation in vitro, a finding that reflects enhanced proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast lineage cells. LCN2 deficiency promotes M-CSF-induced proliferation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), osteoclast precursors, without altering their survival. The accelerated proliferation of LCN2-deficient precursors is associated with enhanced expression and activation of the M-CSF receptor, c-Fms. Furthermore, LCN2 deficiency stimulates the induction of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), key transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis, and promotes RANKL-induced inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaBalpha) phosphorylation. Interestingly, LCN2 deficiency does not affect basal osteoclast formation in vivo, suggesting that LCN2 might play a role in the enhanced osteoclast development that occurs under some pathological conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study establishes LCN2 as a negative modulator of osteoclast formation, results that are in accordance with our previous findings.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Animals , Apoptosis , Biological Phenomena , Bone Marrow , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Death , Cell Proliferation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Glycoproteins , Immunoblotting , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages , Mice , Mice, Knockout , NF-kappa B , Osteoclasts , Phosphorylation , RANK Ligand , T-Lymphocytes , Transcription Factors
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165360

ABSTRACT

We developed an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of acetaminophen concentration in human plasma. Following protein precipitated extraction, the analytes were separated and analyzed using an UPLC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the respective [M+H]+ ions, m/z 152.06 → 110.16 for acetaminophen and m/z 180.18 → 138.12 for phenacetin (internal standard, IS). The method showed a linear response from 1 to 100 µg/mL (r > 0.9982). The limit of quantitation for acetaminophen in plasma was 1 µg/mL. The intra- and inter-day accuracy ranged in the ranges of 94.40–99.56% and 90.00–99.20%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision ranged in the ranges of 2.64–10.76% and 6.84–15.83%, respectively. This method was simple, reliable, precise and accurate and can be used to determine the concentration of acetaminophen in human plasma. Finally, this fully validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of acetaminophen in healthy volunteers following oral administration.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Administration, Oral , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Ions , Mass Spectrometry , Phenacetin , Plasma
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