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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 503-514, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369017

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil from Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi leaves and fruits, and to determine its acaricidal activity on Rhipicephalus microplusy larval packet test and larvicidal action on Aedes aegyptiby larval immersion test. The chemical analysis of the essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes in bacupari leaves and fruits, and α-cedrene, α-chamigrene, α-trans-bergamotene, and ß-curcumene as major compounds. Essential oil from leaves of G. gardneriana presented acaricidal activity on R. microplus (LC50= 4.8 mg/mL; LC99= 10.8 mg/mL) and larvicidal effect on A. aegypti (LC50= 5.4 mg/mL; LC99 = 11.6 mg/mL), where as essential oil from the fruits of G. gardneriana showed LC50= 4.6 mg/mL and LC99= 8.9 mg/mL against R. microplus and LC50= 6.4 mg/mL and LC99= 13.9 mg/mL against A. aegypti. These results thus demonstrate the potential acaricidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of G. gardneriana, offering new perspectives for the realization of bioassays from this essential oil.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la composición química del aceite esencial de las hojas y frutos de Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi, y determinar su actividad acaricida en Rhipicephalus microplus y larvicida en Aedes aegypti empleando la prueba de inmersión de larvas. El análisis químico del aceite esencial por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas identificó hidrocarburos sesquiterpénicos y sesquiterpenos oxigenados en hojas y frutos de bacupari, y α-cedreno, α-chamigreno, α-trans-bergamoteno y ß-curcumeno como compuestos principales. El aceite esencial obtenido de las hojas de G. gardneriana presentó actividad acaricida en la garrapata del ganado (LC50= 4,8 mg/mL; LC99= 10,8 mg/mL) y actividad larvicida en A. aegypti (LC50= 5,4 mg/mL; LC99= 11,6 mg/mL), así como, el aceite esencial obtenido de los frutos de G. gardneriana mostró LC50= 4,6 mg/mL y LC99= 8,9 mg/mL contra las larvas de garrapatas de ganado y LC50= 6,4 mg/mL y LC99= 13,9 mg/mL en las larvas de A. aegypti. Por lo tanto, estos resultados demuestran la actividad acaricida y larvicida del aceite essencial de G. gardneriana, ofreciendo nuevas perspectivas para la realización de bioensayos a partir de este aceite esencial.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Garcinia/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Aedes/drug effects , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides , Insecticides/chemistry , Larva , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 147-161, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145965

ABSTRACT

Myrcianthes pungens (Myrtaceae) es un árbol nativo de Brasil conocido como guabijú. En nuestro estudio, describimos la composición química del aceite esencial de las hojas secas de M. pungens, la actividad antioxidante por diferentes métodos y la actividad antibacteriana contra Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. La identificación química se realizó mediante un cromatógrafo de gases acoplado a un espectrómetro de masas y la actividad antibacteriana se evaluó mediante un método de microdilución en caldo. El aceite esencial de la hoja presentó sesquiterpenos de hidrocarburos (42,6%) como su principal clase química cuyos compuestos principales fueron ß-cariofileno (11,7%) y 1,8-cineol (10,1%). La mayor protección antioxidante fue de 57.5 a 63.3% de ß-caroteno. La mayor actividad antibacteriana fue contra S. aureus (MIC de 78.12 µg/mL). Este valor fue 2,56 veces menor que el control positivo de estreptomicina. M. pungens es una fuente prometedora de moléculas naturales con potencial estudio para el desarrollo de productos farmacológicos, cosméticos y alimenticios.


Myrcianthes pungens (Myrtaceae) is a native tree to Brazil known as guabijú. In our study, we described the chemical composition of the essential oil from M. pungens dried leaves, the antioxidant activity by different methods and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chemical identification was done by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer and antibacterial activity was evaluated by broth microdilution method. The leaf essential oil presented hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (42.6%) as its main chemical class whose major compounds were ß-caryophyllene (11.7%) and 1,8-cineole (10.1%). The best antioxidant protection was from 57.5 to 63.3% of ß-carotene. The highest antibacterial activity was against S. aureus (MIC of 78.12 µg/mL). This value was 2.56-fold lower than the positive streptomycin control. M. pungens is a promising source of natural molecules with potential study for the development of pharmacological, cosmetic and food products.


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antioxidants , Plants, Medicinal , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus , Brazil , Gas Chromatographers , Medicine, Traditional
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 38-50, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284405

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of Gallesia integrifolia essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers against Aedes aegyptilarvae and pupae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sulfur compounds represented 95 to 99% of the essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers. Essential oil major compounds were 2,8-dithianonane (52.6%) in fruits, 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (38.9%) in leaves, and methionine ethyl ester (45.3%) in flowers. The essential oils showed high activity against larvae, and low for pupae withLC99.9of 5.87 and 1476.67µg/mL from fruits; 0.0096 and 348.33 µg/mL from leaves and 0.021and 342.84 µg/mL from flowers, respectively. The main compound with insecticide activity is probably n-ethyl-1,3-dithioisoindole, from isoindole organothiophosphate class, found in greater amount in flower and leaf essential oil. The great insecticide activity of G. integrifolia essential oil suggests that this product is a natural insecticide.


Este estudio evaluó la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de frutos, hojas y flores de Gallesia integrifolia contra larvas y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Los compuestos de azufre representaron del 95 al 99% del aceite esencial de frutas, hojas y flores. Los compuestos principales del aceite esencial fueron 2,8-ditianonano (52,6%) en frutas, 3,5-ditiahexanol-5,5-dióxido (38,9%) en hojas y éster etílico de metionina (45,3%) en flores. Los aceites esenciales mostraron alta actividad contra larvas y baja para pupas con LC99.9de 5.87 y 1476.67µg/mL de frutos; 0,0096 y 348,33 µg/mL de hojas y 0,021 y342,84 µg/mL de flores, respectivamente. El principal compuesto con actividad insecticida es probablemente el n-etil-1,3-ditioisoindol, de la clase de los organotiofosfatos de isoindol, que se encuentra en mayor cantidad en el aceite esencial de flores y hojas. La gran actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de G. integrifolia sugiere que este producto es un insecticida natural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insecticides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 142-148, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103091

ABSTRACT

The research of new substances capable of controlling the Aedes aegypti mosquito is urgent due to the increase in the transmission of the diseases such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus by the vector. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots, a native plant from Brazil, and of the isolated compound piperovatine against larvae of A. aegypti by the larval immersion test. The lethal concentration that killed 50% (LC50) and 99% (LC99) of larvae was determined by Probit analysis. The results indicated high larvicidal activity on A. aegypti larvae for crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots with LC50 of 4.86 µg/mL and LC99 of 15.50 µg/mL and piperovatine with LC50 of 17.78 µg/mL and LC99 of 48.55 µg/mL. This work opens new perspectives to the development of future products with crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots and piperovatine that can be applied to mosquito control.


La investigación de nuevas sustancias capaces de controlar el mosquito Aedes aegypti es urgente debido al aumento en la transmisión de enfermedades como el dengue, el chikungunya y el virus Zika por el vector. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad larvicida del extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis, una planta nativa de Brasil, y del compuesto aislado piperovatine contra larvas de A. aegypti mediante la prueba de inmersión larvaria. La concentración letal que mató al 50% (LC50) y al 99% (LC99) de larvas se determinó mediante análisis Probit. Los resultados indicaron una alta actividad larvicida en larvas de A. aegypti para extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis con LC50 de 4.86 µg/mL y LC99 de 15.50 µg/mL y piperovatine con LC50 de 17.78 µg/mL y LC99 de 48.55 µg/mL. Este trabajo abre nuevas perspectivas para el desarrollo de futuros productos con extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis y piperovatine que pueden aplicarse al control de mosquitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sorbic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Piper/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Sorbic Acid/isolation & purification , Sorbic Acid/pharmacology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Brazil , Plant Roots , Dengue/prevention & control , Larvicides , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Larva/drug effects , Methylene Chloride
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(5): 428-465, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1146000

ABSTRACT

El Alzheimer es la forma más común de demencia y es altamente prevalente en la vejez. A diferencia de los medicamentos actuales, las plantas medicinales pueden tener efectos preventivos y protectores con menos efectos secundarios. Dada la gran cantidad de sustancias bioactivas, las plantas de la familia Zingiberaceae tienen potencial medicinal y actualmente se estudian ampliamente los efectos de la enfermedad anti-Alzheimer. El objetivo de este estudio fue proporcionar una visión general de los avances en los estudios de composición fitoquímica, estudios farmacológicos in vitro e in vivo, y los efectos toxicológicos de la familia Zingiberaceae sobre la enfermedad de Alzheimer. La información se obtuvo de documentos relevantes en bases de datos electrónicas. La mayoría de los estudios sobre los efectos de Zingiberaceae en la teoría de la patogénesis de la enfermedad de Alzheimer están relacionados con la hipótesis colinérgica, la cascada ß amiloide, la tau, la inflamación y el estrés oxidativo. Además, los estudios preclínicos in vitro e in vivo sobre el efecto de los géneros Alpinia, Curcuma y Zingiber se han informado como inofensivos y seguros, con potencial para el tratamiento contra el Alzheimer.


Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and is highly prevalent in old age. Unlike current drugs, medicinal plants can have preventive and protective effects with less side effects. Given the great number of bioactive substances, plants from the Zingiberaceae Family have medicinal potential and currently are widely studied regarding its anti-Alzheimer's disease effects. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of advances in phytochemical composition studies, in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies, and toxicological effects of the Zingiberaceae Family on Alzheimer's disease. Information was obtained from relevant papers in electronic databases. Most of the studies of Zingiberaceae effects on Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis theory are related to cholinergic, ß amyloid cascade, tau, inflammation, and oxidative stress hypothesis. Also, in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies on the effect of Alpinia, Curcuma, and Zingiber genera have been reported as harmless and safe, with potential for anti-Alzheimer treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Alzheimer Disease , Plants, Medicinal , In Vitro Techniques , Curcuma , Alpinia , Medicine, Traditional
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1575-1587, sept./oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049056

ABSTRACT

Several technologies have been developed to controlAedes aegypti, mainly studies on isolated plant molecules. The Schinus terebinthifolius (Raddi) (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as pink pepper is a plant widely used in reforestation of degraded areas and its fruits are used as condiments. The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of essential oils (EOs) and fractions (FRs) obtained from fresh fruits and leaves of S. terebinthifolius. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation (2 hours), fractionated on a chromatographic column using as the stationary phase silica gel 60 (0.063-0.2mm), mobile phases: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol and chemically evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC/MS). EOs and FRs were tested against larvae of the third stage and pupae of Ae. aegypti by Immersion Test at concentrations ranging from 500.00 to 0.003 mg mL-1 (v/v). The hexane FRs obtained from fruits and leaves were the ones that showed the greatest activity on the larvae (LC99.9= 0.60 mg mL-1 and LC99.9 0.64 mg mL-1, respectively) and pupae (LC99,9 = 2.51 mg mL-1 and 2.61 mg mL-1, respectively). These results were confirmed by the anticholinesterase activity where the hexane (fruit and leaf) FRs presented the highest inhibitory potential on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (0.156 mg mL-1 and 0.312 mg mL-1, respectively), suggesting the likely mechanism of action. The larvicidal potential can be explained by the presence of the major compounds bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D in the hexane FRs, indicating in this way that they may replace or even act in synergisms with conventional chemical larvicides. In this way the present study opens the field for new researches, aiming the development of products with the compounds bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D, as an alternative in the control of this culicide.


Diversas tecnologias têm sido desenvolvidas para o controle do Aedes aegypti, destacando pesquisas com moléculas isoladas de plantas. A Schinus terebinthifolius (Raddi) (Anacardiaceae), conhecida popularmente como pimenta rosa é uma planta muito utilizada no reflorestamento de áreas degradadas e seus frutos são utilizados como condimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o potencial dos óleosessenciais (OEs) e frações (FRs) obtidos dos frutos e folhas frescos de S. terebinthifolius. Os OEs foram obtidos por hidrodestilação (2 horas), fracionados em coluna cromatográfica utilizando como fase estacionária sílica gel 60 (0,063-0,2mm), fases móveis: n-hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etila e metanol e avaliados quimicamente por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM). Os OEs e FRs foram testados frente a larvas do terceiro estádio e pupas do Ae. aegypti pelo Teste de Imersão em concentrações que variaram de 500,00 à 0,003 mg/mL (v/v). As FRs hexano obtidas dos frutos e folhas, foram as que apresentaram maior atividade sobre as larvas (CL99,9= 0,60 mg mL-1 e CL99,9 0,64 mg mL-1, respectivamente) e pupas (CL99,9= 2,51mg mL-1 e 2,61 mg mL-1, respectivamente). Estes resultados foram confirmados pela atividade anticolinesterase onde as FRs hexano (fruto e folha), foram as que apresentaram maior potencial inibitório sobre a enzima acetilcolinesterase (0,156 mg mL-1 e 0,312 mg mL-1, respectivamente), sugerindo desta forma o provável mecanismo de ação. O potencial larvicida encontrado pode ser explicado pela presença dos compostos majoritários biciclogermacreno e germacreno D nas FRs hexano, indicando desta forma, queestes possam vir a substituir, ou até mesmo agir em sinergismos com os larvicidas químicos convencionais. Desta forma o presente estudo abre campo para novas pesquisas, visando o desenvolvimento de produtos com os compostos bicyclogermacrene e germacrene D, como alternativa no controle deste culicídeo.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Aedes , Anacardiaceae
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1198-1212, july/aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048859

ABSTRACT

In this study the potential bioinseticide of the essential oil (OE) extracted from the rhizomes of the species Curcuma zedoaria (Zingiberaceae) was evaluated. The rhizomes were collected during dormancy (winter) and budding (summer). The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation (2h) and identified by GC/MS. In addition, a multivariate exploratory analysis was done to determine the analysis of the major compounds (PCA). The EO yield in dormancy was 0.61± 0.07 (%) and in budding 0.55 ± 0.08 (%). The bioassays on Aedes aegypti larvae and pupae were done by immersion test at different EO concentrations which ranged from 500.00 to 0.003 mg mL-1 (v/v). The results on the larvae and pupae indicated LC99.9 of (0.01 and 1.38 mg mL-1) for EO in dormancy, and (0.08 and 2.63 mg mL-1) for EO during budding, respectively. The action mechanism of EOs in both periods was determined by autobiographic method evaluating the inhibitory potential on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, indicating greater inhibition of the EO enzyme during dormancy (0.039 mg mL-1) when compared to the EO during budding (0.156 mg mL-1). The projection representation of the EO chemical classes in both evaluated periods indicated that oxygenated sesquiterpenes are the major compound class (46.99% in dormancy) and (43.59% in budding). The projection of major chemical compounds of EOs presented three compounds with greater mass flow distancing: epicurzerenone (18.20% and 12.10%); 1.8 cineole (15.76% and 12.10%) and ß-elemene (4.43 and 0.01%) that are found in greater amounts in the dormancy EO when compared to budding, respectively. These results corroborate with the greater potential on Ae. aegypti larvae and pupae found for the dormancy EO. The results are promising because they show in which vegetative cycle phase C. zedoaria EO presents greater bioinsecticidepotential.


Neste trabalho foi avaliado o potencial bioinseticida do óleo essencial (OE) extraído dos rizomas da espécie Curcuma zedoaria (Zingiberaceae), coletados no período de dormência (inverno) e brotação das gemas (verão). O OE foi obtido por hidrodestilação (2h) e identificado por CG/EM foi observado rendimento 0,61 ± 0,07 (%) no óleo da dormência, quando comparado no período de brotação 0,55 ± 0,08 (%). Os bioensaios sobre as larvas e pupas de Aedes aegypti foram realizados pelo teste de imersão em diferentes concentrações dos OEs, que variaram de 500,00 a 0,003 mg mL-1 (v/v). Os resultados sobre as larvas e pupas indicaram uma CL99,9 de (0,01 e 1,38 mg mL-1) para o OE da dormência, e (0,08 e 2,63 mg mL-1) para o OE do período de brotação, respectivamente. Indicando maior atividade do OE da dormência. O mecanismo de ação dos OEs nos dois períodos foi determinado pelo método autobiográfico avaliando o potencial inibitório sobre a enzima acetilcolinesterase. Os resultados indicaram maior inibição da enzima do OE no período de dormência (0,039 mg mL-1), quando comparado ao OE de brotação (0,156 mg mL-1). A análise química destacou três compostos: epicurzerenone (18,20% e 12,10%) e 1,8 cineol (15,76% e 14,05%) e ß- elemeno (4,43 e 0,01%) em maior quantidade no período de dormência quando comparado ao período de brotação, respectivamente. Esta diferença pode explicar a maior ação inseticida do OE de dormência sobre as larvas e pupas do Ae. aegypti. Os resultados são promissores, pois estabelece em qual período do ciclo vegetativo o OE da C. zedoaria apresenta maior potencial bioinseticida.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Aedes , Curcuma , Insecticides , Biological Assay
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 229-235, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974342

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Gallesia integrifolia (Phytolaccaceae) is native to Brazil and has a strong alliaceous odor. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and evaluate fungicidal activity against the main food-borne diseases and food spoilage fungi. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC-MS. From 35 identified compounds, 68% belonged to the organosulfur class. The major compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (15.49%), 2,8-dithianonane (52.63%) and lenthionine (14.69%). The utilized fungi were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium ochrochloron, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, and Trichoderma viride. Minimal fungicidal concentration for the essential oil varied from 0.02 to 0.18 mg/mL and bifonazole and ketoconazole controls ranged from 0.20 to 3.50 mg/mL. The lower concentration of the essential oil was able to control P. ochrochloron, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus and T. viride. This study shows a high fungicidal activity of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and can support future applications by reducing the use of synthetic fungicides.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Penicillium/growth & development , Penicillium/drug effects , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus/drug effects , Plant Oils/chemistry , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fruit/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
9.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 20(3): 153-159, jul-set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-882936

ABSTRACT

Os óleos essenciais (OEs) são metabólitos secundários que podem apresentar potencial no controle alternativo de nematoides. Assim objetivou-se testar o OE de pimenta rosa no controle de P. zeae em condições in vitro e na cultura do milho. O OE foi extraído por hidrodestilação, utilizando massa fresca das folhas e frutos maduros. O experimento in vitro foi instalado em arranjo fatorial 8x2, sendo oito concentrações (0,00, 7,80, 15,00, 31,00, 62,00, 125,00, 250,00 e 500,00 µg mL-1) e OE das folhas e dos frutos. As unidades experimentais foram tubos de ensaio com capacidade para 5mL, contendo 1 mL de cada concentração, e 1mL de suspensão de 50 nematoides. Decorrido 48 horas avaliou-se a porcentagem de mortalidade. O experimento em casa de vegetação foi instalado em arranjo fatorial 5x2, sendo cinco concentrações (0,00, 7,8, 15,0, 31,0 e 62,0 µg mL-1) e OEs (Folhas e frutos). As unidades experimentais constituíram-se por vasos com capacidade para 1,5 kg, os quais foram inoculados com 2000 e 1800 nematoides e semeados com sementes de milho tratadas com as concentrações dos OEs. Os OEs e as concentrações avaliadas apresentaram porcentagem de mortalidade em condições in vitro e reduziram a população de P. zeae, em casa de vegetação, o OE dos frutos promoveu maior mortalidade nos testes in vitro. Sendo assim os OEs demonstraram potencial no controle de fitonematoide, porém, há a necessidade de estudos a aplicabilidade dos mesmos.(AU)


Essential oils (EOs) are secondary metabolites that may present potential for an alternative control of nematodes. The purpose of this study was to test the EO of pink peppercorn in the control of P. zeae under in-vitro conditions and in the maize crop. Essential Oil was extracted by hydro-distillation using fresh leaf mass and mature fruits. The in-vitro experiment was installed in an 8x2 factorial arrangement, with eight concentrations (0.00, 7.8, 15.0, 31.0, 62.0, 125.0, 250.0 and 500.0 µg mL-1) and EO from leaves and fruits. The experimental units were 5-mL test tubes containing 1 mL of each concentration and 1 mL of suspension of 50 nematodes. The mortality percentage was evaluated after 48 hours. The greenhouse experiment was installed in a 5x2 factorial arrangement, with five concentrations (0.00, 7.8, 15.0, 31.0 and 62.0 µg mL-1) and EOs (leaves and fruits). The experimental units consisted of 1.5-kg capacity vases, which were inoculated with 2000 and 1800 nematodes, and seeded with corn seeds treated with EO concentrations. The EOs and concentrations evaluated presented a mortality percentage under the in-vitro conditions and reduced the P. zeae population in the greenhouse, while the EO from the fruits promoted higher mortality in the in-vitro tests. Therefore, EOs have shown potential in the control of phytonematodes, but further studies are required for their applicability.(AU)


Los aceites esenciales (OEs) son metabolitos secundarios que pueden presentar potencial en el control alternativo de nematodos. Así se objetivó probar el OE de pimienta rosa en el control de P. zeae en condiciones in vitro y en el cultivo del maíz. El OE fue extraído por hidrodestilación utilizando masa fresca de las hojas y frutos maduros. El experimento in vitro fue instalado en un arreglo factorial 8x2, siendo ocho concentraciones (0,00, 7,80, 15,00, 31,00, 62,00, 125,00, 250,00 y 500,00 µg mL-1) y OE de las hojas y de los frutos. Las unidades experimentales fueron tubos de ensayo con capacidad para 5 mL, conteniendo 1 mL de cada concentración, y 1 mL de suspensión de 50 nematodos. Después de 48 horas se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad. El experimento en casa de vegetación fue instalado en arreglo factorial 5x2, siendo cinco concentraciones (0,00, 7,8, 15,0, 31,0 y 62,0 µg mL-1) y OEs (Hojas y frutos). Las unidades experimentales se constituyeron por floreras con capacidad para 1,5 kg, los cuales fueron inoculados con 2000 y 1800 nematodos y sembrados con semillas de maíz tratadas con las concentraciones de los OEs. Los OEs y las concentraciones evaluadas presentaron un porcentaje de mortalidad en condiciones in vitro y redujeron la población de P. zeae, en casa de vegetación, el OE de los frutos promovió mayor mortalidad en las pruebas in vitro. Así los OE demostraron potencial en el control de fitonematodos, sin embargo, hay la necesidad de estudios a la aplicabilidad de los mismos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Anacardiaceae/metabolism , Anacardiaceae/parasitology , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Tylenchida/parasitology
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