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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(6): 1028-1048, Maio 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383702

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: O impacto dos fatores de risco (FR) sobre a morbimortalidade por doença cardiovascular (DCV) na maioria dos países de língua portuguesa (PLP) é pouco conhecido. Objetivo: Analisar a morbimortalidade por DCV atribuível aos FR e sua variação nos PLP de 1990 a 2019, a partir de estimativas do estudo Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019. Métodos: Avaliamos as mudanças nos FR ocorridas no período, as taxas de mortalidade e os anos de vida perdidos por incapacidade (DALYs), padronizados por idade, entre 1990 e 2019. Realizou-se a correlação entre a variação percentual das taxas de mortalidade e o índice sociodemográfico (SDI) de cada PLP pelo método de Spearman. O valor p<0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) elevada foi o principal fator de risco para mortalidade e DALY por DCV para todos os PLP. A mortalidade por DCV mostrou uma tendência de redução em 2019, maior em Portugal (-66,6%, IC95% -71,0 - -61,2) e no Brasil (-49,8%, IC95% -52,5 - -47,1). Observou-se tendência à correlação inversa entre SDI e a variação percentual da mortalidade, que foi significativa para os riscos dietéticos (r=-0,70, p=0,036), colesterol LDL elevado (r=-0,77, p=0,015) e PAS elevada (r=-0,74, p=0,023). Conclusões: Além da PAS, os FR dietéticos e metabólicos justificaram uma maior variação da carga de DCV, correlacionada com o SDI nos PLP, sugerindo a necessidade de adoção de políticas de saúde adaptadas à realidade de cada país, visando a redução de seu impacto sobre a população.


Abstract Background: The impact of risk factors (RF) on morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) for most Portuguese-speaking countries (PSC) is little known. Objectives: We aimed to analyze the morbidity and mortality from CVD attributable to RF and its variation, from 1990 to 2019, in PSC, based on estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 study. Methods: We evaluated changes in cardiovascular RF, mortality rates and age-standardized disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) between 1990 and 2019. The correlation between percentage changes in mortality rates and the sociodemographic index (SDI) of each PSC was evaluated by the Spearman method. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) was the main RF for mortality and DALYs for CVD for all PSC. Mortality from CVD showed a downward trend in 2019, more accentuated in Portugal (-66.6%, 95%CI -71.0 - -61.2) and in Brazil (-49.8%, 95%CI -52.5 - -47.1). There was a trend towards an inverse correlation between SDI and the percent change in mortality, which was significant for dietary risks (r=-0.70, p=0.036), high LDL cholesterol (r=-0.77, p=0.015) and high SBP (r=-0.74, p=0.023). Conclusions: In addition to SBP, dietary and metabolic RF justified a greater variation in the burden of CVD correlated with SDI in the PSC, suggesting the need to adopt health policies adapted to the reality of each country, aiming to reduce their impact on population.

2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 614-622, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364355

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Aparentemente, a pior resposta a algumas classes de anti-hipertensivos, especialmente inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina e bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina, pela população negra, explicaria, pelo menos parcialmente, o pior controle da hipertensão entre esses indivíduos. Entretanto, a maioria das evidências vêm de estudos norte-americanos. Objetivos Este estudo tem o objetivo de investigar a associação entre raça/cor da pele autorrelatadas e controle de PA em participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) utilizando várias classes de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia. Métodos O estudo envolveu uma análise transversal, realizada com participantes da linha de base do ELSA-Brasil. O controle de pressão arterial foi a variável de resposta, participantes com valores de PA ≥140/90 mmHg foram considerados descontrolados em relação aos níveis de pressão arterial. A raça/cor da pele foi autorrelatada (branco, pardo, negro). Todos os participantes tiveram que responder perguntas sobre uso contínuo de medicamentos. A associação entre o controle de PA e raça/cor da pele foi estimada por regressão logística. O nível de significância adotado nesse estudo foi de 5%. Resultados Do total de 1.795 usuários de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia na linha de base, 55,5% se declararam brancos, 27,9%, pardos e 16,7%, negros. Mesmo depois de padronizar em relação a variáveis de confusão, negros em uso de inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA), bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina (BRA), diuréticos tiazídicos (DIU tiazídicos) e betabloqueadores (BB) in monoterapia tinham controle de pressão arterial pior em comparação a brancos. Conclusões Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que, nesta amostra de brasileiros adultos utilizando anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia, as diferenças de controle de pressão arterial entre os vários grupos raciais não são explicadas pela possível eficácia mais baixa dos IECA e BRA em indivíduos negros.


Abstract Background It seems that the worst response to some classes of antihypertensive drugs, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, on the part of the Black population, would at least partially explain the worse control of hypertension among these individuals. However, most of the evidence comes from American studies. Objectives This study aims to investigate the association between self-reported race/skin color and BP control in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), using different classes of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy. Methods The study involved a cross-sectional analysis, carried out with participants from the baseline of ELSA-Brasil. Blood pressure control was the response variable, participants with BP values ≥140/90 mmHg were considered out of control in relation to blood pressure levels. Race/skin color was self-reported (White, Brown, Black). All participants were asked about the continuous use of medication. Association between BP control and race/skin color was estimated through logistic regression. The level of significance adopted in this study was of 5%. Results Of the total of 1,795 users of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy at baseline, 55.5% declared themselves White, 27.9% Brown, and 16.7% Black. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, Blacks using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), thiazide diuretics (thiazide DIU), and beta-blockers (BB) in monotherapy had worse blood pressure control compared to Whites. Conclusions Our results suggest that in this sample of Brazilian adults using antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy, the differences in blood pressure control between different racial groups are not explained by the possible lower effectiveness of ACEIs and ARBs in Black individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , United States , Blood Pressure , Brazil , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Race Factors
3.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 202-213, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364977

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Short message service (SMS) to promote healthcare improves the control of cardiovascular risk factors, but there is a lack of evidence in low and middle-income countries, particularly after acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Objective This study aims to evaluate whether the use of SMS increases risk factor control after hospital discharge for ACS. Methods IMPACS is a 2-arm randomized trial with 180 patients hospitalized due to ACS at a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Eligible patients were randomized (1:1) to an SMS intervention (G1) or standard care (G2) upon hospital discharge. The primary endpoint was set to achieve 4 or 5 points in a risk factor control score, consisting of a cluster of 5 modifiable risk factors: LDL-C <70mg/dL, blood pressure (BP) <140/90mmHg, regular exercise (≥5 days/week, 30 minutes/session), nonsmoker status, and body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2] at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were components of the primary outcome plus rehospitalization, cardiovascular death, and death from any cause. Results are designated as significant if p<0.05. Results From randomized patients, 147 were included in the final analysis. Mean age was 58 (51-64) years, 74% males. The primary outcome was achieved by 12 (16.2%) patients in G1 and 15 (20.8%) in G2 (OR=0.73, 95%CI 0.32-1.70, p=0.47). Secondary outcomes were also similar: LDL-C<70 mg/dl (p=0.33), BP<140/90 mmHg (p=0.32), non-smoker (p=0.74), regular exercise (p=0.97), BMI (p=0.71), and rehospitalization (p=0.06). Death from any cause occurred in three participants (2%), including one cardiovascular death in each group. Conclusion SMS intervention did not significantly improve cardiovascular risk factor control when compared to standard care in patients discharged after ACS in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Acute Coronary Syndrome/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention/methods , Text Messaging , Patient Discharge , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Telemedicine/methods , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Health Promotion/methods
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0264, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356780

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great impact on the behavior of individuals and the organization of health systems. This study analyzed the COVID-19 pandemic's effect on public hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a large city in Brazil, Belo Horizonte, MG, with approximately 2.5 million inhabitants. METHODS: In a time-series analysis, this study used administrative data from the national "Hospital Information System" from 2010 to February 2020 to estimate the expected number of hospitalizations for CVD by month during the COVID-19 pandemic in Belo Horizonte in 2020 using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average model. For CVD, this study compared the expected number of hospital admissions, intensive care use, deaths during hospitalization, and mean length of stay with the observed number during the period. RESULTS: There were 6,517 hospitalizations for CVD from March to December 2020, a decrease of 16.3% (95% CI: 4.7-25.3) compared to the projected. The number of intensive care hospitalizations for CVD fell 24.1% (95% CI 13-32.7). The number of deaths also decreased (17.4% [80% CI: 0 - 0.30]), along with the reduction in hospitalizations, as did the length of stay for CVD hospitalizations. These reductions, however, were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations for CVD were 16.3% lower than expected in a large Brazilian city, possibly due to the fear of getting infected or going to hospitals. Public campaigns informing how to proceed in case of CVD show that prompt urgent attention is essential to mitigate the indirect effects of the pandemic on CVD.

6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0263, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356784

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: To better understand trends in the main cause of death in Brazil, we sought to analyze the burden of cardiovascular risk factors (RF) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) attributable to specific RFs in Brazil from 1990 to 2019, using the estimates from the GBD 2019 study. METHODS: To estimate RF exposure, the Summary Exposure Value (SEV) was used, whereas for disease burden attributed to RF, mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) due to CVD were used. For comparisons over time and between states, we compared age-standardized rates. The sociodemographic index (SDI) was used as a marker of socioeconomic conditions. RESULTS: In 2019, 83% of CVD mortality in Brazil was attributable to RF. For SEV, there was a reduction in smoking and environmental RF, but an increase in metabolic RF. High systolic blood pressure and dietary risks continue to be the main RF for CVD mortality and DALY. While there was a decline in age-standardized mortality rates attributable to the evaluated RF, there was also a stability or increase in crude mortality rates, with the exception of smoking. It is important to highlight the increase in the risk of death attributable to a high body mass index. Regarding the analysis per state, SEVs and mortality attributable to RF were higher in those states with lower SDIs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the reduction in CVD mortality and DALY rates attributable to RF, the stability or increase in crude rates attributable to metabolic RFs is worrisome, requiring investments and a renewal of health policies.

7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0262, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356796

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Monitoring trends in risk factors (RFs) and the burden of diseases attributable to exposure to RFs is an important measure to identify public health advances and current inadequate efforts. Objective: Analyze the global burden of disease attributable to exposure RFs in Brazil, and its changes from 1990 to 2019, according to the sex and age group. METHODS: This study used data from the Global Burden of Disease study. The Summary Exposure Value, which represents weighted prevalence by risk, was used to estimate exposure to RFs. The mortality and DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) measurements were used to estimate the burden of diseases. For comparisons by year and between Brazilian states, age-standardized rates were used. RESULTS: Arterial hypertension was the factor responsible for most deaths in both sexes. For DALYs, the most important RF was the high body mass index (BMI) for women and alcohol consumption for men. Smoking had a substantial reduction in the attributable burden of deaths in the period. An important reduction was identified in the exposure to RFs related to socioeconomic development, such as unsafe water, lack of sanitation, and child malnutrition. Metabolic RFs, such as high BMI, hypertension, and alcohol consumption showed an increase in the attributable burden. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point to an increase in metabolic RFs, which are the main RFs for mortality and DALYs. These results can help to consolidate and strengthen public policies that promote healthy lifestyles, thus reducing disease and death.

8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 426-434, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339193

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação ou flutter atrial (FFA) é a arritmia cardíaca sustentada mais comum. Existem poucos dados sobre a epidemiologia da FFA na América do Sul. Objetivo: O presente estudo procurou descrever a epidemiologia clínica da FFA e o uso de anticoagulantes na avaliação da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Métodos: Foram analisados dados de 13.260 participantes do ELSA-Brasil. A FFA foi definida pelo eletrocardiograma ou por autorrelato. Modelos de regressão logística foram construídos para analisar fatores associados à FFA. Este estudo também analisou se idade e sexo estavam associados ao uso de anticoagulantes para evitar acidente vascular cerebral. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: A idade mediana foi de 51 anos, e 7.213 (54,4%) participantes eram mulheres. A FFA foi detectada em 333 (2,5%) participantes. O aumento da idade (razão de chances [RC]:1,05; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 1,04-1,07), hipertensão (RC:1,44; IC95%:1,14-1,81) coronariopatia (RC: 5,11; IC95%:3,85-6,79), insuficiência cardíaca (RC:7,37; IC95%:5,00-10,87) e febre reumática (RC:3,38; IC95%:2,28-5,02) foram associadas à FFA. Dos 185 participantes com FFA e pontuação no CHA2DS2-VASc≥2, apenas 20 (10,8%) usavam anticoagulantes (50,0% entre aqueles com FFA no eletrocardiograma de linha de base). O uso de anticoagulantes nesse grupo foi associado a maior idade (1,8% vs 17,7% naqueles com idade ≤ 54 e ≥ 65 anos, respectivamente; p=0,013). Observou-se uma tendência ao menor uso de anticoagulantes em mulheres (7,1% vs. 16,4% em mulheres e homens, respectivamente; p=0,055). Conclusões: No recrutamento do ELSA-Brasil, 2,5% dos participantes tinham FFA. O baixo uso de anticoagulantes era comum, o que representa um desafio para os cuidados de saúde nesse cenário.


Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Limited data can be found on AFF epidemiology in South America. Objective: The present study sought to describe the clinical epidemiology of AFF and the use of stroke prevention medication in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment. Methods: This study analyzed data from 13,260 ELSA-Brasil participants. AFF was defined according to ECG recording or by self-report. Logistic regression models were built to analyze factors associated with AFF. This study also analyzed if age and sex were associated with anticoagulant use for stroke prevention. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: Median age was 51 years and 7,213 (54.4%) participants were women. AFF was present in 333 (2.5%) participants. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR]:1.05; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.04-1.07), hypertension (OR:1.44; 95%CI: 1.14-1.81), coronary heart disease (OR: 5.11; 95%CI: 3.85-6.79), heart failure (OR:7.37; 95%CI: 5.00-10.87), and rheumatic fever (OR:3.38; 95%CI: 2.28-5.02) were associated with AFF. From 185 participants with AFF and a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, only 20 (10.8%) used anticoagulants (50.0% among those with AFF in the baseline ECG). Stroke prevention in this group was associated with a higher age (1.8% vs 17.7% in those aged ≤ 54 and ≥ 65 years, respectively; p=0.013). A trend towards a reduced anticoagulant use was observed in women (7.1% vs. 16.4% in women and men, respectively; p=0.055). Conclusions: At the ELSA-Brasil baseline, 2.5% of the participants had AFF. The lack of stroke prevention was common, which is an especially challenging point for healthcare in this setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Risk Assessment , Electrocardiography , Self Report , Middle Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1221-1231, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285914

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo visa comparar a proporção de indivíduos classificados como portadores de alto risco cardiovascular (RCV) na população adulta brasileira, segundo seis diferentes calculadoras de risco, visando analisar a concordância entre as medidas. Estudo transversal, no qual foram utilizados dados laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). As prevalências do RCV em 10 anos para a população entre 45 e 64 anos foram: Escore de risco global (ERG) da Sociedade Geral de Cardiologia (SBC):38,1%, "American College of Cardiology" e "American Heart Association" ACC/AHA, 44,1%, "Framingham Heart Study"/ERG 19,4%, SCORE da "European Society of Cardiology", 14,6, Organização Mundial da Saúde/Sociedade Internacional de hipertensão (OMS/ISH) e Lim et al. As calculadoras de RCV apresentaram baixa concordância para identificar os indivíduos de alto risco e alta concordância dos de risco baixo/moderado, exceto pela ACC/AHA. O emprego de diferentes calculadoras resultou em diferentes populações elegíveis para iniciar a terapia farmacológica para prevenção cardiovascular, o que pode implicar em percepções de risco inadequadas, baixo custo efetividade desse tratamento e dificuldade de implementação de políticas públicas.


Abstract This study compares the proportion of the Brazilian adult population classified as being at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) based on six different CVD risk calculators in order to assess the agreement across different tools. A cross-sectional study was conducted using laboratory data from the National Health Survey (NHS). The prevalence rates of high 10-year risk of CVD among individuals aged between 45 and 64 years were as follows: Brazilian Society of Cardiology (BSC) global risk score (GRS) - 38.1%; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) score - 44.1%; Framingham Heart Study/GRS - 19.4%; European Society of Cardiology SCORE - 14.6%; World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) score - 3.1%; and Lim et al. - 2.5%. The CVD calculators showed poor agreement for the identification of high-risk individuals and a high level of agreement for the identification of low/moderate risk individuals, except for the ACC/AHA risk score. The findings show that the proportion of individuals classified as eligible for preventive drug therapy varies from tool to tool, which could lead to the misinterpretation of risk, poor cost-effectiveness of therapy and difficulty implementing public policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , United States , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
12.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210025, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280027

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Avaliar a mortalidade por áreas de Belo Horizonte (BH) durante a pandemia de COVID-19 conforme a vulnerabilidade social, visando a uma estratégia de vacinação. Métodos: Estudo ecológico com análise de mortalidade, segundo setores censitários classificados pelo índice de vulnerabilidade da saúde, composto de indicadores de saneamento e socioeconômicos. Óbitos por causas naturais e COVID-19 foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, entre a 10ª e a 43ª semanas epidemiológicas (SE) de 2020. Calculou-se o excesso de mortalidade por modelo de série temporal, considerando-se as mortes observadas por SE entre 2015 e 2019, por setor censitário. Taxas de mortalidade (TM) foram calculadas e padronizadas por idade com base em estimativas populacionais do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Resultados: Houve 16,1% (n = 1.524) de excesso de mortalidade em BH: 11, 18,8 e 17,3% nas áreas de baixa, média e elevada vulnerabilidade, respectivamente. As diferenças entre TM observadas e esperadas por causas naturais, padronizadas por idade, foi igual a 59/100 mil habitantes em BH, aumentando de 31 para 77 e 95/100 mil, nas áreas de baixa, média e elevada vulnerabilidade, respectivamente. Houve gradiente de aumento com a idade nas TM por COVID-19, variando de 4 a 611/100 mil habitantes entre as idades de 20-39 anos e 75+ anos. A TM por COVID-19 por 100 mil idosos (60+ anos) foi igual a 292, aumentando de 179 para 354 e 476 nos setores de baixa, média e elevada vulnerabilidade, respectivamente. Conclusão: Desigualdades na mortalidade, mesmo entre idosos, aliadas à baixa oferta de doses, demonstram a importância de priorizar áreas socialmente vulneráveis durante a vacinação contra COVID-19.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic according to social vulnerability by areas of Belo Horizonte (BH), aiming at strategies for vaccination. Methods: Ecological study with mortality analysis according to census tracts classified by the Health Vulnerability Index, a composite indicator that includes socioeconomic and sanitation variables. Deaths by natural causes and by COVID-19 were obtained from the "Mortality Information System", between the 10th and 43rd epidemiological weeks (EW) of 2020. Excess mortality was calculated in a time series model, considering observed and expected deaths per EW, between 2015 and 2019, per census tracts. Mortality rates (MR) were calculated and age-standardized using population estimates from the 2010 census, by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Results: Excess mortality in BH was 16.1% (n = 1,524): 11, 18.8 and 17.3% in low, intermediate and high vulnerability areas, respectively. The differences between observed and expected age-standardized MR by natural causes were equal to 59/100,000 inhabitants in BH, increasing from 31 to 77 and 95/100,000 inhabitants in the areas of low, intermediate and high vulnerability, respectively. There was an aging gradient in MR by COVID-19, ranging from 4 to 611/100,000 inhabitants among individuals aged 20-39 years and 75+ years. The COVID-19 MR per 100,000 older adults (60+ years) was 292 in BH, increasing from 179 to 354 and 476, in low, intermediate and high vulnerability areas, respectively. Conclusion: Inequalities in mortality, particularly among older adults, combined with the limited supply of doses, demonstrate the importance of prioritizing socially vulnerable areas during vaccination against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Vaccines , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Belo Horizonte; UFMG; 2020. 14 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1179999

ABSTRACT

Produto do projeto: Impacto da coordenação e acompanhamento do cuidado por telemonitoramento na qualidade da assistência prestada aos usuários do SUS portadores de doenças crônicas, egressos de internação hospitalar em Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Self Care , Teaching Materials , Unified Health System , Health Education , Risk Factors , Diet, Healthy , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/prevention & control
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(6): 500-511, June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950178

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Portuguese-speaking countries (PSC) share the influence of the Portuguese culture but have socioeconomic development patterns that differ from that of Portugal. Objective: To describe trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in the PSC between 1990 and 2016, stratified by sex, and their association with the respective sociodemographic indexes (SDI). Methods: This study used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 data and methodology. Data collection followed international standards for death certification, through information systems on vital statistics and mortality surveillance, surveys, and hospital registries. Techniques were used to standardize causes of death by the direct method, as were corrections for underreporting of deaths and garbage codes. To determine the number of deaths due to each cause, the CODEm (Cause of Death Ensemble Model) algorithm was applied. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and SDI (income per capita, educational attainment and total fertility rate) were estimated for each country. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: There are large differences, mainly related to socioeconomic conditions, in the relative impact of CVD burden in PSC. Among CVD, ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of death in all PSC in 2016, except for Mozambique and Sao Tome and Principe, where cerebrovascular diseases have supplanted it. The most relevant attributable risk factors for CVD among all PSC are hypertension and dietary factors. Conclusion: Collaboration among PSC may allow successful experiences in combating CVD to be shared between those countries.


Resumo Fundamento: Os países de língua portuguesa (PLP) partilham a influência da cultura portuguesa com desenvolvimento socioeconômico diverso de Portugal. Objetivo: Descrever as tendências de morbidade e mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) nos PLP, entre 1990 e 2016, estratificadas por sexo, e sua associação com os respectivos índices sociodemográficos (SDI). Métodos: O estudo utilizou dados e metodologia do Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016. As informações seguiram padrões internacionais de certificação de óbito, através de sistemas de informação sobre estatísticas vitais e vigilância da mortalidade, pesquisas e registros hospitalares. Empregaram-se técnicas para padronização das causas de morte pelo método direto, e correções para sub-registro dos óbitos e garbage codes. Para determinar o número de mortes por cada causa, aplicou-se o algoritmo CODEm (Modelagem Agrupada de Causas de Morte). Estimaram-se os anos saudáveis de vida perdidos (DALYs) e o SDI (renda per capita, nível de escolaridade e taxa de fertilidade total) para cada país. Resultados: Existem grandes diferenças na importância relativa da carga de DCV nos PLP relacionadas principalmente às condições socioeconômicas. Entre as DCV, a doença isquêmica do coração foi a principal causa de morte nos PLP em 2016, com exceção de Moçambique e São Tomé e Príncipe, onde as doenças cerebrovasculares a suplantaram. Os fatores de risco atribuíveis mais relevantes para as DCV entre os PLP foram a hipertensão arterial e os fatores dietéticos. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Conclusão: A colaboração entre os PLP poderá permitir que experiências exitosas no combate às DCV sejam compartilhadas entre esses países.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , Portugal/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Life Expectancy , Morbidity , Cause of Death , Equatorial Guinea/epidemiology , Timor-Leste/epidemiology , Cabo Verde/epidemiology , Sao Tome and Principe/epidemiology , Guinea-Bissau/epidemiology , Angola/epidemiology , Mozambique/epidemiology
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(5): 416-424, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887969

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used in population-based studies. However, there are few studies on electrocardiographic findings in Latin America and in Brazil. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprised 15,105 participants (35-74 years) from six Brazilian capitals. Objectives: To describe electrocardiographic findings in Brazilian adults without heart disease, stratified by sex, age and race/skin color. Methods: Cross-sectional study with baseline data of 11,094 adults (44.5% men) without heart disease from ELSA-Brasil. The ECGs were recorded with the Burdick Atria 6100 machine and stored at the Pyramis System. ECG analysis was automatically performed using the Glasgow University software. A descriptive analysis of heart rate (HR), P, QRS and T waves' duration, PR and QT intervals, and P, R and T axes was performed. After stratification by sex, race/color and age, the groups were compared by the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the behavior of electrocardiographic parameters over age. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities defined by the Minnesota code were manually revised. Results: Medians values of the electrocardiographic parameters were different between men and women: HR 63 vs. 66 bpm, PR 164 vs.158 ms, QT corrected 410 vs. 421 ms, QRS duration 92 vs. 86 ms, P-wave duration 112 vs. 108 ms, P-wave axis 54 vs. 57 degrees, R-wave axis 35 vs. 39 degrees, T-wave axis 39 vs. 45 degrees (p < 0.001 for all). The 2nd and the 98th percentiles of each variable were also obtained, and graphs were constructed to illustrate the behavior of the electrocardiographic findings over age of participants stratified by sex and race/skin color. Conclusions: The values for the electrocardiographic measurements herein described can be used as reference for Brazilian adults free of heart disease, stratified by sex. Our results suggest that self-reported race/skin color have no significant influence on electrocardiographic parameters.


Resumo Fundamento: O eletrocardiograma (ECG) é amplamente utilizado em estudos de base populacional. Porém, poucos desses estudos descrevem achados eletrocardiográficos na América Latina e particularmente no Brasil. O Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) incluiu 15105 participantes (35-74 anos) de seis capitais brasileiras. Objetivos: Descrever as medidas eletrocardiográficas em adultos brasileiros não cardiopatas, estratificados por sexo, raça/cor e idade. Métodos: Estudo transversal com dados da linha de base do ELSA-Brasil (n=11094, 44,5% homens) de participantes sem doença cardiopatia prevalente. Os ECGs foram obtidos no aparelho Burdick Atria 6100 e armazenados pelo Sistema Pyramis. A análise dos ECGs foi realizada automaticamente utilizando-se o software da Universidade de Glasgow. Realizou-se análise descritiva da frequência cardíaca, da duração das ondas P, QRS e T, dos intervalos (i) PR e QT, e dos eixos de P, R e T. A comparação dos grupos estratificados por sexo, raça/cor e idade, foi feita pelos testes de Wilcoxon e Kruskal-Wallis com nível de significância definido em 5%. O comportamento das medidas eletrocardiográficas ao longo da idade foi avaliado por modelos de regressão linear. Alterações eletrocardiográficas definidas como maiores pelo código de Minnesota foram revisadas manualmente. Resultados: As medianas das mensurações foram diferentes entre homens e mulheres: FC 63 vs 66 bpm, iPR 164 vs 158 ms, iQT corrigido 410 vs. 421 ms, QRS 92 vs 86 ms, onda P 112 vs 108 ms, eixo da onda P 54 vs 58, eixo da onda R 35 vs 39 e eixo da onda T 39 vs 45 (p < 0,001 para todas). Os percentis 02 e 98 foram obtidos para cada variável analisada, assim como gráficos demonstrando o comportamento dos parâmetros eletrocardiográficos ao longo da idade dos participantes estratificados por sexo e raça/cor. Conclusões: Os valores descritos para as medidas eletrocardiográficas analisadas poderão ser utilizados como referência para adultos brasileiros sem cardiopatia prevalente, estratificados por sexo. Os resultados sugerem que não existe grande influência da raça/cor autodeclarada nas mensurações eletrocardiográficas realizadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Electrocardiography , Heart Rate/physiology , Reference Values , Brazil , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Racial Groups
17.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 20(supl.1): 116-128, Mai. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-843758

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar as variações e os diferenciais da mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) no Brasil e em seus estados, em 1990 e 2015. Métodos: Foram utilizados os dados de mortalidade compilados pelo Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015, obtidos da base de dados do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde. Foram realizadas a correção do sub-registro de óbitos e a reclassificação dos códigos garbage por meio de algoritmos específicos. As causas cardiovasculares foram subdivididas em 10 causas específicas. As taxas de mortalidade - dos anos 1990 e 2015 - foram padronizadas pela idade, de acordo com o sexo e o estado brasileiro. Resultados: A taxa de mortalidade por DCV padronizada por idade caiu de 429,5 (1990) para 256,0 (2015) a cada 100 mil habitantes (40,4%). A redução proporcional foi semelhante em ambos os sexos, mas as taxas em homens são substancialmente mais altas do que nas mulheres. A redução da taxa padronizada por idade foi mais acentuada para a doença cardíaca reumática (44,5%), cardiopatia isquêmica (43,9%) e doença cerebrovascular (46,0%). A queda na mortalidade diferiu marcadamente entre os estados, sendo mais acentuada nos estados das regiões Sudeste e Sul do país e no Distrito Federal, e atenuada nos estados do Norte e Nordeste. Conclusão: A mortalidade por DCV padronizada por idade reduziu no Brasil nas últimas décadas, porém de forma heterogênea entre os estados e para diferentes causas específicas. Considerando a magnitude da carga de doença e o envelhecimento da população brasileira, as políticas de enfrentamento das DCV devem ser priorizadas.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze variations and particularities in mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Brazil and in Brazilian states, in 1990 and 2015. Methods: We used data compiled from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015, obtained from the database of the Mortality Information System (SIM) of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Correction of the sub-registry of deaths and reclassification of the garbage codes were performed using specific algorithms. The cardiovascular causes were subdivided into 10 specific causes. Age-standardized CVD mortality rates - in 1990 and 2015 - were analyzed according to sex and Brazilian state. Results: Age-standardized CVD mortality rate decreased from 429.5 (1990) to 256.0 (2015) per 100,000 inhabitants (40.4%). The proportional decrease was similar in both sexes, but death rates in males were substantially higher. The reduction of age-standardized mortality rate was more significant for rheumatic heart disease (44.5%), ischemic cardiopathy (43.9%), and cerebrovascular disease (46.0%). The decline in mortality was markedly different across states, being more pronounced in those of the southeastern and southern regions and the Federal District, and more modest in most states in the north and northeast regions. Conclusion: Age-standardized CVD mortality has declined in Brazil in recent decades, but in a heterogeneous way across states and for different specific causes. Considering the burden magnitude and the Brazilian population aging, policies to prevent and manage CVD should continue to be prioritized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Mortality/trends
18.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 28(4): 387-396, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-844269

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a utilidade e o valor prognóstico da tonometria arterial periférica - hiperemia reativa em pacientes com sepse, e investigar a associação dos resultados deste exame com os níveis séricos de algumas moléculas inflamatórias. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, realizado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva para pacientes adultos com 18 leitos. Os critérios de exclusão foram imunossupressão grave ou tratamento com antibióticos iniciado mais de 48 horas antes da avaliação. Aplicamos o exame de tonometria arterial periférica - hiperemia reativa quando da inclusão (dia 1) e no dia 3. Avaliamos os níveis de interleucina 6, interleucina 10, proteínas do grupo 1 de mobilidade alta e de ST2 solúvel no sangue obtido quando da inclusão. Resultados: Dos 79 pacientes incluídos, 17 (21,6%) tiveram os sinais da tonometria arterial periférica - hiperemia reativa considerados tecnicamente não confiáveis, tendo sido excluídos do estudo. Assim, incluímos na análise final 62 pacientes, que foram submetidos a 95 exames de tonometria arterial periférica - hiperemia reativa dentro das primeiras 48 horas após sua inclusão. A média de idade foi de 51,5 (DP: 18,9), e 49 (62%) dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Os índices de hiperemia reativa dos dias 1 e 3 não se associaram com necessidade de vasopressores, SOFA, APACHE II ou mortalidade aos 28 dias. Dentre os pacientes que morreram, em comparação aos sobreviventes, houve aumento significante nos índices de hiperemia reativa no dia 3 em comparação ao dia 1 (p = 0,0045). Ocorreu fraca correlação negativa entre o índice obtido por tonometria arterial periférica - hiperemia reativa no dia 1 e os níveis de proteínas do grupo 1 de mobilidade alta (r = -0,287). Conclusão: Dificuldades técnicas e falta de associações claras dos resultados do exame com a gravidade clínica e com o desfecho foram fortes limitantes da utilidade do exame de tonometria arterial periférica - hiperemia reativa em pacientes sépticos admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the usefulness and prognostic value of reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry in patients with sepsis. Moreover, we investigated the association of reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry results with serum levels of certain inflammatory molecules. Methods: Prospective study, conducted in an 18-bed mixed intensive care unit for adults. The exclusion criteria included severe immunosuppression or antibiotic therapy initiated more than 48 hours before assessment. We measured the reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry on inclusion (day 1) and on day 3. Interleukin-6, interleukin-10, high-mobility group box 1 protein and soluble ST2 levels were measured in the blood obtained upon inclusion. Results: Seventeen of the 79 patients (21.6%) enrolled were determined to have reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry signals considered technically unreliable and were excluded from the study. Thus, 62 patients were included in the final analysis, and they underwent a total of 95 reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry exams within the first 48 hours after inclusion. The mean age was 51.5 (SD: 18.9), and 49 (62%) of the patients were male. Reactive hyperemia indexes from days 1 and 3 were not associated with vasopressor need, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, or 28-day mortality. Among the patients who died, compared with survivors, there was a significant increase in the day 3 reactive hyperemia index compared with day 1 (p = 0.045). There was a weak negative correlation between the day 1 reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry index and the levels of high-mobility group box 1 protein (r = -0.287). Conclusion: Technical difficulties and the lack of clear associations between the exam results and clinical severity or outcomes strongly limits the utility of reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry in septic patients admitted to the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Sepsis/diagnosis , Hyperemia/diagnosis , Manometry/methods , Prognosis , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Prospective Studies , Sepsis/mortality , Sepsis/blood , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 30(1): 99-108, abr. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-754349

ABSTRACT

La definición moderna de Salud Global ha ampliado su alcance más allá de las enfermedades desatendidas y los países de bajos ingresos y subdesarrollados. Las iniciativas actuales apuntan a mejorar la salud, reducir las disparidades y proteger contra las amenazas globales, en la búsqueda de una interacción entre las prácticas en salud, políticas y sistemas sanitarios. Considerando la transición epidemiológica actualmente en curso en los países de renta baja y media, y la creciente importancia epidemiológica de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y otras no transmisibles en detrimento de las enfermedades infecciosas y las deficiencias nutricionales, ha habido un interés creciente en la investigación sobre la Salud Global. Diversos aspectos -antes descuidados- de estas enfermedades, tales como la epidemiología, la prevención, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento, han sido abordados en las publicaciones actuales sobre Salud Global, lo que ha conducido a una mejor comprensión de la importancia de la salud como un bien público, allende fronteras. La evidencia científica avala las iniciativas más amplias en las que los gobiernos, las fundaciones y la sociedad civil deben compartir las responsabilidades y los fondos para alcanzar equidad sanitaria, la principal meta de la Salud Global.

20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 100(4): 307-314, abr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-674199

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: A criação de sistemas ou linhas de cuidado ao infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) tem o objetivo de otimizar o atendimento ao paciente, desde o diagnóstico precoce até o tratamento adequado e em tempo hábil. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a implantação da linha de cuidado do IAM, em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, e seu impacto na mortalidade hospitalar por IAM. MÉTODOS: A linha de cuidado do IAM foi implantada em Belo Horizonte entre 2010 e 2011 com intuito de ampliar o acesso dos pacientes do sistema público de saúde ao tratamento preconizado pelas diretrizes vigentes. As equipes das unidades de pronto atendimento foram treinadas e foi implantado sistema de tele-eletrocardiografia nessas unidades. Os desfechos primários deste estudo observacional retrospectivo foram o número de internações e a mortalidade hospitalar por IAM, de 2009 a 2011. RESULTADOS: No período avaliado, 294 profissionais foram treinados e 563 ECGs foram transmitidos das unidades de pronto atendimento para as unidades coronarianas. Houve redução importante da taxa de mortalidade hospitalar (12,3% em 2009 versus 7,1% em 2011, p < 0,001), enquanto o número de internações por IAM permaneceu estável. Ocorreu aumento do custo médio de internação (média R$ 2.480,00 versus R$ 3.501,00, p < 0,001), aumento da proporção de internações contemplando diárias de terapia intensiva (32,4% em 2009 versus 66,1% em 2011, p < 0,001) e de pacientes internados em hospitais de alta complexidade (47,0% versus 69,6%, p < 0,001). CONCLUSÃO: A implantação da linha de cuidado do IAM permitiu maior acesso da população ao tratamento adequado e, consequentemente, redução na mortalidade hospitalar por IAM.


BACKGROUND:The creation of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) management systems is aimed at optimizing the management of patients from early diagnosis to proper and timely treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess the implantation of an AMI management system in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, and its impact on in-hospital mortality due to AMI. METHODS: The AMI management system was implanted in the municipality of Belo Horizonte between 2010 and 2011, aiming at increasing the access of patients of the public health system to the treatment recommended by the existing guidelines. The teams at the prompt care units were trained, and the system of tele-electrocardiography was implanted in those units. The primary outcomes of this retrospective observational study were the number of admissions and in-hospital mortality due to AMI, from 2009 to 2011. RESULTS: In the period studied, 294 professionals were trained and 563 electrocardiograms (ECGs) transmitted from prompt care units to coronary units. A significant reduction was observed in the in-hospital mortality rate (12.3% in 2009 versus 7.1% in 2011, p < 0.001), while the number of admissions due to AMI remained stable. The mean cost of admission increased (mean R$ 2,480.00 versus R$ 3,501.00; p < 0.001), the proportion of admissions including intensive care unit stay increased (32.4% in 2009 versus 66.1% in 2011; p < 0.001), and the number of patients admitted to tertiary hospitals increased (47.0% versus 69.6%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The AMI management system implantation increased the access of the population to proper treatment, thus reducing in-hospital mortality due to AMI.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Care Units/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction , Brazil , Coronary Care Units/standards , Electrocardiography/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/economics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Telemedicine/methods
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