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Adv Rheumatol ; 64: 3, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533542


Abstract Background Patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) experience reduced physical function and impaired quality of life. Better patient-reported functional outcomes are found when lower disease activity is achieved. Objectives To evaluate the variation of physical function by HAQ-DI over time in PsA patients treated with standard therapy in a real-life setting: to verify predictors of achieving a minimum clinically important difference (MCID) in function by HAQ-DI (ΔHAQ-DI ≤ − 0.35) and to measure the impact of achieving REM/LDA on long-term function by HAQ-DI. Methods This is a longitudinal analysis of a real-life retrospective cohort. Data from PsA patients with at least 4 years of follow-up in the PsA clinic from 2011 to 2019 were extracted from electronic medical records. The variations of physical function by HAQ-DI and disease activity by DAPSA over time were calculated. A multivariate hierarchical regression model was applied to verify predictors of MCID in HAQ-DI. A comparison of HAQ-DI variation between patients with DAPSA REM, LDA, moderate and high disease activity was made using the generalized estimating equation model (GEE), adjusted by Bonferroni test. The Spearman correlation method was applied to verify the correlation of ΔDAPSA and ΔHAQ-DI over time. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS program version 21.0. Results Seventy-three patients were included in the analysis. Physical function measured by HAQ-DI was determined by PsA disease activity measured by DAPSA (p < 0.000). A moderate and statistically significant correlation between ΔDAPSA and ΔHAQ-DI was observed (rs = 0.60; p < 0.001). Only patients in DAPSA REM demonstrated a constant decline in HAQ-DI scores during the follow-up. White ethnicity and older age at baseline were predictors for not achieving MCID in HAQ-DI [RR 0.33 (0.16-0.6795% CI p = 0.002) and RR 0.96 (0.93-0.9895% CI p < 0.000), respectively, while higher scores of HAQ-DI at baseline were predictors of achieving MCID [RR 1.71 (1.12-2.6095%CI p = 0.013)]. Conclusion In PsA, patients who maintained DAPSA REM/LDA over time had better long-term functional outcomes. Higher HAQ-DI scores at baseline, non-white ethnicity and younger age were predictors for achieving a clinical meaningful improvement of HAQ-DI.

Adv Rheumatol ; 63: 34, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505590


Abstract Introduction Although Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) extra-articular manifestations (ExtRA) occurrence has been decreasing over time, they are still a major mortality risk factor for patients. Objective To determine the prevalence of ExtRA in a large cohort, and its association with demographic and clinical variables. Method Cross-sectional and observational study, based on a multi-centric database from a prospective cohort, in which 11 public rheumatology centres enrolled RA patients (1987 ARA or 2010 ACR-EULAR). Data collection began in 08-2015, using a single online electronic medical record. Continuous variables were compared using Mann-Whit-ney U-test, and Fisher's exact test or chi-square test, as appropriate, were used for categorical variables. The level of significance was set at 5% (p < 0.05). Results 1115 patients were included: 89% women, age [mean ± SD] 58.2 ± 11.5 years, disease duration 14.5 ± 12.2 years, positive Rheumatoid Factor (RF, n = 1108) in 77%, positive anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACPA, n = 477) in 78%. Regarding ExtRA, 334 occurrences were registered in 261 patients, resulting in an overall prevalence of 23.4% in the cohort. The comparison among ExtRA and Non-ExtRA groups shows significant higher age (p < 0.001), disease duration (p < 0.001), RF high titers (p = 0.018), Clinical Disease Activity index (CDAI) (p < 0.001), Disease Activity Index 28 (DAS 28) (p < 0.001), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) (p < 0.001) in ExtRA group. Treatment with Azathioprine (p = 0.002), Etanercept (p = 0.049) Glucocorticoids (GC) ('p = 0.002), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p < 0.001) were more frequent in ExtRA group. Conclusions ExtRA manifestations still show an expressive occurrence that should not be underestimated. Our findings reinforce that long-term seropositive disease, associated with significant disability and persistent inflammatory activity are the key factors related to ExtRA development.

Adv Rheumatol ; 63: 17, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447135


Abstract Background Early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) offers an opportunity for better treatment outcomes. In real-life settings, grasping this opportunity might depend on access to specialized care. We evaluated the effects of early versus late assessment by the rheumatologist on the diagnosis, treatment initiation and long-term outcomes of RA under real-life conditions. Methods Adults meeting the ACR/EULAR (2010) or ARA (1987) criteria for RA were included. Structured interviews were conducted. The specialized assessment was deemed "early" when the rheumatologist was the first or second physician consulted after symptoms onset, and "late" when performed afterwards. Delays in RA diagnosis and treatment were inquired. Disease activity (DAS28-CRP) and physical function (HAQ-DI) were evaluated. Student's t, Mann-Whitney U, chi-squared and correlation tests, and multiple linear regression were performed. For sensitivity analysis, a propensity score-matched subsample of early- vs. late-assessed participants was derived based on logistic regression. The study received ethical approval; all participants signed informed consent. Results We included 1057 participants (89.4% female, 56.5% white); mean (SD) age: 56.9 (11.5) years; disease duration: 173.1 (114.5) months. Median (IQR) delays from symptoms onset to both RA diagnosis and initial treatment coincided: 12 (6-36) months, with no significant delay between diagnosis and treatment. Most participants (64.6%) first sought a general practitioner. Notwithstanding, 80.7% had the diagnosis established only by the rheumatologist. Only a minority (28.7%) attained early RA treatment (≤ 6 months of symptoms). Diagnostic and treatment delays were strongly correlated (rho 0.816; p < 0.001). The chances of missing early treatment more than doubled when the assessment by the rheumatologist was belated (OR 2.77; 95% CI: 1.93, 3.97). After long disease duration, late-assessed participants still presented lower chances of remission/low disease activity (OR 0.74; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.99), while the early-assessed ones showed better DAS28-CRP and HAQ-DI scores (difference in means [95% CI]: −0.25 [−0.46, −0.04] and − 0.196 [−0.306, −0.087] respectively). The results in the propensity-score matched subsample confirmed those observed in the original (whole) sample. Conclusions Early diagnosis and treatment initiation in patients with RA was critically dependent on early access to the rheumatologist; late specialized assessment was associated with worse long-term clinical outcomes.

Adv Rheumatol ; 63: 3, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447136


Abstract Background Management delays imply worse outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and, therefore, should be minimized. We evaluated changes in diagnostic and treatment delays regarding RA in the last decades in Brazil. Methods Adults fulfilling the ACR/EULAR (2010) criteria for RA were assessed. Delays in diagnosis and treatment, and the frequencies of early management initiation within thresholds (windows of opportunity) of 3, 6, and 12 months from symptoms onset were evaluated. The Mann-Kendall trend test, chi-squared tests with Cramer's V effect sizes and analysis of variance were conducted. Results We included 1116 patients: 89.4% female, 56.8% white, mean (SD) age 57.1 (11.5) years. A downward trend was found in diagnostic (tau = - 0.677, p < 0.001) and treatment (tau = - 0.695, p < 0.001) delays from 1990 to 2015. The frequency of early management increased throughout the period, with ascending effect sizes across the 3-, 6-, and 12-month windows (V = 0.120, 0.200 and 0.261, respectively). Despite all improvements, even in recent years (2011-2015) the diagnostic and treatment delays still remained unacceptably high [median (IQR): 8 (4-12) and 11 (5-17) months, respectively], with only 17.2% of the patients treated within the shortest, 3-month window. Conclusion The delays in diagnosis and treatment of RA decreased during the last decades in Brazil. Improvements (effect sizes) were greater at eliminating extreme delays (≥ 12 months) than in attaining really short management windows (≤ 3 months). Very early treatment was still an unrealistic goal for most patients with RA.

Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 38, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284988


Abstract Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune systemic inflammatory disease. In addition to joint involvement, RA patients frequently have other comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases. Drugs used for RA treatment may increase or decrease the risk of a cardiovascular event. This study aims to analyze cardiovascular risk comorbidities in patients with RA and the correlation with the use of anti-rheumatic drugs. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted based on the real-life rheumatoid arthritis study database - REAL, a prospective observational cohort study. Associations between the use of anti-rheumatic drugs and the presence of comorbidities were represented by their prevalence ratio and evaluated using the Chi-square or Fisher's Exact tests. Results: We assessed 1116 patients, 89.4% women, mean age of 55.15 years and predominance of seropositive disease. 63.3% had some cardiovascular comorbidity, predominantly hypertension (49.9%). The use of glucocorticoids was observed in 47.4% of patients and there was a significant tendency of lower use of these drugs in the presence of dyslipidemia (PR: 0.790; p = 0.007). We observed that the presence of cardiovascular comorbidities was associated with higher use of bDMARDs (PR:1.147; p = 0.003). Conclusions: The presence of cardiovascular risk comorbidities was confirmed to be higher in RA patients. Different treatment strategies using less glucocorticoids in the presence of dyslipidemia and more common use of bDMARDs in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities suggest that rheumatologists are aware of the potential influence of the DMARDs in the risk of cardiovascular event. Reinforcing these results, we highlight the need for a better baseline assessment to guide the choice of anti-rheumatic drugs in RA patients who have comorbidities.

Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 28, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130791


Abstract Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory and chronic autoimmune disease that leads to muscle mass loss and functional capacity impairment, potentiated by physical inactivity. Despite evidences demonstrate neuromuscular impairments in RA patients, aging effects may have masked the results of similar previous studies. The aim of study was to verify (i) the effects of RA on functional capacity and muscle properties in middle-aged patients and (ii) the association between age, clinical characteristics, quadriceps muscle properties and functional capacity. Methods: Thirty-five RA women and 35 healthy age-matched women were compared with the following outcomes: (i) physical activity level through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); (ii) timed-up and go (TUG) test; (iii) isometric knee extensor muscular strength; and (iv) vastus lateralis muscle activation and muscle architecture (muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length) during an isometric test. An independent Student t-test and partial correlation (controlled by physical activity levels) were performed, with p < 0.05. Results: Compared with healthy women, RA presented (i) lower physical activity level (- 29.4%; p < 0.001); (ii) lower isometric knee extensor strength (- 20.5%; p < 0.001); (iii) lower TUG performance (- 21.7%; p < 0.001); (iv) smaller muscle thickness (- 23.3%; p < 0.001) and pennation angle (- 14.1%; p = 0.011). No differences were observed in muscle activation and fascicle length. Finally, the correlation demonstrated that, with exception of TUG, muscle strength and muscle morphology were not associated with age in RA, differently from healthy participants. Conclusion: Middle-aged RA patients' impairments occurred due to the disease independently of the aging process, except for functional capacity. Physical inactivity may have potentiated these losses.(AU)

Humans , Female , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Muscular Atrophy , Exercise , Electromyography/instrumentation , Quadriceps Muscle , Muscle Strength
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 20, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088653


Abstract Background: In Brazil, socioeconomic differences in the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been demonstrated, which are important in the formulation of hypotheses regarding the association between environmental factors, lifestyle and the risk of disease development. This study examines how the socioeconomic condition of the patient with RA in Brazil, assessed according to social class, educational level, employment situation and use of caregivers, affects the times between the beginning of symptoms and diagnosis and the beginning of the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, as well as the presence of erosive disease and functional status. Methods: This work is part of a multicentric study called REAL - Rheumatoid Arthritis in Real Life in Brazil, which is a prospective observational cohort study. Results: As described in the REAL study, we included a total of 1115 patients. It was noted that patients with an educational classification of up to second grade incomplete presented with erosion percentages above those with a higher grade complete. Patients with caregivers presented a higher percentage of erosion than patients without caregivers. We verified that patients from economic classes above B2 presented fewer occurrences of erosion than those from classes C2, D-E. We also analyzed the average time differences from the beginning of symptoms and diagnosis and the beginning of treatment, according to academic level, erosion and economic classification. Patients with first grade complete showed an HAQ-DI averages higher than those with second grade complete. The patients who had employment showed lower HAQ-DI averages than patients who were not employed. The patients with erosion showed an HAQ-DI value higher than those without erosion. Patients with caregivers showed an HAQ-DI average higher than that of without caregivers. Conclusion: This study showed that the therapeutic window of RA is not being reached, and therefore we should have a policy to expand and ensure access to public health for all patients, especially those with lower levels of education and income. Trial registration: This study was approved by the National Commission of Ethics in Research.(AU)

Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Social Class , Demographic Indicators , Public Policy , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Life Style
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 16, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088647


Abstract Background: Last decades witnessed great technological advances in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management, but their implementation in clinical practice might prove difficult. Despite the efficacy demonstrated in controlled trials this information needs to be confirmed by real life data. This study assessed real-life treatment among RA patients. Methods: REAL study included Brazilian RA patients from eleven centers. Interview and medical records were performed. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t or Mann-Whitney and categorical variables were assessed with chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Results: 1115 patients were included, women 89.5%. Median age 56.6 years, disease duration 152.5 months; 78.7% were rheumatoid fator positive; 55.2% had erosive disease; DAS28 (disease activity index-28 joints) = 3.5, HAQ (health assessment questionnaire) =0.875. The median duration of symptoms until the start of first DMARD was 12 months. A total of 529 (47.2%) patients used corticosteroids; 1022 (90.8%) were on conventional synthetic (cs) DMARDs and 406 (36.1%) on biological (b) DMARDs. Methotrexate (MTX) was the most frequent csDMARD: 748 (66.5%) patients, followed by leflunomide (LFN), used by 381 (33.9%) of patients. MTX was associated to LFN in 142 (12.6%) patients. Only five (0.4%) patients used triple therapy (MTX + hydroxychloroquine + sulfasalazine) or sulfasalazine in monotherapy. Conclusions: Despite advances in therapeutic resources, roughly half RA patients failed achieve T2T goals and 55.2% developed erosive disease. The frequent use of corticosteroids and delay in initiating DMARDs were demonstrated. Issues concerning timely access to medical care are crucial for effective management.(AU)

Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Brazil , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(1): 1-6, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104373


Introduction: Registries of spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients' follow-up provided evidence that tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) increase the incidence of active tuberculosis infection (TB). However, most of these registries are from low burden TB areas. Few studies evaluated the safety of biologic agents in TB endemic areas. This study compares the TB incidence rate (TB IR) in anti-TNF-naïve and anti-TNF-experienced subjects with SpA in a high TB incidence setting.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, medical records from patients attending a SpA clinic during 13 years (2004 to 2016) in a university hospital were reviewed. The TB IR was calculated and expressed as number of events per 105 patients/year; the incidence rate ratio (IRR) associated with the use of TNFi was calculated.Results: A total of 277 patients, 173 anti-TNF-naïve and 104 anti-TNF-experienced subjects, were evaluated; 35.7% (N = 35) of patients who were prescribed an anti-TNF drug were diagnosed with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Total follow-up time (person-years) was 1667.8 for anti-TNF-naïve and 394.9 for anti-TNF-experienced patients. TB IR (95% CI) was 299.8 (37.4-562.2) for anti-TNF naïve and 1012.9 (25.3-2000.5) for anti-TNF experienced subjects. The IRR associated with the use of TNFi was 10.4 (2.3- 47.9).Conclusions: In this high TB incidence setting, SpA patients exposed to anti-TNF therapy had a higher incidence of TB compared to anti-TNF-naïve subjects, although the TB incidence in the control group was significant.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis/chemically induced , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Biological Products/adverse effects , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Spondylarthritis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Endemic Diseases , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20190023, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002432


ABSTRACT Most people infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) do not have any signs or disease symptoms, a condition known as latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The introduction of biological agents, mainly tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and other rheumatic diseases, increased the risk of reactivation of LTBI, leading to development of active TB. Thus, this review will approach the aspects related to LTBI in patients with rheumatologic diseases, especially those using iTNF drugs. For this purpose it will be considered the definition and prevalence of LTBI, mechanisms associated with diseases and medications in use, criteria for screening, diagnosis and treatment. Considering that reactivation of LTBI accounts for a large proportion of the incidence of active TB, adequate diagnosis and treatment are crucial, especially in high-risk groups such as patients with rheumatologic diseases.

RESUMO A maioria das pessoas infectadas por Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) não possui sinais ou sintomas da doença, quadro conhecido como infecção latente por tuberculose (ILTB). A introdução de agentes biológicos, sobretudo inibidores do fator de necrose tumoral (iTNF), para o tratamento de doenças imunomediadas, como artrite reumatoide (AR) e outras doenças reumatológicas, aumentou o risco de reativação de ILTB, levando ao desenvolvimento de tuberculose (TB) ativa. Assim, esta revisão abordará os aspectos relacionados à ILTB em pacientes com doenças reumatológicas, especialmente naqueles em uso de medicamentos iTNF. Para tanto, serão considerados a definição e a prevalência de ILTB, os mecanismos associados às doenças e às medicações em uso, bem como os critérios para rastreamento, diagnóstico e tratamento da ILTB. Como a reativação da ILTB é responsável pela grande proporção de casos de TB ativa, o diagnóstico e o tratamento adequados são cruciais, principalmente em grupos de alto risco, como os pacientes com doenças reumatológicas.

Humans , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Latent Tuberculosis/etiology , Tuberculin Test , Risk Factors , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Interferon-gamma Release Tests
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 44, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088590


Abstract Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a well-documented independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity may provide an additional link between inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis in RA. Objective: To evaluate the association between obesity and disease parameters and cardiovascular risk factors in RA patients. Method: Cross-sectional study of a cohort of RA patients from three Brazilian teaching hospitals. Information on demographics, clinical parameters and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors was collected. Blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured during the first consultation. Laboratory data were retrieved from medical records. Obesity was defined according to the NCEP/ATPIII and IDF guidelines. The prevalence of obesity was determined cross-sectionally. Disease activity was evaluated using the DAS28 system (remission < 2.6; low 2.6—3.1; moderate 3.2-5.0; high >5.1). Results: The sample consisted of 791 RA patients aged 54.7 ± 12.0 years, of whom 86.9% were women and 59.9% were Caucasian. The mean disease duration was 12.8 ± 8.9 years. Three quarters were rheumatoid factor-positive, the mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 ±4.9, and the mean WC was 93.5 ± 12.5 cm. The observed risk factors included dyslipidemia (34.3%), type-2 diabetes (15%), hypertension (49.2%) and family history of premature cardiovascular disease (16.5%). BMI-defined obesity was highly prevalent (26.9%) and associated with age, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Increased WC was associated with diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and disease activity. Conclusion: Obesity was highly prevalent in RA patients and associated with disease activity.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/blood , Rheumatoid Factor/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/blood , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Overweight/diagnosis , Overweight/epidemiology , Adipokines/metabolism , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/blood , Obesity/diagnosis
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 17, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088607


Abstract Background: In Brazil, we are facing an alarming epidemic scenario of Yellow fever (YF), which is reaching the most populous areas of the country in unvaccinated people. Vaccination is the only effective tool to prevent YF. In special situations, such as patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (CIMID), undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, as a higher risk of severe adverse events may occur, assessment of the risk-benefit ratio of the yellow fever vaccine (YFV) should be performed on an individual level. Main body of the abstract: Faced with the scarcity of specific orientation on YFV for this special group of patients, the Brazilian Rheumatology Society (BRS) endorsed a project aiming the development of individualized YFV recommendations for patients with CIMID, guided by questions addressed by both medical professionals and patients, followed an internationally validated methodology (GIN-McMaster Guideline Development). Firstly, a systematic review was carried out and an expert panel formed to take part of the decision process, comprising BRS clinical practitioners, as well as individuals from the Brazilian Dermatology Society (BDS), Brazilian Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Study Group (GEDIIB), and specialists on infectious diseases and vaccination (from Tropical Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Immunizations National Societies); in addition, two representatives of patient groups were included as members of the panel. When the quality of the evidence was low or there was a lack of evidence to determine the recommendations, the decisions were based on the expert opinion panel and a Delphi approach was performed. A recommendation was accepted upon achieving ≥80% agreement among the panel, including the patient representatives. As a result, eight recommendations were developed regarding the safety of YFV in patients with CIMID, considering the immunosuppression degree conferred by the treatment used. It was not possible to establish recommendations on the effectiveness of YFV in these patients as there is no consistent evidence to support these recommendations. Conclusion: This paper approaches a real need, assessed by clinicians and patient care groups, to address specific questions on the management of YFV in patients with CIMID living or traveling to YF endemic areas, involving specialists from many areas together with patients, and might have global applicability, contributing to and supporting vaccination practices. We recommended a shared decision-making approach on taking or not the YFV.

Humans , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Yellow Fever Vaccine/administration & dosage , Brazil/epidemiology , Efficacy/standards , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(5): 385-391, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899442


Abstract Objectives: To correlate the basal expression of complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) CD55, CD59, CD35, and CD46 in B-lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of a cohort of 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) initiating treatment with rituximab (RTX) with depletion and time repopulation of such cells. Methods: Ten patients with RA received two infusions of 1 g of RTX with an interval of 14 days. Immunophenotypic analysis for the detection of CD55, CD59, CD35, and CD46 on B-lymphocytes was carried out immediately before the first infusion. The population of B-lymphocytes was analyzed by means of basal CD19 expression and after 1, 2, and 6 months after the infusion of RTX, and then quarterly until clinical relapse. Depletion of B-lymphocytes in peripheral blood was defined as a CD19 expression <0.005 × 109/L. Results: Ten women with a median of 49 years and a baseline DAS28 = 5.6 were evaluated; 9 were seropositive for rheumatoid factor. Five patients showed a repopulation of B-lymphocytes after 2 months, and the other five after 6 months. There was a correlation between the basal expression of CD46 and the time of repopulation (correlation coefficient = −0.733, p = 0.0016). A similar trend was observed with CD35, but without statistical significance (correction coefficient = −0.522, p = 0.12). Conclusion: The increased CD46 expression was predictive of a faster repopulation of B-lymphocytes in patients treated with RTX. Studies involving a larger number of patients will be needed to confirm the utility of basal expression of CRPs as a predictor of clinical response.

Resumo Objetivos: Correlacionar a expressão basal das proteínas reguladoras do complemento (PRC) CD55, CD59, CD35 e CD46 nos linfócitos B do sangue periférico de uma coorte de 10 pacientes com artrite reumatoide (AR) iniciando tratamento com rituximabe (RTX) com a depleção e tempo de repopulação dessas células. Métodos: Dez pacientes com AR receberam duas infusões de 1 g de RTX com intervalo de 14 dias. Análises imunofenotípicas para detecção de CD55, CD59, CD35 e CD46 nos linfócitos B foram feitas imediatamente antes da primeira infusão. A população de linfócitos B foi analisada por meio da expressão de CD19 basal e após um, dois e seis meses após a infusão de RTX e então trimestralmente até a recaída clínica. Depleção de linfócitos B no sangue periférico foi definida como expressão de CD19 < 0,005 × 109/l. Resultados: Dez mulheres com mediana de 49 anos e DAS 28 basal de 5,6 foram avaliadas; nove eram soropositivas para o fator reumatoide. Cinco pacientes apresentaram repopulação de linfócitos B após dois meses e as outras cinco aos seis meses. Houve correlação entre a expressão basal de CD46 e o tempo de repopulação (coeficiente de correlação -0,733, p = 0,0016). Tendência semelhante foi observada com CD35, porém sem significância estatística (coeficiente de correção 0,522, p = 0,12). Conclusão: Expressão aumentada de CD46 foi preditora de repopulação mais rápida de linfócitos B em pacientes tratados com RTX. Estudos com um número maior de pacientes serão necessários para confirmar a utilidade da expressão basal das PRC como preditora de resposta clínica.

Humans , Female , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , GPI-Linked Proteins/blood , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/blood , Infusions, Intravenous , Drug Administration Schedule , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Biomarkers/blood , Treatment Outcome , Antirheumatic Agents/pharmacology , Rituximab/pharmacology , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(supl.2): s477-s483, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899483


Abstract Objectives To assess the incidence of tuberculosis and to screen for latent tuberculosis infection among Brazilians with rheumatoid arthritis using biologics in clinical practice. Patients and methods This cohort study used data from the Brazilian Registry of Biological Therapies in Rheumatic Diseases (Registro Brasileiro de Monitoração de Terapias Biológicas - BiobadaBrasil), from 01/2009 to 05/2013, encompassing 1552 treatments, including 415 with only synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, 942 synthetic DMARDs combined with anti-tumor necrosis factor (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab) and 195 synthetic DMARDs combined with other biologics (abatacept, rituximab and tocilizumab). The occurrence of tuberculosis and the drug exposure time were assessed, and screening for tuberculosis was performed. Statistical analysis: Unpaired t-test and Fisher's two-tailed test; p < 0.05. Results The exposure times were 981 patient-years in the controls, 1744 patient-years in the anti-TNF group (adalimumab = 676, infliximab = 547 and etanercept = 521 patient-years) and 336 patient-years in the other biologics group. The incidence rates of tuberculosis were 1.01/1000 patient-years in the controls and 2.87 patient-years among anti-TNF users (adalimumab = 4.43/1000 patient-years; etanercept = 1.92/1000 patient-years and infliximab = 1.82/1000 patient-years). No cases of tuberculosis occurred in the other biologics group. The mean drug exposure time until the occurrence of tuberculosis was 27(11) months for the anti-TNF group. Conclusions The incidence of tuberculosis was higher among users of synthetic DMARDs and anti-TNF than among users of synthetic DMARDs and synthetic DMARDs and non-anti-TNF biologics and also occurred later, suggesting infection during treatment and no screening failure.

Resumo Objetivos Avaliar incidência de tuberculose e triagem para tuberculose latente em brasileiros com artrite reumatoide em uso de agentes biológicos na prática clinica. Pacientes e métodos Estudo de coorte com dados do Registro Brasileiro de Monitoração de Terapias Biológicas (BiobadaBrasil), de 01/2009 a 05/2013, abrangeu 1.552 tratamentos, 415 somente com drogas modificadoras do curso da doença (MMCDs) sintéticas, 942 MMCDs sintéticas em associação com anti-TNF (etanercepte, infliximabe, adalimumabe) e 195 MMCDs sintéticas em associação com outros biológicos (abatacepte, rituximabe e tocilizumabe). Avaliaram-se ocorrência de tuberculose, tempo de exposição às drogas e triagem para TB. Análise estatística: teste t não pareado e teste de Fisher bicaudal; p < 0,05. Resultados O tempo de exposição dos controles foi de 981 pacientes-ano, do grupo de anti-TNF foi de 1.744 pacientes-ano (adalimumabe = 676, infliximabe = 547 e etanercepte = 521 pacientes-ano) e o de outros biológicos de 336 pacientes-ano. A incidência de TB foi de 1,01/1.000 pacientes-ano nos controles e de 2,87 pacientes-ano nos usuários de anti-TNF (adalimumabe = 4,43/1.000 pacientes-ano; etanercepte = 1,92/1.000 pacientes-ano e infliximabe = 1,82/1.000 pacientes-ano). Não houve casos de tuberculose no grupo de outros biológicos. O tempo médio de exposição até a ocorrência de tuberculose foi de 27(11) meses para o grupo anti-TNF. Conclusões A incidência de tuberculose foi maior nos usuários de MMCDs sintéticas e anti-TNF do que nos usuários de MMCDs sintéticas e de MMCDs sintéticas e biológicos não anti-TNF, e também mais tardia, sugerindo infecção durante o tratamento, e não falha na triagem.

Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/chemically induced , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Registries , Incidence , Cohort Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Adalimumab/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Etanercept/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 55(4): 363-367, jul.-ago. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-757464


RESUMOO hormônio anti-Mülleriano (HAM) é secretado a partir das células da granulosa dos folículos ovarianos em crescimento e parece ser o melhor marcador endócrino capaz de estimar a reserva ovariana. O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) é uma doença autoimune que acomete predominantemente mulheres em idade reprodutiva e pode afetar negativamente sua fertilidade pela atividade da doença, bem como pelos tratamentos usados. Conhecer o real impacto do LES e de seu tratamento na fertilidade vem sendo o objetivo de estudos recentes, os quais têm usado o HAM para esse fim.

ABSTRACTThe anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted from granulosa cells of growing ovarian follicles and appears to be the best endocrine marker capable of estimating ovarian reserve. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women of reproductive age and may negatively affect their fertility due to disease activity and the treatments used. Recently, several studies assessed AMH levels to understand the real impact of SLE and its treatment on fertility.

Humans , Female , Anti-Mullerian Hormone/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/physiopathology , Ovarian Reserve , Predictive Value of Tests
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 55(3): 281-309, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752093


O tratamento das doenças reumáticas autoimunes sofreu uma progressiva melhora ao longo da última metade do século passado, que foi expandida com a contribuição das terapias biológicas ou imunobiológicos. No entanto, há que se atentar para as possibilidades de efeitos indesejáveis advindos da utilização dessa classe de medicações. A Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia (SBR) elaborou um documento, baseado em ampla revisão da literatura, sobre os aspectos relativos à segurança dessa classe de fármacos, mais especificamente no que diz respeito ao tratamento da artrite reumatoide (AR) e das espondiloartrites. Os temas selecionados pelos especialistas participantes, sobre os quais foram estabelecidas considerações quanto à segurança do uso de drogas biológicas, foram: ocorrência de infecções (bacterianas, virais, tuberculose), reações infusionais, reações hematológicas, neurológicas, gastrointestinais, cardiovasculares, ocorrências neoplásicas (neoplasias sólidas e da linhagem hematológica), imunogenicidade, outras ocorrências e reposta vacinal. Optou-se, por motivos didáticos, por se fazer um resumo da avaliação de segurança, de acordo com os tópicos anteriores, por classe de drogas/mecanismo de ação (antagonistas do fator de necrose tumoral, bloqueador da co-estimulação do linfócito T, depletor de linfócito B e bloqueador do receptor de interleucina-6). Em separado, foram tecidas considerações gerais sobre segurança do uso de biológicos na gravidez e na lactação. Esta revisão procura oferecer uma atualização ampla e equilibrada das experiências clínica e experimental acumuladas nas últimas duas décadas de uso de medicamentos imunobiológicos para o tratamento da AR e espondiloartrites.

The treatment of autoimmune rheumatic diseases has gradually improved over the last half century, which has been expanded with the contribution of biological therapies or immunobiopharmaceuticals. However, we must be alert to the possibilities of undesirable effects from the use of this class of medications. The Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia) produced a document based on a comprehensive literature review on the safety aspects of this class of drugs, specifically with regard to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritides. The themes selected by the participating experts, on which considerations have been established as the safe use of biological drugs, were: occurrence of infections (bacterial, viral, tuberculosis), infusion reactions, hematological, neurological, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular reactions, neoplastic events (solid tumors and hematologic neoplasms), immunogenicity, other occurrences and vaccine response. For didactic reasons, we opted by elaborating a summary of safety assessment in accordance with the previous themes, by drug class/mechanism of action (tumor necrosis factor antagonists, T-cell co-stimulation blockers, B-cell depletors and interleukin-6 receptor blockers). Separately, general considerations on safety in the use of biologicals in pregnancy and lactation were proposed. This review seeks to provide a broad and balanced update of that clinical and experimental experience pooled over the last two decades of use of immunobiological drugs for RA and spondyloarthritides treatment.

Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Biological Therapy , Spondylarthritis/therapy , Abatacept/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 53(1): 13-23, jan.-fev. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670980


OBJETIVO: Elaborar recomendações para a vacinação em pacientes com artrite reumatoide (AR) no Brasil. MÉTODO: Revisão da literatura e opinião de especialistas membros da Comissão de AR da Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia e um pediatra reumatologista. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Foram estabelecidas 12 recomendações: 1) Antes de iniciar drogas modificadoras do curso de doença, deve-se revisar e atualizar o cartão vacinal; 2) As vacinas contra influenza sazonal e contra H1N1 estão indicadas anualmente para pacientes portadores de AR; 3) A vacina antipneumocócica deve ser indicada para todos os pacientes; 4) A vacina contra varicela deve ser indicada para pacientes com história negativa ou duvidosa de infecção prévia por varicela; 5) A vacina contra HPV deve ser considerada em adolescentes e mulheres jovens; 6) A vacina antimeningocócica é indicada para pacientes portadores de AR apenas em casos de asplenia ou deficiência de complemento; 7) Existe orientação de imunização contra o Haemophilus influenzae tipo B de pacientes adultos asplênicos; 8) Não há indicação de uma vacina adicional contra BCG em pacientes com AR; 9) A vacina contra hepatite B é indicada para pacientes com anticorpos contra HBsAg negativos; considerar a vacina contra hepatite A em combinação com a hepatite B; 10) Pacientes com grande risco de contrair tétano que receberam rituximabe nas últimas 24 semanas devem utilizar imunização passiva com imunoglobulina antitetânica; 11) A vacina contra febre amarela é contraindicada nos pacientes com AR em uso de imunossupressores; 12) As recomendações acima descritas devem ser revisadas ao longo da evolução da AR.

OBJECTIVE: To elaborate recommendations to the vaccination of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Brazil. METHOD: Literature review and opinion of expert members of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology Committee of Rheumatoid Arthritis and of an invited pediatric rheumatologist. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The following 12 recommendations were established: 1) Before starting disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, the vaccine card should be reviewed and updated; 2) Vaccines against seasonal influenza and against H1N1 are indicated annually for patients with RA; 3) The pneumococcal vaccine should be indicated for all patients with RA; 4) The vaccine against varicella should be indicated for patients with RA and a negative or dubious history for that disease; 5) The HPV vaccine should be considered for adolescent and young females with RA; 6) The meningococcal vaccine is indicated for patients with RA only in the presence of asplenia or complement deficiency; 7) Asplenic adults with RA should be immunized against Haemophilus influenzae type B; 8) An additional BCG vaccine is not indicated for patients diagnosed with RA; 9) Hepatitis B vaccine is indicated for patients with RA who are negative for antibodies against HBsAg; the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine should be considered; 10) Patients with RA and at high risk for tetanus, who received rituximab in the preceding 24 weeks, should undergo passive immunization with tetanus immunoglobulin in case of exposure; 11) The YF vaccine is contraindicated to patients with RA on immunosuppressive drugs; 12) The above described recommendations should be reviewed over the course of RA.

Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Vaccination