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Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 675-675, Nov.-Dec. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349987

Humans , Achievement
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 1-1, Jan.-Feb. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088774
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 638-645, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055023


ABSTRACT Acromegaly is an insidious disease, usually resulting from growth hormone hypersecretion by a pituitary adenoma. It is most often diagnosed during the 3rd to 4th decade of life. However, recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence and prevalence of acromegaly in the elderly, probably due to increasing life expectancy. As in the younger population with acromegaly, there is a delay in diagnosis, aggravated by the similarities of the aging process with some of the characteristics of the disease. As can be expected elderly patients with acromegaly have a higher prevalence of comorbidities than younger ones. The diagnostic criteria are the same as for younger patients. Surgical treatment of the pituitary adenoma is the primary therapy of choice unless contraindicated. Somatostatin receptor ligands are generally effective as both primary and postoperative treatment. The prognosis correlates inversely with the patient's age, disease duration and last GH level. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):638-45

Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Acromegaly/diagnosis , Acromegaly/physiopathology , Acromegaly/therapy , Acromegaly/epidemiology , Prognosis
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 313-313, July-Aug. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019356

Humans , Medicine , Music
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(6): 571-571, Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983813
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(2): 236-263, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887642


ABSTRACT Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas (approximately 40% of cases), and they represent an important cause of hypogonadism and infertility in both sexes. The magnitude of prolactin (PRL) elevation can be useful in determining the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. Indeed, PRL levels > 250 ng/mL are highly suggestive of the presence of a prolactinoma. In contrast, most patients with stalk dysfunction, drug-induced hyperprolactinemia or systemic diseases present with PRL levels < 100 ng/mL. However, exceptions to these rules are not rare. On the other hand, among patients with macroprolactinomas (MACs), artificially low PRL levels may result from the so-called "hook effect". Patients harboring cystic MACs may also present with a mild PRL elevation. The screening for macroprolactin is mostly indicated for asymptomatic patients and those with apparent idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the treatment of choice for prolactinomas, particularly cabergoline, which is more effective and better tolerated than bromocriptine. After 2 years of successful treatment, DA withdrawal should be considered in all cases of microprolactinomas and in selected cases of MACs. In this publication, the goal of the Neuroendocrinology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism (SBEM) is to provide a review of the diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas, emphasizing controversial issues regarding these topics. This review is based on data published in the literature and the authors' experience.

Humans , Male , Female , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pituitary Neoplasms/therapy , Hyperprolactinemia/diagnosis , Hyperprolactinemia/therapy , Prolactinoma/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prolactin/blood , Brazil , Prolactinoma/therapy , Bromocriptine/therapeutic use , Dopamine Agonists/therapeutic use , Ergolines/therapeutic use , Cabergoline , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(4): 374-390, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792938


ABSTRACT Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are the most common pituitary tumors after prolactinomas. The absence of clinical symptoms of hormonal hypersecretion can contribute to the late diagnosis of the disease. Thus, the majority of patients seek medical attention for signs and symptoms resulting from mass effect, such as neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and hypopituitarism. Other presentations include pituitary apoplexy or an incidental finding on imaging studies. Mass effect and hypopituitarism impose high morbidity and mortality. However, early diagnosis and effective treatment minimizes morbidity and mortality. In this publication, the goal of the Neuroendocrinology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism is to provide a review of the diagnosis and treatment of patients with NFPA, emphasizing that the treatment should be performed in reference centers. This review is based on data published in the literature and the authors’ experience. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2016;60(4):374-90.

Humans , Male , Female , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pituitary Neoplasms/therapy , Neuroendocrinology , Adenoma/diagnosis , Societies, Medical , Brazil , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Adenoma/therapy , Risk Factors , Early Diagnosis , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(3): 259-264, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751323


Pituitary apoplexy is characterized by sudden increase in pituitary gland volume secondary to ischemia and/or necrosis, usually in a pituitary adenoma. Most cases occur during the 5th decade of life, predominantly in males and in previously unknown clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. There are some predisposing factors as arterial hypertension, anticoagulant therapy and major surgery. Clinical picture comprises headache, visual impairment, cranial nerve palsies and hypopituitarism. Most cases improve with both surgical and expectant management and the best approach in the acute phase is still controversial. Surgery, usually by transsphenoidal route, is indicated if consciousness and/or vision are impaired, despite glucocorticoid replacement and electrolyte support. Pituitary function is impaired in most patients before apoplexy and ACTH deficiency is common, which makes glucocorticoid replacement needed in most cases. Pituitary deficiencies, once established, usually do not recover, regardless the treatment. Sellar imaging and endocrinological function must be periodic reevaluated. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(3):259-64.

Humans , Male , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Models, Statistical , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Salvage Therapy/methods , Computer Simulation , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Salvage Therapy/standards , Treatment Outcome
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(2): 118-123, 03/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-709332


Os prolactinomas são os adenomas de hipófise mais comuns e frequentemente afetam mulheres jovens, em faixa etária de fertilidade. A hiperprolactinemia causa hipogonadismo, irregularidade menstrual ou amenorreia em mulheres, níveis baixos de testosterona sérica em homens e infertilidade e disfunção sexual em ambos os gêneros. Macroprolactinomas podem causar cefaleia, aliteração visual e hipopituitarismo. O tratamento clínico com agonista dopaminérgico é o padrão-ouro, sendo a cabergolina a droga de escolha por sua maior eficácia e tolerabilidade. Em cerca de 20% dos casos, o tratamento é parcial ou totalmente ineficaz, situação na qual a cirurgia, em geral por via transesfenoidal, está indicada. A radioterapia é indicada somente para controle de crescimento tumoral em casos invasivos/agressivos. Nos macroprolactinomas invasivos, a abordagem em geral necessária é a de diversas modalidades terapêuticas combinadas, incluindo debulking e drogas recém-aprovadas como a temozolamida. Com relação à gestação, a droga de escolha para induzir a ovulação ainda é a bromocriptina. Nos casos de microprolactinomas e de macroprolactinomas intrasselares, o agonista dopaminérgico pode ser suspenso após a confirmação da gestação. Nos macroprolactinomas, o manejo deve ser individualizado.

Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas that affect young women at fertile age. Hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism, menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea in women, low serum testosterone levels in men, and infertility and sexual dysfunction in both men and women. Macroprolactinomas may cause cephalea, visual disturbance, and hypopituitarism. Clinical treatment with dopamine agonists is the gold standard, with cabergoline as the first choice due to its greater efficiency and tolerability. In about 20% of the cases, treatment is partially or completely ineffective, a situation in which surgery, in general by transsphenoidal route, is indicated. Radiotherapy is indicated only in the control of tumor growth in invasive/aggressive cases. In invasive macroprolactinoma, the necessary approach, in general, is the combination of several therapeutic modalities, including debulking and recently-approved drugs, such as temozolamide. As for pregnancy, the drug of choice to induce ovulation still is bromocriptine. In the cases of microprolactinomas and intrasselar macroprolactinomas, the treatment with dopaminergic agonists may be suspended after pregnancy is confirmed. In macroprolactinomas, management should be individualized.

Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(1): 9-22, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705235


The definition of the etiology of hyperprolactinemia often represents a great challenge and an accurate diagnosis is paramount before treatment. Although prolactin levels > 200-250 ng/mL are highly suggestive of prolactinomas, they can occasionally be found in other conditions. Moreover, as much as 25% of patients with microprolactinomas may present prolactin levels < 100 ng/mL, which are found in most patients with pseudoprolactinomas, drug-induced hyperprolactinemia, or systemic diseases. On the other hand, some conditions may lead to falsely low PRL levels, particularly the so-called hook effect, that is an assay artifact caused by an extremely high level of PRL, and can be confirmed by repeating assay after a 1:100 serum sample dilution. The hook effect must be considered in all patients with large pituitary adenomas and PRL levels within the normal range or only modestly elevated (e.g., < 200 ng/mL). An overlooked hook effect may lead to incorrect diagnosis and unnecessary surgical intervention in patients with prolactinomas. Another important challenge is macroprolactinemia, a common finding that needs to be identified, as it usually requires no treatment. Although most macroprolactinemic patients are asymptomatic, many of them may present galactorrhea or menstrual disorders, as well as neuroradiological abnormalities, due to the concomitance of other diseases. Finally, physicians should be aware that pituitary incidentalomas are found in at least 10% of adult population. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(1):9-22.

A definição da etiologia da hiperprolactinemia muitas vezes representa um grande desafio e um diagnóstico preciso é fundamental antes do tratamento. Embora níveis de prolactina > 200-250 ng/mL sejam altamente sugestivos de prolactinomas, ocasionalmente podem ser encontrados em outras condições. Além disso, até 25% dos pacientes com microprolactinomas podem apresentar-se com níveis de prolactina < 100 ng/mL, os quais são evidenciados na maioria dos pacientes com pseudoprolactinomas, hiperprolactinemia induzida por drogas ou doenças sistêmicas. Por outro lado, deve-se atentar às condições que podem levar a valores de prolactina falsamente baixos, particularmente o chamado efeito gancho. Este último é um artefato causado por um nível extremamente elevado de PRL e que pode ser confirmado pela repetição do exame após diluição do soro a 1:100. O efeito gancho deve ser considerado em todo paciente com grandes adenomas hipofisários e níveis de prolactina dentro da faixa normal ou apenas moderadamente elevados (p. ex., < 200 ng/mL). Um efeito gancho não detectado pode levar a diagnóstico incorreto e intervenção cirúrgica desnecessária em pacientes com prolactinomas. Outro desafio importante é a macroprolactinemia, um achado comum que precisa ser identificado visto que geralmente não requer tratamento. Ainda que a maioria dos pacientes seja assintomática devido à concomitância de outras doenças, muitos podem apresentar galactorreia ou distúrbios menstruais, bem como anormalidades neurorradiológicas. Finalmente, os médicos devem estar cientes de que incidentalomas hipofisários são encontrados em pelo menos 10% da população adulta. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(1):9-22.

Female , Humans , Male , Hyperprolactinemia/diagnosis , Hyperprolactinemia/etiology , Prolactin/blood , Prolactinoma/complications , Chemical Precipitation , Chromatography, Gel , Galactorrhea/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Medical History Taking , Physical Examination , Prolactin/classification
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(7): 566-570, out. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-690597


Intracranial germinomas (GE) are malignant neoplasms most commonly found in the suprasellar region, which may cause anterior and particularly posterior pituitary hormone deficits with central diabetes insipidus (DI). Differential diagnosis of pituitary stalk thickening includes granulomatous, inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic lesions. Although careful analysis of clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings may facilitate the diagnosis, transsphenoidal biopsy is indicated to confirm the disease, as the correct diagnosis directs the appropriate treatment.

Germinomas intracranianos (GE) são neoplasias malignas comumente na região suprasselar, podendo causar deficiência hormonal da hipófise anterior, em particular da hipófise posterior, com diabetes insípido central (DI). Entre os diagnósticos diferenciais do espessamento de haste hipofisária, incluem-se doenças granulomatosas, inflamatórias, infecciosas e neoplásicas. Embora as avaliações clínica, laboratorial e a ressonância magnética selar sugiram o diagnóstico, a biópsia transesfenoidal está indicada para confirmação, visto que o diagnóstico correto direciona o tratamento.

Adult , Female , Humans , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Germinoma/pathology , Hypopituitarism/pathology , Pituitary Gland/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Biopsy , Hypopituitarism/etiology , Pituitary Hormones
Clinics ; 68(6): 887-891, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676940


OBJECTIVE: The expression of transcription factors involved in early pituitary development, such as PROP1 and POU1F1, has been detected in pituitary adenoma tissues. In this study, we sought to characterize the transcriptional profiles of PROP1, POU1F1, and TBX19 in functioning and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas in an attempt to identify their roles in tumorigenesis and hormone hypersecretion. METHODS: RT-qPCR analyses were performed to assess the transcriptional pattern of PROP1, POU1F1, TBX19, and hormone-producing genes in tissue samples of corticotrophinomas (n = 10), somatotrophinomas (n = 8), and nonfunctioning adenomas (n = 6). RESULTS: Compared with normal pituitary tissue, POU1F1 was overexpressed in somatotrophinomas by 3-fold. PROP1 expression was 18-fold higher in corticotrophinomas, 10-fold higher in somatotrophinomas, and 3-fold higher in nonfunctioning adenomas. TBX19 expression was 27-fold higher in corticotrophinomas. Additionally, the level of TBX19 mRNA positively correlated with that of pro-opiomelanocortin (r = 0.49, p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that PROP1 is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas, mainly in corticotrophinomas. Together with previously published data showing that patients who harbor PROP1 loss-of-function mutations present a progressive decline in corticotrope function, our results support a role for PROP1 in pituitary tumor development and in the maintenance of cell lineages committed to corticotrophic differentiation. .

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/metabolism , Adenoma/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , T-Box Domain Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factor Pit-1/metabolism , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/genetics , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/pathology , Adenoma/genetics , Adenoma/pathology , Cell Differentiation , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Pituitary Gland , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , T-Box Domain Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factor Pit-1/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism
Clinics ; 68(5): 579-585, maio 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675761


OBJECTIVES: Patients with Cushing's disease exhibit wide phenotypic variability in the severity of obesity, diabetes and hypertension. In the general population, several glucocorticoid receptor genes (NR3C1) and HSD11B1 polymorphisms are associated with altered glucocorticoid sensitivity and/or metabolism, resulting in an increased or reduced risk of an adverse metabolic profile. Our aim was to analyze the association of NR3C1 and HSD11B1 gene variants with the severity of some clinical and hormonal features of Cushing's disease. METHODS: Sixty-four patients presenting with Cushing's disease were diagnosed based on adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests and/or inferior petrosal sinus sampling and magnetic resonance imaging. The A3669G, ER22/23EK, N363S BclI-NR3C1 and HSD11B1-rs12086634 variants were screened. RESULTS: The BclI, HSD11B1-rs12086634 and A3669G variants were found in 36%, 19.5% and 14% of alleles, respectively. The N363S and ER22/23EK polymorphisms were identified in heterozygosis once in only two patients (1.5% of alleles). There were no differences in the weight gain or prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in the patients carrying the abovementioned alleles compared to the wild-type carriers. Interestingly, the mean body mass index (BMI) of the BclI carriers was significantly higher than the non-carriers (34.4±7 kg/m2 vs. 29.6±4.7 kg/m2, respectively). None of the polymorphisms were associated with the basal adrenocorticotrophic hormone, FU levels or F level after dexamethasone suppression testing. CONCLUSION: Although Cushing's disease results from increased glucocorticoid secretion, we observed that interindividual variability in the peripheral glucocorticoid sensitivity, mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor, could modulate the obesity phenotype. .

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alleles , /genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/genetics , Body Mass Index , Genotype , Phenotype , Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion/blood
Clinics ; 67(5): 469-474, 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626343


OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to compare the objective and subjective effects of continuous positive airway pressure to the use of nasal dilator strips in patients with acromegaly and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: We studied 12 patients with acromegaly and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (male/ females = 8/4, age = 52±8 ys, body mass index = 33.5±4.6 Kg/m², apnea-hypopnea index = 38±14 events/h) who had been included in a randomized, crossover study to receive three months of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure and nasal dilator strips. All patients were evaluated at study entry and at the end of each treatment by polysomnography, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and treatment satisfaction questionnaires. NCT01265121 RESULTS: The apnea-hypopnea index values decreased significantly with continuous positive airway pressure treatment but did not change with the use of nasal dilator strips. All of the subjective symptoms improved with both treatments, but these improvements were significantly greater with continuous positive airway pressure than with the nasal dilator strips CONCLUSION: The use of nasal dilator strips had a much smaller effect on the severity of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acromegaly and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea in comparison to the use of continuous positive airway pressure. Moreover, the improvement in several subjective parameters without any significant objective improvement in obstructive sleep apnea resulting from the use of nasal dilator strips is compatible with a placebo effect.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acromegaly/complications , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Dilatation/instrumentation , Nasal Cavity , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Cross-Over Studies , Placebo Effect , Polysomnography , Surveys and Questionnaires
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 55(2): 91-105, mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-586492


A acromegalia é uma doença associada à elevada morbidade e à redução da expectativa de vida. Em virtude do seu caráter insidioso e do seu não reconhecimento, o diagnóstico é frequentemente realizado com atraso, o que, associado às complicações relacionadas ao excesso do GH/IGF-I, determina elevada morbimortalidade. No entanto, um diagnóstico precoce e um tratamento efetivo minimizam a morbidade e normalizam a taxa de mortalidade. Nesta publicação, o objetivo do Departamento de Neuroendocrinologia da Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia é divulgar quando suspeitar clinicamente da acromegalia e como diagnosticá-la. Além disso, discute-se a maneira mais eficaz e segura de realizar o tratamento da acromegalia, enfatizando que este deve ser realizado em centros de referência. Assim, com base em dados publicados em periódicos de nível científico reconhecido e na experiência dos autores, são apresentadas as recomendações para o diagnóstico e tratamento da doença.

Acromegaly is a disease associated with increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Because of its insidious character and its non-recognition, the diagnosis is often made with delay, which, along with the complications related to GH/IGF-I excess, determines high morbidity and mortality. However, an early diagnosis and an effective treatment reduce the morbidity and normalize the mortality rate. In this publication, the goal of Neuroendocrinology Department from Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism is to disclose which clinical set should arouse the suspicious of acromegaly and how to diagnose it. Furthermore, we discuss the most effective and safe approach to perform the treatment of acromegaly, emphasizing that it must be carried out in reference centers. Therefore, based on data published in journals with recognized scientific level and authors' experience, recommendations are presented for diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

Humans , Acromegaly/diagnosis , Acromegaly/therapy , Brazil , Human Growth Hormone , Syndrome