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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 558-566, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897441

ABSTRACT

Decision-making for treatment of newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) is complex due to the multiple initial treatment modalities available. We aimed to externally validate the SCaP (Severance Study Group of Prostate Cancer) Survival Calculator that incorporates a long short-term memory artificial neural network (ANN) model to estimate survival outcomes of PCa according to initial treatment modality. Materials and Methods The validation cohort consisted of clinicopathological data of 4,415 patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven PCa between April 2005 and November 2018 at three institutions. Area under the curves (AUCs) and time-to-event calibration plots were utilized to determine the predictive accuracies of the SCaP Survival Calculator in terms of progression to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC)–free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results Excellent discrimination was observed for CRPC-free survival, CSS, and OS outcomes, with AUCs of 0.962, 0.944, and 0.884 for 5-year outcomes and 0.959, 0.928, and 0.854 for 10-year outcomes, respectively. The AUC values were higher for all survival endpoints compared to those of the development cohort. Calibration plots showed that predicted probabilities of 5-year survival endpoints had concordance comparable to those of the observed frequencies. However, calibration performances declined for 10-year predictions with an overall underestimation. Conclusion The SCaP Survival Calculator is a reliable and useful tool for determining the optimal initial treatment modality and for guiding survival predictions for patients with newly diagnosed PCa. Further modifications in the ANN model incorporating cases with more extended follow-up periods are warranted to improve the ANN model for long-term predictions.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 558-566, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889737

ABSTRACT

Decision-making for treatment of newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) is complex due to the multiple initial treatment modalities available. We aimed to externally validate the SCaP (Severance Study Group of Prostate Cancer) Survival Calculator that incorporates a long short-term memory artificial neural network (ANN) model to estimate survival outcomes of PCa according to initial treatment modality. Materials and Methods The validation cohort consisted of clinicopathological data of 4,415 patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven PCa between April 2005 and November 2018 at three institutions. Area under the curves (AUCs) and time-to-event calibration plots were utilized to determine the predictive accuracies of the SCaP Survival Calculator in terms of progression to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC)–free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results Excellent discrimination was observed for CRPC-free survival, CSS, and OS outcomes, with AUCs of 0.962, 0.944, and 0.884 for 5-year outcomes and 0.959, 0.928, and 0.854 for 10-year outcomes, respectively. The AUC values were higher for all survival endpoints compared to those of the development cohort. Calibration plots showed that predicted probabilities of 5-year survival endpoints had concordance comparable to those of the observed frequencies. However, calibration performances declined for 10-year predictions with an overall underestimation. Conclusion The SCaP Survival Calculator is a reliable and useful tool for determining the optimal initial treatment modality and for guiding survival predictions for patients with newly diagnosed PCa. Further modifications in the ANN model incorporating cases with more extended follow-up periods are warranted to improve the ANN model for long-term predictions.

3.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 74-79, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879709

ABSTRACT

We investigated the relationship between positive surgical margin (PSM)-related factors and biochemical recurrence (BCR) and the ability of intraoperative frozen sections to predict significant PSM in patients with prostate cancer. The study included 271 patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy with bilateral nerve sparing and maximal urethral preservation. Intraoperative frozen sections of the periurethra, dorsal vein, and bladder neck were analyzed. The ability of PSM-related factors to predict BCR and significant PSM was assessed by logistic regression. Of 271 patients, 108 (39.9%) had PSM and 163 (60.1%) had negative margins. Pathologic Gleason score ≥8 (18.9% vs 7.5%, P = 0.015) and T stage ≥T3a (51.9%vs 24.6%, P < 0.001) were significantly more frequent in the PSM group. Multivariate analysis showed that Gleason pattern ≥4 (vs <4; hazard ratio: 4.386; P = 0.0004) was the only significant predictor of BCR in the PSM cohort. Periurethral frozen sections had a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 84.2% in detecting PSM with Gleason pattern ≥4. Multivariate analysis showed that membranous urethra length (odds ratio [OR]: 0.79, P = 0.0376) and extracapsular extension of the apex (OR: 4.58, P = 0.0226) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positive periurethral tissue (OR: 17.85, P < 0.0001) were associated with PSM of the apex. PSM with Gleason pattern ≥4 is significantly predictive of BCR. Intraoperative frozen sections of periurethral tissue can independently predict PSM, whereas sections of the bladder neck and dorsal vein could not. Pathologic examination of these samples may help predict significant PSM in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy with preservation of functional outcomes.

4.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 232-243, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918264

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To construct a urologic cancer database using a standardized, reproducible method, and to assess preliminary characteristics of this cohort. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with prostate, bladder, and kidney cancers who were enrolled with diagnostic codes in the electronic medical record (EMR) at Asan Medical Center from 2007–2016 were included. Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) was used to design the Asan Medical Center-Urologic Cancer Database (AMC-UCD). The process included developing a data dictionary, applying branching logic, mapping clinical data warehouse structures, alpha testing, clinical record summary testing, creating “standards of procedure,” importing data, and entering data. Descriptive statistics were used to identify rates of surgeries and numbers of patients. @*Results@#Clinical variables (n=407) were selected to develop a data dictionary from REDCap. In total, 20,198 urologic cancer patients visited our institution from 2007–2016 (bladder cancer, 4,616; kidney cancer, 5,750; prostate cancer, 10,330). The overall numbers of patients and surgeries increased over time, with robotic surgeries rapidly growing over a decade. The most common treatment for urologic cancer was surgery, followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. @*Conclusions@#Using a standardized method, the AMC-UCD fosters multidisciplinary research. This constructed database provides access to clinical statistics to effectively assist research. Preliminary data should be refined through EMR chart review. The successful organization of data from 2007–2016 provides a framework for future periods of investigation and prospective models.

5.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 244-251, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918263

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the association between microscopic hematuria (MH) detected by surveillance urinalysis and cancer recurrence in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 1,082 NMIBC patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) procedures at Asan Medical Center between January 2017 and December 2019 were included. We retrospectively reviewed the follow-up data for these cases including cystoscopy, urinalysis, and urine cytology. The association between urine testing and cancer recurrence was assessed by both univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The study patients had a median age of 68 years (interquartile range, 60–75 years) and comprised 898 men and 184 women. Among the 1,428 TURB procedures conducted in this series, 548 of the lesions (38.4%) were diagnosed as low-grade and 880 (61.6%) as highgrade cancers. A total of 3,309 follow-up cystoscopies were conducted during the study period and were divided into high-grade (HG) (2,011 cases) and low-grade (LG) (1,298 cases) groups according to the latest TURB pathology. MH was found to have a statistically significant association with NMIBC recurrence in both the LG (odds ratio [OR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.107–2.223; p=0.011) and HG (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.434–2.517; p<0.001) groups. @*Conclusions@#Urinalysis during follow-up may provide important information on cancer recurrence in NMIBC patients.

6.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 271-280, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918260

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To identify the risk factors leading to radical cystectomy in patients who had undergone nephroureterectomy (NUx). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma who underwent NUx during 2011–2019 and excluded patients with metastatic cancer. In total 646 patients were included in this study; of these, 532 had no previous bladder cancer history. Follow-up was performed every 3 months for 2 years after NUx was administered, and recurrence was confirmed using cystoscopy, urine cytology, computed tomography, and chest radiography. Bladder recurrence was confirmed through biopsy, urine cytology, or radiologic examination. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyzes were performed for statistical analysis of risk factors leading to radical cystectomy in patients undergoing NUx. @*Results@#Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (hazard ratio [HR], 4.728; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.463–15.570; p=0.011), previous transurethral resection of bladder tumor history (HR, 3.825; 95% CI, 1.164–12.571; p=0.027), and intravesical recurrence (IVR) within 6 months (HR, 3.733; 95% CI, 1.091–12.778; p=0.036) in patients undergoing NUx are predictors of radical cystectomy implementation. In a multivariate analysis of patients without bladder cancer history, bladder recurrence was identified as a predictor of radical cystectomy implementation, if it occurred within 6 months of NUx (HR, 8.608; 95% CI, 1.545–47.976; p=0.014). @*Conclusions@#LVI and IVR within 6 months and previous bladder cancer history are factors that can predict the need for radical cystectomy after NUx. Even in patients without bladder cancer history, early bladder recurrence within 6 months is a major predictor of radical cystectomy.

7.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 119-125, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741480

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared subtypes of papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC; types 1 and 2) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in patients with T1-stage RCC to analyze the impact of the subtype on oncological outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviewed 75 patients with pRCC and 252 patients with ccRCC at T1-stage from 1998–2012. Thus, we assessed the impact of subtype on oncologic outcomes among patients with T1-stage RCC. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate the overall survival and recurrence-free survival The median follow-up duration was 95 months (interquartile range, 75.4–119.3 months). RESULTS: The 5-year recurrence-free survivals of pRCC and ccRCC were 95.4% and 97.6%, respectively. pRCC is worse than ccRCC in terms of recurrence-free survival (p=0.008) and there was no significant difference in the overall survival between pRCC and ccRCC (p=0.32). In addition, there was no significant statistical difference between type 1 pRCC and type 2 pRCC in terms of either recurrence-free survival (p=0.526) or overall survival (p=0.701). Age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.069; p < 0.001) and recurrence (HR, 4.93; p < 0.001) were predictors of overall survival. Only tumor size (HR, 1.071; p=0.004) was predictors in the case of cancer specific survival in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with T1-stage RCC, recurrence after surgery was more common in pRCC than ccRCC. The subtype of pRCC (types 1 and 2) had no impact on the recurrence-free survival or overall survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Follow-Up Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Recurrence
8.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 318-323, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34595

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a relatively rare clinical entity of controversial significance characterized by the existence of hydroxyapatite microliths located in the seminiferous tubules. The aim of this study was to observe the natural course of changes in the calcific density of pediatric TM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included a total of 23 TM patients undergoing scrotal ultrasound (US) on at least two occasions from July 1997 to August 2014. We retrospectively analyzed the patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, specific pathological features, and clinical outcomes. We measured the calcified area and compared the calcific density between the initial and final USs. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 11.3+/-4.6 years, and the follow-up period was 79.1+/-38.8 months (range, 25.4-152.9 months). During the follow-up period, no patients developed testicular cancer. Calcific density on US was increased in the last versus the initial US, but not to a statistically significant degree (3.74%+/-6.0% vs. 3.06%+/-4.38%, respectively, p=0.147). When we defined groups with increased and decreased calcification, we found that diffuse TM was categorized into the increased group to a greater degree than focal TM (10/20 vs. 4/23, respectively, p=0.049). In addition, five of eight cases of cryptorchidism (including two cases of bilateral cryptorchidism) were categorized in the increased calcification group. CONCLUSIONS: Diffuse TM and cryptorchidism tend to increase calcific density. Close observation is therefore recommended for cases of TM combined with cryptorchidism and cases of diffuse TM.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Male , Calcification, Physiologic , Calculi/complications , Cryptorchidism/diagnosis , Densitometry/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Gonadoblastoma/diagnosis , Republic of Korea , Scrotum/diagnostic imaging , Seminiferous Tubules/pathology , Testicular Diseases/complications , Testicular Neoplasms/diagnosis
9.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 212-217, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60932

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by various translocations of the TFE3 transcription factor gene. These rare cancers occur predominantly in children and young adults. Here, we review the clinicopathological features of Xp11.2 translocation RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 21 patients with Xp11.2 translocation RCC. We retrospectively analyzed patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, and specific pathological features to assess definitive diagnosis, surgical and systemic treatments, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 43.4+/-20.0 years (range, 8-80 years; 8 males and 13 females). Eleven patients were incidentally diagnosed, nine patients presented with local symptoms, and one patient presented with systemic symptoms. The mean tumor size was 6.2+/-3.8 cm (range, 1.9-14 cm). At the time of diagnosis, 11, 1, and 5 patients showed stage I, II, and III, respectively. Four patients showed distant metastasis. At analysis, 15 patients were disease-free after a median follow-up period of 30.0 months. Four patients received target therapy but not effectively. CONCLUSIONS: Xp11 translocation RCC tends to develop in young patients with lymph node metastasis. Targeted therapy did not effectively treat our patients. Surgery is the only effective therapy for Xp11 translocation RCC, and further studies are needed to assess systemic therapy and long-term prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/genetics , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnosis , Chromosomes, Human, X/chemistry , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lymphatic Metastasis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Translocation, Genetic
10.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 163-167, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102301

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of intravesical hyaluronic acid (HA) instillation in treating patients with refractory interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and to identify any related factors that influence its therapeutic effect. METHODS: Thirty-three female IC/PBS patients who demonstrated poor or unsatisfactory responses to previous treatments between December 2010 and October 2012 were enrolled. Despite previous treatments, the enrolled patients had visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores > or =4 and total scores (symptom and bother scores) > or =13 on the pelvic pain and urgency/frequency (PUF) questionnaire and > or =12 on the O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis symptoms index (ICSI)/problems index (ICPI). All patients received once weekly intravesical instillations of 40-mg HA diluted in 50-mL saline for 4 weeks. The efficacy of the HA instillation was evaluated by comparing the mean changes in the scores of the VAS and questionnaires from baseline to 4 weeks after treatment. Improvement was defined as a > or =2 decrease in the VAS. Moreover, we investigated the effects of the presence of Hunner's ulcer and previous treatment modalities on the therapeutic outcome of HA instillation. RESULTS: The mean age was 57.0+/-1.8 years (range, 28-75 years). The VAS score significantly decreased from baseline to 4 weeks after treatment (-2.5, P<0.001). The mean changes in the PUF, ICSI, and ICPI from baseline to 4 weeks after the treatment were -3.8 (P<0.001), -2.3 (P<0.001), and -2.7 (P<0.001), respectively. Twenty patients (61%) showed improvements. Previous treatment modalities did not affect the efficacy of HA instillation and the presence of Hunner's ulcer was unrelated to outcomes. No complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that intravesical HA instillation is an effective and safe treatment for patients with refractory IC/PBS. Previous treatment modalities and presence of Hunner's ulcer do not affect the efficacy of HA instillation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Administration, Intravesical , Cystitis, Interstitial , Hyaluronic Acid , Pelvic Pain , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Ulcer , Urinary Bladder
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