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1.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 66-77, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966974

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#We compared the efficacy and safety of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC), delivered at different doses and via different injection routes in an animal model of chronic kidney disease. @*Methods@#and Results: A total of ninety 12-week-old rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy and randomized among nine groups: sham, renal artery control (RA-C), tail vein control (TV-C), renal artery low dose (RA-LD) (0.5×10 6 cells), renal artery moderate dose (RA-MD) (1.0×10 6 cells), renal artery high dose (RA-HD) (2.0×10 6 cells), tail vein low dose (TV-LD) (0.5×10 6 cells), tail vein moderate dose (TV-MD) (1.0×10 6 cells), and tail vein high dose (TV-HD) (2.0×10 6 cells). Renal function and mortality of rats were evaluated after hBMSC injection. Serum blood urea nitrogen was significantly lower in the TV-HD group at 2 weeks (p<0.01), 16 weeks (p<0.05), and 24 weeks (p<0.01) than in the TV-C group, as determined by one-way ANOVA. Serum creatinine was significantly lower in the TV-HD group at 24 weeks (p<0.05). At 8 weeks, creatinine clearance was significantly higher in the TV-MD and TV-HD groups (p<0.01, p<0.05) than in the TV-C group. In the safety evaluation, we observed no significant difference among the groups. @*Conclusions@#Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of high dose (2×10 6 cells) injection of hBMSC via the tail vein.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 226-233, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913825

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aims to evaluate the prognosis of pathologically node-positive bladder cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in these patients, and the value of preoperative clinical evaluation for lymph node metastases. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by partial/radical cystectomy and had pathologically confirmed lymph node metastases between January 2007 and December 2019 were identified and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 53 patients were included in the study. The median age was 61 years (range, 34 to 81 years) with males comprising 86.8%. Among the 52 patients with post-neoadjuvant/pre-operative computed tomography results, only 33 patients (63.5%) were considered positive for lymph node metastasis. Sixteen patients (30.2%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (AC group), and 37 patients did not (no AC group). With the median follow-up duration of 67.7 months, the median recurrence-free survival (RFS) and the median overall survival (OS) was 8.5 months and 16.2 months, respectively. The 2-year RFS and OS rates were 23.3% and 34.6%, respectively. RFS and OS did not differ between the AC group and no AC group (median RFS, 8.8 months vs. 6.8 months, p=0.772; median OS, 16.1 months vs. 16.3 months, p=0.479). Thirty-eight patients (71.7%) experienced recurrence. Distant metastases were the dominant pattern of failure in both the AC group (91.7%) and no AC group (76.9%). @*Conclusion@#Patients with lymph node-positive disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery showed high recurrence rates with limited survival outcomes. Little benefit was observed with the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy.

3.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 38-44, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874928

ABSTRACT

Objective@#. Hydronephrosis, a common complication of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (iRPF), may lead to poor renal outcomes unless resolved in a timely manner. IgG4-related diseases characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels are responsible for a few iRPF cases. However, the underlying immunologic features of most iRPF cases have not been clearly defined, and these cases exhibit varied responses to medical treatment. Thus, we investigated the predictive factors for hydronephrosis-associated outcomes among iRPF patients. @*Methods@#. We retrospectively included 18 iRPF patients with hydronephrosis in a tertiary referral hospital from 2012 to 2019. Hydronephrosis improvement was assessed on images taken 6 months after diagnosis. Categorical variables were compared using chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Continuous variables were compared using Mann–Whitney U-test. @*Results@#. On follow-up images, 8 patients (44.4%) showed an improvement in hydronephrosis. Patients with improvement more frequently had reverse serum IgG4/IgG3 ratio (87.5% vs. 30%, p=0.025), abdominal aorta involvement (87.5% vs. 30%, p=0.025) and glucocorticoid treatment administration (87.5% vs. 30%, p=0.025) than those without improvement. The proportion of elevated serum IgG4 level did not differ between the two groups.Even in the 14 cases with normal serum IgG4 levels, reverse serum IgG4/IgG3 ratio was more frequently observed in patients with improvement than in those without improvement (83.3% vs. 12.5%, p=0.026). @*Conclusion@#. The reverse serum IgG4/IgG3ratio was associated with hydronephrosis improvement in iRPF patients, suggesting it to be a suitable serologic marker for predicting favourable responses to glucocorticoid treatment.

4.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 232-243, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918264

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To construct a urologic cancer database using a standardized, reproducible method, and to assess preliminary characteristics of this cohort. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with prostate, bladder, and kidney cancers who were enrolled with diagnostic codes in the electronic medical record (EMR) at Asan Medical Center from 2007–2016 were included. Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) was used to design the Asan Medical Center-Urologic Cancer Database (AMC-UCD). The process included developing a data dictionary, applying branching logic, mapping clinical data warehouse structures, alpha testing, clinical record summary testing, creating “standards of procedure,” importing data, and entering data. Descriptive statistics were used to identify rates of surgeries and numbers of patients. @*Results@#Clinical variables (n=407) were selected to develop a data dictionary from REDCap. In total, 20,198 urologic cancer patients visited our institution from 2007–2016 (bladder cancer, 4,616; kidney cancer, 5,750; prostate cancer, 10,330). The overall numbers of patients and surgeries increased over time, with robotic surgeries rapidly growing over a decade. The most common treatment for urologic cancer was surgery, followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. @*Conclusions@#Using a standardized method, the AMC-UCD fosters multidisciplinary research. This constructed database provides access to clinical statistics to effectively assist research. Preliminary data should be refined through EMR chart review. The successful organization of data from 2007–2016 provides a framework for future periods of investigation and prospective models.

5.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 244-251, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918263

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the association between microscopic hematuria (MH) detected by surveillance urinalysis and cancer recurrence in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 1,082 NMIBC patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) procedures at Asan Medical Center between January 2017 and December 2019 were included. We retrospectively reviewed the follow-up data for these cases including cystoscopy, urinalysis, and urine cytology. The association between urine testing and cancer recurrence was assessed by both univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The study patients had a median age of 68 years (interquartile range, 60–75 years) and comprised 898 men and 184 women. Among the 1,428 TURB procedures conducted in this series, 548 of the lesions (38.4%) were diagnosed as low-grade and 880 (61.6%) as highgrade cancers. A total of 3,309 follow-up cystoscopies were conducted during the study period and were divided into high-grade (HG) (2,011 cases) and low-grade (LG) (1,298 cases) groups according to the latest TURB pathology. MH was found to have a statistically significant association with NMIBC recurrence in both the LG (odds ratio [OR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.107–2.223; p=0.011) and HG (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.434–2.517; p<0.001) groups. @*Conclusions@#Urinalysis during follow-up may provide important information on cancer recurrence in NMIBC patients.

6.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 271-280, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918260

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To identify the risk factors leading to radical cystectomy in patients who had undergone nephroureterectomy (NUx). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma who underwent NUx during 2011–2019 and excluded patients with metastatic cancer. In total 646 patients were included in this study; of these, 532 had no previous bladder cancer history. Follow-up was performed every 3 months for 2 years after NUx was administered, and recurrence was confirmed using cystoscopy, urine cytology, computed tomography, and chest radiography. Bladder recurrence was confirmed through biopsy, urine cytology, or radiologic examination. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyzes were performed for statistical analysis of risk factors leading to radical cystectomy in patients undergoing NUx. @*Results@#Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (hazard ratio [HR], 4.728; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.463–15.570; p=0.011), previous transurethral resection of bladder tumor history (HR, 3.825; 95% CI, 1.164–12.571; p=0.027), and intravesical recurrence (IVR) within 6 months (HR, 3.733; 95% CI, 1.091–12.778; p=0.036) in patients undergoing NUx are predictors of radical cystectomy implementation. In a multivariate analysis of patients without bladder cancer history, bladder recurrence was identified as a predictor of radical cystectomy implementation, if it occurred within 6 months of NUx (HR, 8.608; 95% CI, 1.545–47.976; p=0.014). @*Conclusions@#LVI and IVR within 6 months and previous bladder cancer history are factors that can predict the need for radical cystectomy after NUx. Even in patients without bladder cancer history, early bladder recurrence within 6 months is a major predictor of radical cystectomy.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 963-972, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763183

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare oncologic outcomes between open nephroureterectomy (ONU) and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of consecutive ONU and LNU cases from five tertiary institutions were retrospectively analyzed between 2000 and 2012. The propensity-score matching methodology was used to compare the two surgical approaches in terms of age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, tumor location, grade, pathologic T and N categories, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, and follow-up duration. The Kaplan-Meier with log-rank tests and clustered Cox regression were used to compare the estimated rates of survival for each surgical approach and to investigate the effect of the surgical approach on each prognostic outcome. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-eight propensity-score matching pairs (n=1,276) were compared; LNU was significantly better than ONU in all types of survival, including intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS), disease-free survival, overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (p < 0.05). The 3-year OS and CSS rates were significantly higher with LNU than with ONU (p < 0.05). Compared with ONU, LNU had significantly better 3-year OS and CSS rates (82.9% and 86.2% vs. 78.3% and 81.8%); there were no differences at 5 years. In subgroup analysis of the early-staged group, advanced-stage group, lymph node–positive group, and lymph node–negative group, the two approaches did not significantly affect prognostic outcomes, except LNU improved the IVRFS in the lymph node–negative or no history of previous bladder cancer group. CONCLUSION: LNU had a significantly better prognostic outcome than ONU after propensity-score matching.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Laparoscopy , Medical Records , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1064-1072, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763173

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The lower incidence of bladder cancer among women has led to a lack of information on female radical cystectomy (RC). This study aimed to analyze the characteristics related with female RC in a cohort from multiple academic institutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 384 female patients who underwent RC for bladder cancer. Epidemiologic, perioperative variables including urologic referral periodwith consequent pathologic stage distributions were assessed. The changes in surgical techniques over time were illustrated. Also, we evaluated recurrence-free survival (RFS) at 2 and 5 years and overall survival (OS) at 5 years with stage-specific analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 35 months (interquartile rage [IQR], 9 to 55). The average time to urologic referral with initial symptoms was 5.5 (IQR, 1 to 6) months and over 20% of patients visited clinics after 6 months. In subsequent stage distributions according to referral period, T2 or higher stage distributions were abruptly increased after 1 year. Overall 2-year/5-year RFS rates were 0.72/0.57 and 5-year OS was 0.61. Notable surgical descriptions were as follows: 91% of patients underwent open RC; 80% of patients underwent an ileal conduit; and 83% of patients received anterior exenteration. However, the proportions of robotic surgery, orthotopic neobladder and organ sparing cystectomy have increased recently. CONCLUSION: We identified the general characteristics and changes in pattern of female RC. Our results also suggest that women are susceptible to delays in referral to an urologist and are at greater risk for worse prognosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Cohort Studies , Cystectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Korea , Methods , Prognosis , Rage , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urinary Diversion
9.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 517-524, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have recommended a 2- to 5-year waiting time prior to kidney transplantation (KT) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and symptomatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and no delay for incidental early-stage RCC. Data on Asian KT recipients are unavailable.METHODS: This is a Korean single-center retrospective study on 35 KT recipients with ESRD and RCC. Patients were classified into two groups: early KT (KT performed within 1 year after nephrectomy for RCC, including KT with simultaneous nephrectomy) and delayed KT (KT performed over than 1 year after nephrectomy for RCC). Patient survival, graft survival, and cancer recurrence were compared between both groups.RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in patient survival (P = 0.388), graft survival (P = 0.317), or graft rejection rate (P = 0.207) between the early and delayed KT groups. Additionally, there were no differences in pathological characteristics or RCC stage other than cancer histology: acquired cystic disease-associated RCC (47.4%) was the most common RCC type in the early KT group, whereas clear cell type (62.5%) was the most common RCC type in the delayed KT group. No RCC recurrence was observed.CONCLUSION: Patients with early-stage and asymptomatic RCC do not require a mandatory observational period prior to KT after curative nephrectomy


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Nephrectomy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients
10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 240-251, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719426

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared oncologic outcomes of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) who underwent open nephroureterectomy (ONU) or laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive cases of ONU and LNU between 2000 and 2012 at five participating institutions were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical characteristics and pathologic outcomes were compared between the two surgical approaches. The influence of the type of surgical approach on intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were assessed with the log-rank test. Predictors of IVRFS, PFS, CSS, and OS were also analyzed with a multivariable Cox regression model. RESULTS: A total of 1,521 patients with UTUC were eligible for the present study (ONU, 906; LNU, 615). The estimated 5-year IVRFS (57.8 vs. 51.0%, p=0.010), CSS (80.4 vs. 76.4%, p=0.032), and OS (75.8 vs. 71.4%, p=0.026) rates were significantly different between the two groups in favor of LNU. Moreover, in patients with locally advanced disease (pT3/pT4), the LNU group showed better 5-year IVRFS (62.9 vs. 54.1%, p=0.038), CSS (64.3 vs. 56.9%, p=0.022), and OS (60.4 vs. 53.1%, p=0.018) rates than the ONU group. Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed that type of surgical approach was independently associated with IVRFS, but was not related to PFS, CSS, and OS. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that LNU provided better oncologic control of IVRFS, CSS, and OS compared with ONU for the management of patients with UTUC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease-Free Survival , Laparoscopy , Methods , Retrospective Studies
11.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 119-125, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741480

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared subtypes of papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC; types 1 and 2) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in patients with T1-stage RCC to analyze the impact of the subtype on oncological outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviewed 75 patients with pRCC and 252 patients with ccRCC at T1-stage from 1998–2012. Thus, we assessed the impact of subtype on oncologic outcomes among patients with T1-stage RCC. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate the overall survival and recurrence-free survival The median follow-up duration was 95 months (interquartile range, 75.4–119.3 months). RESULTS: The 5-year recurrence-free survivals of pRCC and ccRCC were 95.4% and 97.6%, respectively. pRCC is worse than ccRCC in terms of recurrence-free survival (p=0.008) and there was no significant difference in the overall survival between pRCC and ccRCC (p=0.32). In addition, there was no significant statistical difference between type 1 pRCC and type 2 pRCC in terms of either recurrence-free survival (p=0.526) or overall survival (p=0.701). Age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.069; p < 0.001) and recurrence (HR, 4.93; p < 0.001) were predictors of overall survival. Only tumor size (HR, 1.071; p=0.004) was predictors in the case of cancer specific survival in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with T1-stage RCC, recurrence after surgery was more common in pRCC than ccRCC. The subtype of pRCC (types 1 and 2) had no impact on the recurrence-free survival or overall survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Follow-Up Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Recurrence
12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 606-612, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716274

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy between a covered metallic ureteral stent (CMS) and a double-J ureteral stent (DJS) for the treatment of a malignant ureteral obstruction (MUO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients (seven men and 12 women; mean age, 53.4 years) were randomly assigned to the CMS (n = 10) or DJS (n = 9) group. The following were compared between the two groups: technical success, i.e., successful stent placement into desired locations; stent malfunction; stent patency, i.e., no obstruction and no additional intervention; complications; and patient survival. RESULTS: The technical success rate was 100% in all 10 and 12 ureteral units in the CMS and DJS groups, respectively. During the mean follow-up period of 253.9 days (range, 63–655 days), stent malfunction was observed in 40.0% (4/10) and 66.7% (8/12) in the CMS and DJS groups, respectively. In the per-ureteral analysis, the median patency time was 239.0 days and 80.0 days in the CMS and DJS groups, respectively. The CMS group yielded higher patency rates compared with the DJS group at three months (90% vs. 35%) and at six months (57% vs. 21%). The overall patency rates were significantly higher in the CMS group (p = 0.041). Complications included the migration of two metallic stents in one patient in the CMS group, which were removed in a retrograde manner. The two patient groups did not differ significantly regarding their overall survival rates (p = 0.286). CONCLUSION: Covered metallic ureteral stent may be effective for MUO.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Follow-Up Studies , Prospective Studies , Stents , Survival Rate , Ureter , Ureteral Obstruction
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 495-501, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56114

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine patients with T1b renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who could benefit from partial nephrectomy (PN) and method to identify them preoperatively using nephrometry score (NS). From a total of 483 radical nephrectomy (RN)-treated patients and 40 PN-treated patients who received treatment for T1b RCC between 1995 and 2010, 120 patients identified through 1:2 propensity-score matching were included for analysis. Probability of chronic kidney disease (CKD) until postoperative 5-years was calculated and regressed with respect to the surgical method and NS. Median follow-up was 106 months. CKD-probability at 5-years was 40.7% and 13.5% after radical and PN, respectively (P = 0.005). While PN was associated with lower risk of CKD regardless of age, comorbidity, preoperative estimated renal function, the effect was observed only among patients with NS ≤ 8 (P < 0.001) but not in patients with NS ≥ 9 (P = 0.746). Percent operated-kidney volume reduction and ischemia time were similar between the patients with NS ≥ 9 and ≤ 8. In the stratified Cox regression accounting for the interaction observed between the surgical method and the NS, PN reduced CKD-risk only in patients with NS ≤ 8 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.054; P = 0.005) but not in ≥ 9 (HR, 0.996; P = 0.994). In T1b RCC with NS ≥ 9, the risk of postoperative CKD was not reduced following PN compared to RN. Considering the potential complications of PN, minimally invasive RN could be considered with priority in this subgroup of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Comorbidity , Follow-Up Studies , Ischemia , Methods , Nephrectomy , Propensity Score , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
14.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 121-130, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90013

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the oncological outcome of histologic variants in bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 393 bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy at single center between January 2007 and August 2014. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to histologic types: pure urothelial cell carcinoma (UC) and squamous, micropapillary, and other variants. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to assess recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survivals (OS). The patients were divided into those with pathologic stage and nodal status. RESULTS: Among 393 bladder cancer patients, squamous, micropapillary histologic variants were observed in 38 (9.7%), 26 (6.6%), respectively, whereas 39 had other variant types. Stage T3 cancer occurred in more patients with histologic variant compared with those with pure UC. Pathologic positive nodal status was also frequently found in the histologic variant groups. Subgroup analysis according to T stage and nodal status showed no significant difference in RFS and OS. On multivariate analysis, pathologic T stage (stage T2: hazard ratio [HR], 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34–5.63; p=0.005; stage ≥T3: HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.62–6.30; p=0.001) and nodal status (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.05–2.56; p=0.028) were prognostic factors for RFS. CONCLUSIONS: In patients who underwent radical cystectomy, histologic variants were detected more often at advanced pathologic stage. Although histologic variants have been identified in the radical cystectomy specimen, treatment should be performed according to the pathologic stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cystectomy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multivariate Analysis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder
15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 252-258, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223786

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of recurrence in patients with intermediate-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) after intravesical instillation with chemotherapeutic agents or Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy. A cohort of 746 patients with intermediate-risk NMIBC comprised the study group. The primary outcome was time to first recurrence. The recurrence rates of the transurethral resection (TUR) alone, chemotherapy, and BCG groups were determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Risk factors for recurrence were identified using Cox regression analysis. In total, 507 patients (68.1%), 78 patients (10.5%), and 160 (21.4%) underwent TUR, TUR+BCG, or TUR+chemotherapy, respectively. After a median follow-up period of 51.7 months (interquartile range=33.1-77.8 months), 286 patients (38.5%) developed tumor recurrence. The 5-yr recurrence rates for the TUR, chemotherapy, and BCG groups were 53.6%+/-2.7%, 30.8%+/-5.7%, and 33.6%+/-4.7%, respectively (P<0.001). Chemotherapy and BCG treatment were found to be predictors of reduced recurrence. Cox-regression analysis showed that TUR+BCG did not differ from TUR+chemotherapy in terms of recurrence risk. Adjuvant intravesical instillation is an effective prophylactic that prevents tumor recurrence in intermediate-risk NMIBC patients following TUR. In addition, both chemotherapeutic agents and BCG demonstrate comparable efficacies for preventing recurrence.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravesical , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Risk , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy
16.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 212-217, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60932

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by various translocations of the TFE3 transcription factor gene. These rare cancers occur predominantly in children and young adults. Here, we review the clinicopathological features of Xp11.2 translocation RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 21 patients with Xp11.2 translocation RCC. We retrospectively analyzed patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, and specific pathological features to assess definitive diagnosis, surgical and systemic treatments, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 43.4+/-20.0 years (range, 8-80 years; 8 males and 13 females). Eleven patients were incidentally diagnosed, nine patients presented with local symptoms, and one patient presented with systemic symptoms. The mean tumor size was 6.2+/-3.8 cm (range, 1.9-14 cm). At the time of diagnosis, 11, 1, and 5 patients showed stage I, II, and III, respectively. Four patients showed distant metastasis. At analysis, 15 patients were disease-free after a median follow-up period of 30.0 months. Four patients received target therapy but not effectively. CONCLUSIONS: Xp11 translocation RCC tends to develop in young patients with lymph node metastasis. Targeted therapy did not effectively treat our patients. Surgery is the only effective therapy for Xp11 translocation RCC, and further studies are needed to assess systemic therapy and long-term prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/genetics , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnosis , Chromosomes, Human, X/chemistry , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lymphatic Metastasis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Translocation, Genetic
17.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 498-504, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171070

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective was to investigate the impact of statin use on prognosis after radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records identified 277 patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy for primary UTUC at Asan Medical Center between January 2006 and December 2011. Information on preoperative statin use was obtained from patient charts in an electronic database. We assessed the impact of statin use on recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of these 277 patients, 62 (22.4%) were taking statin medications. Compared to the statin nonusers, the statin users were older, had a higher body mass index, and had higher rates of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The 5-year RFS rates of statin users and nonusers were 78.5% and 72.5%, respectively (p=0.528); the 5-year CSS rates were 85.6% and 77.7%, respectively (p=0.516); and the 5-year OS rates were 74.5% and 71.4%, respectively (p=0.945). In the multivariate analysis, statin use was not an independent prognostic factor for RFS (hazard ratio, 0.47; p=0.056), CSS (hazard ratio, 0.46; p=0.093), or OS (hazard ratio, 0.59; p=0.144) in patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy for UTUC. CONCLUSIONS: Statin use was not associated with improved RFS, CSS, or OS in the sample population of patients with UTUC.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Staging , Nephrectomy/methods , Preoperative Care/methods , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology
18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1150-1156, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47714

ABSTRACT

We investigated trends in perioperative chemotherapy use, and determined factors associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) use in Korean patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We recruited 1,324 patients who had MIBC without nodal invasion or metastases and had undergone radical cystectomies (RC) between 2003 and 2013. The study's cut-off time for AC was three months after surgery, and the study's timespan was divided into three periods based on NAC use, namely, 2003-2005, 2006-2009, and 2010-2013. Complete remission was defined as histologically confirmed T0N0M0 after RC. NAC and AC were administered to 7.3% and 18.1% of the patients, respectively. The median time interval between completing NAC and undergoing RC was 32 days and the mean number of cycles was 3.2. The median time interval between RC and AC was 43 days and the mean number of cycles was 4.1. Gemcitabine and cisplatin were most frequently used in combination for NAC (49.0%) and AC (74.9%). NAC use increased significantly from 4.6% between 2003 and 2005 to 8.4% between 2010 and 2013 (P < 0.05), but AC use did not increase. Only 1.9% of patients received NAC and AC. Complete remission after NAC was achieved in 12 patients (12.5%). Multivariable modeling revealed that an advanced age, the earliest time period analyzed, and clinical tumor stage < or = cT2 bladder cancer were negatively associated with NAC use (P < 0.05). While NAC use has slowly increased over time, it remains an underutilized therapeutic approach in Korean clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/trends , Cystectomy/trends , Drug Administration Routes , Drug Administration Schedule , Health Services Misuse/statistics & numerical data , Muscle, Smooth/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/epidemiology
19.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 446-452, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178077

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of nephron-sparing options (e.g., partial nephrectomy [PN]) and low-surgical-morbidity options (e.g., radical nephrectomy [RN]) in elderly patients with limited life expectancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 135 patients aged 70 years or older who underwent RN (n=82) or PN (n=53) for clinical T1 stage renal masses between January 2000 and December 2012. Clinicopathologic data were thoroughly analyzed and compared between the RN and PN groups. The modification of diet in renal disease equation was used to estimate glomerular filtration. Overall survival and cardiac events were assessed by using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up period of 59.72 months, 17 patients (20.7%) in the RN group and 3 patients (5.7%) in the PN group died. Chronic kidney disease (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) developed more frequently in RN patients than in PN patients (75.6% vs. 41.5%, p<0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate did not differ significantly between the RN and PN groups (90.7% vs. 93.8%; p=0.158). According to the multivariate analysis, the Charlson comorbidity index score was an independent predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.679, p=0.037). Type of nephrectomy was not significantly associated with overall survival (HR, 2.447; p=0.167) or cardiac events (HR, 1.147; p=0.718). CONCLUSIONS: Although chronic kidney disease was lower after PN, overall survival and cardiac events were similar regardless of type of nephrectomy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Age Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Retrospective Studies
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 339-347, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8783

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of everolimus in Korean patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) for whom initial treatment with a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFr-TKI) has failed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients with mRCC (any histology) who had progressed on or were intolerant of VEGFr-TKI therapy received oral everolimus (10 mg dose once daily). Tumor response was reassessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). RESULTS: This study included 100 patientswith a median follow-up duration of 10.2 months, a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 4.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4 to 5.0 months), and an overall survival of 10.1 months (95% CI, 6.9 to 13.3 months). The most common grade 3 or greater adverse events (AEs) overall were anemia (13%), pneumonitis (9%), hyperglycemia (8%), and stomatitis (6%). While the incidence of pneumonitis was similar (26 cases, 26%) to the reported incidence in Western patients, the Korean presentations were more severe: 10 patients permanently discontinued everolimus due to pneumonitis, including two deaths on treatment. Statistically significant relationships were established between biologic toxicities, hyperglycemia and anemia, and PFS (hyperglycemia vs. non-hyperglycemia: hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; p=0.055 and anemia vs. non-anemia: HR, 0.51; p=0.021). CONCLUSION: Everolimus was effective in Korean patients with mRCC who had failed initial VEGFr-TKI therapy. While everolimus was well tolerated in general and the AE incidence of this study was similar to those of previous reports, severe pneumonitis was common. Hyperglycemia and anemia showed significant correlation with PFS and thus may be potentially useful as prognostic indicators.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Hyperglycemia , Incidence , Phosphotransferases , Pneumonia , Stomatitis , Treatment Failure , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Everolimus
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