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1.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 229-235, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001607

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aimed to assess the status of the Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JKACAP) and propose measures for its growth and development. @*Methods@#The study was conducted using a questionnaire survey targeting members of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The six key elements analyzed were Access to the journal, Convenience following conversion to English, Recognition as an international journal and institutional achievements, Author perspectives on manuscript submission,Transition to an online-only journal, and Content and identity of the journal. @*Results@#The survey revealed that email notification was highly effective for Journal Accessibility, with the website and search engines also frequently being used by members. Conversion to English in 2018 initially impacted readability and submission rates, but these concerns have decreased over time. However, the Recognition of JKACAP as an international academic journal was still not on par with SCIE journals, highlighting the need for further efforts towards SCIE inclusion. Despite these challenges and limited research opportunities, there was an active intention among members to submit manuscripts. Respondents showed a notable preference for the Transition to an online-only journal. Regarding content and identity of the JKACAP, members predominantly favored review articles and perceived the journal as a research and communication platform for Korean child and adolescent psychiatrists. @*Conclusion@#The results indicate the need for JKACAP to enhance its digital accessibility, provide more support for domestic and international authors, and actively seek SCIE indexing. Addressing the varied content preferences of its members, improving the submission process, and transitioning to an online-only format could further its growth and solidify its position as an internationally recognized academic journal in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry.

2.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 37-44, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967723

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Tic disorders are highly heritable; however, growing evidence suggests that environmental factors play a significant role in their pathogenesis. Studies on these factors have been inconsistent, with conflicting results. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the associations of pre- and perinatal exposure to Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorders (CTD) in Korean school-aged children. @*Methods@#This case-control study used data from a large prospective cohort study. The primary outcome was TS/CTD diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) criteria and Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version-Korean Version. Demographic, pre-, and perinatal information was obtained from the maternal questionnaires. Data between the TS/CTD and control groups were compared using the chi-squared or Student’s t-test, as appropriate. Two-step logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between TS/CTD and pre- and perinatal risk factors. @*Results@#We included of 223 children (78 with TS/CTD and 145 controls). Significant differences in the demographic data between the two groups were observed. The male sex ratio, mean parental age, parental final education level, and family history of tics were included as confounders. In the final adjusted multivariable model, TS/CTD was significantly associated with antiemetic exposure during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR]=16.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–185.22, p=0.02) and medically assisted reproduction (OR=7.89, 95% CI 2.28–27.28, p=0.01). @*Conclusion@#Antiemetic exposure and medically assisted reproduction are significantly associated with the risk of TS/CTD. These results should be replicated in future prospective and gene-by-environment studies.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1055-1068, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968525

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Underconnectivity in the resting brain is not consistent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is known that the functional connectivity of the default mode network is mainly decreased in childhood ASD. This study investigated the brain network topology as the changes in the connection strength and network efficiency in childhood ASD, including the early developmental stages. @*Methods@#In this study, 31 ASD children aged 2–11 years were compared with 31 age and sex-matched children showing typical development. We explored the functional connectivity based on graph filtration by assessing the single linkage distance and global and nodal efficiencies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between functional connectivity and clinical scores was also analyzed. @*Results@#Underconnectivities within the posterior default mode network subregions and between the inferior parietal lobule and inferior frontal/superior temporal regions were observed in the ASD group. These areas significantly correlated with the clinical phenotypes. The global, local, and nodal network efficiencies were lower in children with ASD than in those with typical development. In the preschool-age children (2–6 years) with ASD, the anterior-posterior connectivity of the default mode network and cerebellar connectivity were reduced. @*Conclusion@#The observed topological reorganization, underconnectivity, and disrupted efficiency in the default mode network subregions and social function-related regions could be significant biomarkers of childhood ASD.

4.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 67-72, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938188

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Level 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure—Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)–Depression and the Irritability for parents of children aged 6–17 years. @*Methods@#Participants were 190 children diagnosed with depressive disorder (n=14), anxiety disorder (n=21), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=111), ADHD with anxious depression (n=13), and tic disorder with somatic symptoms (n=31). Patients were 8–15 years of age. The participants’ mothers completed the Korean versions of the DSM-5 Level 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure—PROMIS Depression and Irritability (Affective Reactivity Index, ARI), and the Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL). Using these data, we calculated the reliability coefficient and examined the concurrent and discriminant validity of the PROMIS Depression and the Irritability (ARI) scales for assessing depression and irritability in children. @*Results@#The reliability coefficient of the PROMIS Depression scale (Cronbach’s α) was 0.93. The correlation coefficient with the KCBCL DSM emotional problem score was 0.71. The PROMIS Depression scale significantly discriminated children with depressive disorders from those with other conditions. The reliability coefficient of the Irritability (ARI) scale was 0.91, suggesting its high reliability. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that the Korean version of the DSM-5 Level 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure for Depression and Irritability Scales for parents of children aged 6–17 years is reliable and valid and may be an efficient alternative to the K-CBCL.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1050-1057, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918731

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes across the lifespan, but research on intergenerational transmission of maternal ACEs and its impact on the offspring’s mental health problems are limited. The study examines the effects of maternal ACEs on the risk of internalizing or externalizing problems among offspring. @*Methods@#There were 450 mother-child dyads. Mothers completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The child outcomes included internalizing and externalizing problems assessed by the Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and Korean Youth Self-Report (K-YSR), depression assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) and anxiety assessed by the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). @*Results@#36.1% of mothers experienced at least one ACE, and 11.1% experienced three or more ACEs. Cumulative maternal ACEs were associated with internalizing problems, externalizing problems, depression and anxiety in the offspring. Household dysfunction from maternal ACEs was significantly associated with delinquent behavior, anxiety/depression, and somatic complaints in the offspring. @*Conclusion@#The findings support the hypothesis that maternal ACEs are related to mental health problems in the offspring. Further research is needed to determine the factors mediating intergenerational transmission as well as intervention strategies to prevent ACEs and mental health problems in the offspring.

6.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 118-125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900690

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Childhood adversity is a risk factor for anxiety symptoms, but it affects anxiety symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study aimed to examine the association between childhood adversity and anxiety symptoms in participants with and without ADHD. @*Methods@#Data were obtained from a school-based epidemiological study of 1017 randomly selected children and adolescents. The ADHD and non-ADHD groups were divided using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scale (DPS). The DPS was also used to assess comorbidities such as anxiety and mood disorders. The childhood adversities were assessed using the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form, and the anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders. Linear and logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between childhood adversity and anxiety in the ADHD and non-ADHD groups with adjustments for age and sex. @*Results@#This study found that the ADHD group did not show any significant association between anxiety symptoms and childhood adversities, whereas the non-ADHD group always showed a significant association. In a subgroup analysis of the non-ADHD group, the normal group without any psychiatric disorders assessed with DPS demonstrated a statistically significant association between childhood adversities and anxiety symptoms. These results were consistent with the association between childhood adversities and anxiety disorders assessed using DPS, as shown by logistic regression. @*Conclusion@#The association between anxiety symptoms and childhood adversities statistically disappears in ADHD; ADHD may mask or block the association. Further longitudinal research is necessary to investigate this relationship.

7.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 43-50, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900688

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a school bullying prevention camp for adolescent perpetrators of school violence. @*Methods@#A total of 95 adolescents (boys=73, girls=22) were included in this study. The changes after the program were evaluated using several self-rating scales for the assessment of the degree of depression, loneliness, impulsivity, self-esteem, and interpersonal reactivity compared with the baseline scales. @*Results@#The school bullying prevention camp significantly reduced the degree of depression severity (z=-5.874, p<0.001) and impulsivity scale (z=-3.861, p<0.001), while increasing self-esteem (z=-2.091, p=0.037). The degree of depression severity (z=-4.635, p<0.001), loneliness (z=-2.168, p=0.030), and impulsivity (z=-2.987, p=0.003) significantly reduced, whereas self-esteem significantly increased (z=-2.221, p=0.026) for male students who had no history of child abuse. However, there were no significant changes after the program for the degree of depression, loneliness, impulsivity, self-esteem, and interpersonal reactivity among female students with a history of child abuse. @*Conclusion@#The results of our study suggest that the development of diverse standardized guidance programs is necessary for teenagers with different characteristics and backgrounds. Such programs are expected to be more effective in preventing school violence.

8.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 63-70, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900686

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) of mothers may negatively affect the mental health of their offspring. Little is known about the intergenerational effect of maternal ACE on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the offspring. This study investigated the impact of maternal ACEs on PTSD in the offspring. @*Methods@#A total of 156 mothers with children aged 13–18 years completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) Predictive Scales to determine the presence of psychiatric disorders in their offspring. The subjects completed the ACE questionnaire and the Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between maternal ACEs and PTSD in the offspring. @*Results@#Of the mothers, 23.7% had at least one ACE, and PTSD was reported in 21.8% of the offspring. The offspring of the mothers in the ACE group had a significantly higher rates of traumatic experiences and PTSD than the offspring of the mothers in the no ACE group. Maternal household dysfunction independently predicted offspring PTSD [odds ratio (OR)=3.008, p=0.05), and three or more maternal ACEs were significantly related to PTSD in the offspring (OR=10.613, p=0.025). @*Conclusion@#Maternal ACEs have a significant impact on the risk of traumatic experiences and PTSD in the offspring. These findings suggest the presence of intergenerational transmissions by which maternal ACEs affect the mental health of the offspring.

9.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 71-78, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900685

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study was conducted to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the DSM-5 Level 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure–inattention [Swanson, Nolan and Pelham, version IV (SNAP-IV)] and anger [Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Anger] for parents and guardians of children aged 6–17 years. @*Methods@#We included 104 children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ADHD with anxiety and depression, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and tic disorder with somatic symptoms (ADHD=41, depression=9, anxiety=14, ADHD+anxious depression=11, tic+somatic symptoms=29). Their ages ranged from 8 years to 15 years. The participants’ mothers completed the SNAP-IV, PROMIS Anger scale, Korean version of the IOWA Conners Rating Scale (K-IOWA), and Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) so that the reliability and validity of the SNAP-IV and PROMIS Anger scales, which are DSM-5 scales for assessing inattention and anger of children and adolescents, could be examined. @*Results@#The reliability coefficient of SNAP-IV (Cronbach’s α) was 0.94. The correlation coefficients between SNAP-IV, K-IOWA inattention, and K-ARS inattention scores ranged from 0.73 to 0.86. The mean SNAP-IV scores of the ADHD and the ADHD+anxious depression groups were significantly higher than those of the anxiety and the tic+somatic symptoms groups. The reliability coefficient of the PROMIS Anger was 0.91. The correlation coefficient between PROMIS Anger and K-IOWA oppositional/defiant scores was 0.75.The PROMIS Anger mean score of the ADHD+anxious depression group tended to be higher than that of the other groups. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that the Korean version of the DSM-5 Level 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure–inattention and anger for parent and guardian of child age 6–17 might be a reliable and valid test and may be useful for screening children and adolescents with ADHD.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e260-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900040

ABSTRACT

Background@#School-aged children born very preterm have been suggested to have worse cognitive and behavioral outcomes than children born full-term. Executive function (EF) is a higher level of cognitive function related to academic achievement. The present study aimed to evaluate the cognitive (including EF) and behavioral outcomes of Korean children born extremely preterm (EP) and to analyze any biological or socioeconomic risk factors for poor cognitive outcomes in this population. @*Methods@#A total of 71 infants weighing < 1,000 g at birth or born before 30 weeks of gestation (EP group) who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from 2008 to 2009 were included in this study and compared with 40 term-birth controls. The Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Advanced Test of Attention (ATA), Stroop test, Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used.Additionally, the Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) were completed. Perinatal and demographic data were collected and analyzed. @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) score in the EP group was significantly lower than that of the term control group (89.1 ± 18.3 vs. 107.1 ± 12.7; P < 0.001).In the EP group, 26 (37%) children had an FSIQ score below 85, compared to only one child (3%) in the control group. Furthermore, the EP group showed significantly worse EF test results (ATA, Stroop test, CCTT, WCST). Except for the higher social immaturity subscore in the EP group, the K-CBCL and K-ARS scores were not different between the two groups. EP children who received laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) had an 8.8-fold increased risk of a low FSIQ score, and a 1-point increase in the discharge weight Z-score decreased the risk of a low FSIQ score by approximately half in this EP cohort. @*Conclusion@#This is the first Korean study to investigate the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children born EP. In the study cohort, EP children exhibited significantly lower FSIQ scores and EF than their full-term peers, and 37% of them had cognitive problems. Nonetheless, except for social immaturity, the behavioral problems werenot different in EP children. Severe ROP and low discharge weight Z-score were identified as independent risk factors for low FSIQ score after adjusting for birth weight.

11.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 118-125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892986

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Childhood adversity is a risk factor for anxiety symptoms, but it affects anxiety symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study aimed to examine the association between childhood adversity and anxiety symptoms in participants with and without ADHD. @*Methods@#Data were obtained from a school-based epidemiological study of 1017 randomly selected children and adolescents. The ADHD and non-ADHD groups were divided using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scale (DPS). The DPS was also used to assess comorbidities such as anxiety and mood disorders. The childhood adversities were assessed using the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form, and the anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders. Linear and logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between childhood adversity and anxiety in the ADHD and non-ADHD groups with adjustments for age and sex. @*Results@#This study found that the ADHD group did not show any significant association between anxiety symptoms and childhood adversities, whereas the non-ADHD group always showed a significant association. In a subgroup analysis of the non-ADHD group, the normal group without any psychiatric disorders assessed with DPS demonstrated a statistically significant association between childhood adversities and anxiety symptoms. These results were consistent with the association between childhood adversities and anxiety disorders assessed using DPS, as shown by logistic regression. @*Conclusion@#The association between anxiety symptoms and childhood adversities statistically disappears in ADHD; ADHD may mask or block the association. Further longitudinal research is necessary to investigate this relationship.

12.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 43-50, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892984

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a school bullying prevention camp for adolescent perpetrators of school violence. @*Methods@#A total of 95 adolescents (boys=73, girls=22) were included in this study. The changes after the program were evaluated using several self-rating scales for the assessment of the degree of depression, loneliness, impulsivity, self-esteem, and interpersonal reactivity compared with the baseline scales. @*Results@#The school bullying prevention camp significantly reduced the degree of depression severity (z=-5.874, p<0.001) and impulsivity scale (z=-3.861, p<0.001), while increasing self-esteem (z=-2.091, p=0.037). The degree of depression severity (z=-4.635, p<0.001), loneliness (z=-2.168, p=0.030), and impulsivity (z=-2.987, p=0.003) significantly reduced, whereas self-esteem significantly increased (z=-2.221, p=0.026) for male students who had no history of child abuse. However, there were no significant changes after the program for the degree of depression, loneliness, impulsivity, self-esteem, and interpersonal reactivity among female students with a history of child abuse. @*Conclusion@#The results of our study suggest that the development of diverse standardized guidance programs is necessary for teenagers with different characteristics and backgrounds. Such programs are expected to be more effective in preventing school violence.

13.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 63-70, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892982

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) of mothers may negatively affect the mental health of their offspring. Little is known about the intergenerational effect of maternal ACE on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the offspring. This study investigated the impact of maternal ACEs on PTSD in the offspring. @*Methods@#A total of 156 mothers with children aged 13–18 years completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) Predictive Scales to determine the presence of psychiatric disorders in their offspring. The subjects completed the ACE questionnaire and the Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between maternal ACEs and PTSD in the offspring. @*Results@#Of the mothers, 23.7% had at least one ACE, and PTSD was reported in 21.8% of the offspring. The offspring of the mothers in the ACE group had a significantly higher rates of traumatic experiences and PTSD than the offspring of the mothers in the no ACE group. Maternal household dysfunction independently predicted offspring PTSD [odds ratio (OR)=3.008, p=0.05), and three or more maternal ACEs were significantly related to PTSD in the offspring (OR=10.613, p=0.025). @*Conclusion@#Maternal ACEs have a significant impact on the risk of traumatic experiences and PTSD in the offspring. These findings suggest the presence of intergenerational transmissions by which maternal ACEs affect the mental health of the offspring.

14.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 71-78, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892981

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study was conducted to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the DSM-5 Level 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure–inattention [Swanson, Nolan and Pelham, version IV (SNAP-IV)] and anger [Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Anger] for parents and guardians of children aged 6–17 years. @*Methods@#We included 104 children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ADHD with anxiety and depression, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and tic disorder with somatic symptoms (ADHD=41, depression=9, anxiety=14, ADHD+anxious depression=11, tic+somatic symptoms=29). Their ages ranged from 8 years to 15 years. The participants’ mothers completed the SNAP-IV, PROMIS Anger scale, Korean version of the IOWA Conners Rating Scale (K-IOWA), and Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) so that the reliability and validity of the SNAP-IV and PROMIS Anger scales, which are DSM-5 scales for assessing inattention and anger of children and adolescents, could be examined. @*Results@#The reliability coefficient of SNAP-IV (Cronbach’s α) was 0.94. The correlation coefficients between SNAP-IV, K-IOWA inattention, and K-ARS inattention scores ranged from 0.73 to 0.86. The mean SNAP-IV scores of the ADHD and the ADHD+anxious depression groups were significantly higher than those of the anxiety and the tic+somatic symptoms groups. The reliability coefficient of the PROMIS Anger was 0.91. The correlation coefficient between PROMIS Anger and K-IOWA oppositional/defiant scores was 0.75.The PROMIS Anger mean score of the ADHD+anxious depression group tended to be higher than that of the other groups. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that the Korean version of the DSM-5 Level 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure–inattention and anger for parent and guardian of child age 6–17 might be a reliable and valid test and may be useful for screening children and adolescents with ADHD.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e260-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892336

ABSTRACT

Background@#School-aged children born very preterm have been suggested to have worse cognitive and behavioral outcomes than children born full-term. Executive function (EF) is a higher level of cognitive function related to academic achievement. The present study aimed to evaluate the cognitive (including EF) and behavioral outcomes of Korean children born extremely preterm (EP) and to analyze any biological or socioeconomic risk factors for poor cognitive outcomes in this population. @*Methods@#A total of 71 infants weighing < 1,000 g at birth or born before 30 weeks of gestation (EP group) who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from 2008 to 2009 were included in this study and compared with 40 term-birth controls. The Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Advanced Test of Attention (ATA), Stroop test, Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used.Additionally, the Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) were completed. Perinatal and demographic data were collected and analyzed. @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) score in the EP group was significantly lower than that of the term control group (89.1 ± 18.3 vs. 107.1 ± 12.7; P < 0.001).In the EP group, 26 (37%) children had an FSIQ score below 85, compared to only one child (3%) in the control group. Furthermore, the EP group showed significantly worse EF test results (ATA, Stroop test, CCTT, WCST). Except for the higher social immaturity subscore in the EP group, the K-CBCL and K-ARS scores were not different between the two groups. EP children who received laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) had an 8.8-fold increased risk of a low FSIQ score, and a 1-point increase in the discharge weight Z-score decreased the risk of a low FSIQ score by approximately half in this EP cohort. @*Conclusion@#This is the first Korean study to investigate the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children born EP. In the study cohort, EP children exhibited significantly lower FSIQ scores and EF than their full-term peers, and 37% of them had cognitive problems. Nonetheless, except for social immaturity, the behavioral problems werenot different in EP children. Severe ROP and low discharge weight Z-score were identified as independent risk factors for low FSIQ score after adjusting for birth weight.

16.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 28-34, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874962

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aimed to examine the effect of maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the offspring and to examine the mediating role of antepartum health risk on the intergenerational transmission of maternal ACEs. @*Methods@#The participants consisted of 461 mother-child dyads. Mothers completed the ACEs questionnaire and Diagnostic Predictive Scales. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk of ADHD symptoms in the offspring of mothers with ACEs and the mediating effect of antepartum health risks by path analysis. @*Results@#In all, 35.4% (n=163) had at least one maternal ACE, and 11.1% (n=51) had three or more. Compared to the non-ADHD symptom group, the group of offspring with ADHD symptoms showed a significant association with maternal ACE score (p<0.001) and antepartum health risks (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis further showed a significant association between the sum of maternal ACEs [odds ratio (OR)=1.264, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 1.060–1.516, p=0.009], antepartum health risks (OR=1.236, 95% CI=1.036–1.475, p= 0.019), and ADHD symptoms in the offspring. In the mediation model in which the mother’s ACE score affected the offspring’s ADHD symptoms, partial mediation through antepartum health risks was found to be significant (B=0.041, 95% CI=0.011–0.124). @*Conclusion@#Maternal ACEs are significantly related to the incidence of ADHD symptoms in the offspring and antepartum health risks exert an indirect effect. These findings suggest that maternal ACEs have a negative impact on the offspring’s brain development through intergenerational transmission, resulting in neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD.

17.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 37-45, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874917

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the electrical, mechanical, medical, and food industries. Previous studies have suggested that BPA is an endocrine disruptor. Regulation of BPA has led to increased use of bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS). However, few studies have investigated the associations of BPF and BPS with thyroid dysfunction in children. Our study investigated the associations of prenatal BPA and early childhood BPA, BPF, and BPS exposure with thyroid function in 6-year-old children. @*Methods@#Prenatal BPA concentrations were measured during the second trimester of pregnancy in an established prospective birth cohort. We measured urinary BPA, BPF, and BPS concentrations and thyroid hormone levels (thyroid-stimulating hormone, total T3, and free T4) in 6-year-old children (n=574). We examined the associations between urinary bisphenol concentrations and percentage change of thyroid hormone concentrations using multivariate linear regression. We also compared thyroid hormone levels by dividing the cohort according to BPA, BPF, and BPS concentrations. @*Results@#The associations between prenatal BPA and total T3 levels were statistically significant in all models, except for girls when using a crude model. The associations between urinary BPA and BPS concentrations and levels of all thyroid hormones were not statistically significant. However, we observed that lower free T4 levels (-1.94%; 95% confidence interval, -3.82 to -0.03) were associated with higher urinary BPF concentrations in girls only. @*Conclusions@#Our findings identified significant associations between prenatal BPA exposure and total T3 levels in all children and between BPF exposure and free T4 levels in girls only.

18.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 88-93, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900669

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Mood disorder is highly comorbid with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and comorbid ADHD symptoms are associated with suicide risk. The aim of this study was to examine the association between comorbid ADHD symptoms and the number of suicide attempts among patients with unipolar and bipolar depression. @*Methods@#In this cross-sectional study, 100 patients with either unipolar or bipolar depression constituted the final sample. Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between comorbid ADHD symptoms and suicide risk. @*Results@#Among patients with bipolar depression, the number of suicide attempts was significantly correlated with ADHD symptoms (r=0.324, p<0.01). ADHD symptoms significantly predicted the number of suicide attempts (β=0.249, p<0.05). @*Conclusion@#Our findings underscore the importance of screening and assessing ADHD symptoms in male young adults with depressive disorders.

19.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 97-104, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836317

ABSTRACT

Deep learning (DL) is a kind of machine learning technique that uses artificial intelligence to identify the characteristics of given data and efficiently analyze large amounts of information to perform tasks such as classification and prediction. In the field of neuroimaging of neurodevelopmental disorders, various biomarkers for diagnosis, classification, prognosis prediction, and treatment response prediction have been examined; however, they have not been efficiently combined to produce meaningful results. DL can be applied to overcome these limitations and produce clinically helpful results. Here, we review studies that combine neurodevelopmental disorder neuroimaging and DL techniques to explore the strengths, limitations, and future directions of this research area.

20.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 29-36, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834583

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Prenatal cadmium (Cd) exposure may be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the relationship between Cd exposure during gestation and ADHD at 6 years of age. @*Methods@#As part of an ongoing cohort study (the Environment and Development of Children study), 479 mother-child pairs from Seoul, Korea were included for analysis between 2008 and 2011. The whole blood concentration of Cd was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The parents were surveyed about ADHD behaviors in their children at age 6. Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship between prenatal exposure to Cd and ADHD at 6 years of age. @*Results@#Increased prenatal Cd concentrations were associated with increased scores for ADHD for girls, but not for boys, at age 6. A 2-fold increase in the prenatal Cd level was significantly associated with a 22.3% (95% confidence interval, 11.6 to 34.1) increase in ADHD in girls at 6 years of age, as indicated by the linear regression model. @*Conclusions@#Our results identified significant associations between prenatal Cd exposure and ADHD scores in 6-year-old girls.

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