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Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 58-64, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089331


ABSTRACT Background: Although performance of rapid immunochromatographic tests (RITs) for dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1, 2 and 3 is relatively settled, evidence on accuracy of RITs for DENV-4 are based on studies with small sample sizes and with discrepant results. Objectives: To assess accuracy and inter-observer agreement of RITs targeting dengue nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) antigen - Dengue NS1-Bioeasy™, Dengue NS1 Ag Strip-Bio-Rad™, IVB Dengue Ag NS1-Orangelife™ and Dengue NS1-K130-Bioclin™ in DENV-4 samples. Methods: Study sample (n = 324) included adults presenting at an emergency unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with fever of ≤72 h and two or more dengue symptoms. A serum sample from each patient was tested by each RIT. A positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was considered as the reference standard for dengue diagnosis. The diagnostic parameters analyzed for each RIT were sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Each RIT was read by homogeneous (two junior nurses) or heterogeneous (one junior nurse and one senior biologist) pairs. Agreement was estimated by simple kappa with 95% confidence interval, positive (Ppos) and negative (Pneg) proportion concordance and prevalence and bias adjusted kappa, rated from poor (k < 0.0) to almost perfect (0.8 < k < 1.0), and perfect (k = 1). Results: NS1 RITs for DENV-4 diagnosis showed high specificity (95.9%-99.4%), but low sensitivity (14.7%-45.4%). Bioeasy™ had the best performance, with a positive likelihood ratio of 26.0 (95% CI: 8.4;81.0). Inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for all evaluated RITs. Mismatches in confirmed dengue were more common for the Bioclin™ (Ppos 88.3-90.0 %) and Orangelife™ (Ppos 91.7-94.1 %) tests. Conclusions: For DENV-4, the tested RITs had high specificity, but lower sensitivity compared to published results for other serotypes. They should not be used for screening purposes. Different brands may have very different performances. This should be considered upon deciding of using RITs in DENV-4 outbreaks.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chromatography, Affinity/standards , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Reference Standards , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Observer Variation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, Affinity/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/virology , Serogroup
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190205, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020444


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug-resistant bacteria surveillance (MDR) systems are used to identify the epidemiology of MDR bacteria in neonates and children. This study aimed to describe the patterns by which MDR bacteria colonize and infect neonatal (NICU) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients in the state of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was performed using electronic data on NICU and PICU patients reported to the Rio de Janeiro State MDR bacteria surveillance system. All healthcare institutions that reported at least one case during the study period were included. RESULTS Between 2014 and 2017, 10,210 MDR bacteria cases, including 9261 colonizations and 949 infections, were reported. Among the colonizations, 5379 occurred in NICUs and 3882 in PICUs, while 405 infections occurred in NICUs and 544 in PICUs. ESBL producing Klebsiella sp and E. coli were the most reported colonization-causing agents in NICUs (1983/5379, 36.9%) and PICUs (1494/3882; 38.5%). The main causing bacteria reported in catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), ventilator associated pneumonia, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection in NICUs were Klebsiella sp and E.coli (56/156, 35.9%), carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) (22/65, 33.9%), and CRGNB (11/36, 30.6%) respectively, while in PICUs, they were MRSA (53/169, 31.4%), CRGNB (50/87, 57.4%), Klebsiella sp and E.coli (18/52, 34.6%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS MDR Gram-negative bacteria (ESBL producers and carbapenem-resistant bacteria) were the most reported agents among MDR bacteria reported to Rio de Janeiro surveillance system. Except for CLABSI in children, they caused all device-associated infections in NICUs and PICUs.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/classification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/classification , Epidemiological Monitoring