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Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(11)nov. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389393


With or without a COVID19 pandemic, cancer is and will continue to be one of the greatest health challenges on the planet. In Chile, during 2016, this disease was the second cause of death in the country and during 2019, it was the first cause in seven Chilean regions, surpassing cardiovascular diseases. With the advent of precision medicine as a powerful tool for cancer control, it is necessary to have genomic, proteomic, and molecular data in general, ideally on a population scale. This is essential for decision-making, for example in public and private oncology, to be as cost-effective as possible. Chile has a mass of high-quality researchers in cancer. However, until today the investment in research and development is far below the peers in the OECD. In this work we put into perspective the role of precision medicine and omic sciences as essential tools for public health. We offer a brief national diagnosis of the knowledge collected to date by the local scientific community regarding onco-genomic data from our own population. We finally discuss the potential behind the strengthening of this scientific knowledge, aiming to optimize the comprehensive management of cancer.

Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 601-608, sep.-oct. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127323


Abstract: Objective: To describe the rationale and the methodology of a multicenter project to study the etiology of breast cancer in young Latin American women. Materials and methods: The International Agency for Research on Cancer has established an international collaborative population-based case-control study in four countries in Latin America: Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico (the PRECAMA study). Standardized methodologies were developed to collect information on reproductive variables, lifestyle, anthropometry, diet, clinical and pathological data, and biological specimens. The study will be extended to other countries in the region. Conclusion: PRECAMA is unique in its multidisciplinary approach that combines genetics, genomics, and metabolomics with lifestyle factors. The data generated through this project will be instrumental to identify major risk factors for molecular subtypes of breast cancer in young women, which will be important for prevention and targeted screening programs in Latin America.

Resumen: Objetivo: Describir la justificación y la metodología para el establecimiento de un proyecto multicéntrico sobre el cáncer de mama en mujeres jóvenes de América Latina. Material y métodos: La Agencia Internacional para la Investigación del Cáncer (IARC) ha establecido un estudio colaborativo internacional de casos y controles con base poblacional en cuatro países de América Latina: Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica y México (el estudio PRECAMA). Se han desarrollado metodologías estandarizadas para recolectar información sobre variables reproductivas, estilos de vida, antropometría y dieta, datos clínicos y patológicos y muestras biológicas. Conclusión: PRECAMA es único en su enfoque multidisciplinario. Los datos generados a través de este proyecto serán fundamentales para identificar los principales factores de riesgo del cáncer de mama en mujeres jóvenes. Los hallazgos serán relevantes para la prevención y los programas de detección oportuna en América Latina, con beneficios clínicos inmediatos.

Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Breast Neoplasms/etiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Breast/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Exercise , Case-Control Studies , Chile , Risk Factors , Colombia , Patient Selection , Costa Rica , Eating , Informed Consent , Latin America , Life Style , Mexico
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-10, 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950774


INTRODUCTION: The South American country Chile now boasts a life expectancy of over 80 years. As a consequence, Chile now faces the increasing social and economic burden of cancer and must implement political policy to deliver equitable cancer care. Hindering the development of a national cancer policy is the lack of comprehensive analysis of cancer infrastructure and economic impact. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate existing cancer policy, the extent of national investigation and the socio-economic impact of cancer to deliver guidelines for the framing of an equitable national cancer policy. METHODS: Burden, research and care-policy systems were assessed by triangulating objective system metrics -epidemiological, economic, etc. - with political and policy analysis. Analysis of the literature and governmental databases was performed. The oncology community was interviewed and surveyed. RESULTS: Chile utilizes 1% of its gross domestic product on cancer care and treatment. We estimate that the economic impact as measured in Disability Adjusted Life Years to be US$ 3.5 billion. Persistent inequalities still occur in cancer distribution and treatment. A high quality cancer research community is expanding, however, insufficient funding is directed towards disproportionally prevalent stomach, lung and gallbladder cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Chile has a rapidly ageing population wherein 40% smoke, 67% are overweight and 18% abuse alcohol, and thus the corresponding burden of cancer will have a negative impact on an affordable health care system. We conclude that the Chilean government must develop a national cancer strategy, which the authors outline herein and believe is essential to permit equitable cancer care for the country.

Humans , Life Expectancy , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Biomedical Research/economics , Health Policy/economics , Neoplasms/economics , Socioeconomic Factors , Chile/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Reform/legislation & jurisprudence , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Health Transition , Biomedical Research/legislation & jurisprudence , Biomedical Research/trends , Workforce , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Gross Domestic Product , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(5): 669-673, mayo 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-684376


Our laboratory has implemented an in vitro assay to estimate the response to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer cells pertaining to individual patients. In two selected patients, we determined the correlation between an in vitro assay of cells from suspected ovarian cancer ascites, with the clinical chemotherapy response. Cancer cells isolated from peritoneal fluid with suspected ovarian cancer were tested for cytotoxicity with corresponding chemotherapy regimens. Circulating Cal25 levels and attending physician consultation determined clinical course and response to chemotherapy. The in vitro assay result correlated with Cal25 levels, progression free survival and attending physician evaluation. The assay predicted correctly the failure of two successive chemotherapy regimes in the first patient, while predicting a favorable clinical response in the second subject.

Adult , Female , Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , /analysis , Disease-Free Survival , Ovarian Neoplasms/blood , Precision Medicine , Remission Induction , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis