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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 100-109, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926904

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to present the study design and baseline cross-sectional participant characteristics of biobank innovations for chronic cerebrovascular disease with Alzheimer’s disease study (BICWALZS) participants. @*Methods@#A total of 1,013 participants were enrolled in BICWALZS from October 2016 to December 2020. All participants underwent clinical assessments, basic blood tests, and standardized neuropsychological tests (n=1,013). We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, n=817), brain amyloid positron emission tomography (PET, n=713), single nucleotide polymorphism microarray chip (K-Chip, n=949), locomotor activity assessment (actigraphy, n=200), and patient-derived dermal fibroblast sampling (n=175) on a subset of participants. @*Results@#The mean age was 72.8 years, and 658 (65.0%) were females. Based on clinical assessments, total of 168, 534, 211, 80, and 20 had subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer’s dementia, vascular dementia, and other types of dementia or not otherwise specified, respectively. Based on neuroimaging biomarkers and cognition, 199, 159, 78, and 204 were cognitively normal (CN), Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related cognitive impairment, vascular cognitive impairment, and not otherwise specified due to mixed pathology (NOS). Each group exhibited many differences in various clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging results at baseline. Baseline characteristics of BICWALZS participants in the MCI, AD, and vascular dementia groups were generally acceptable and consistent with 26 worldwide dementia cohorts and another independent AD cohort in Korea. @*Conclusion@#The BICWALZS is a prospective and longitudinal study assessing various clinical and biomarker characteristics in older adults with cognitive complaints. Details of the recruitment process, methodology, and baseline assessment results are described in this paper.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833600

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeThe prevalence of dementia is increasing in South Korea. Multidomain interventions may be useful for preventing dementia. Such programs need to be disseminated to elderly Koreans throughout the country. We have developed programs of the SoUth Korean study to PrEvent cognitive impaiRment and protect BRAIN health through lifestyle intervention in at-risk elderly people (SUPERBRAIN), which consists of a facility-based multidomain intervention (FMI) program and a home-based multidomain intervention (HMI) program suitable for elderly Koreans. We aim to determine the feasibility of the SUPERBRAIN programs before a large-scale randomized controlled trial. @*Methods@#We will recruit 150 participants among those without dementia aged 60–79 years with at least 1 modifiable dementia risk factor. They will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to the FMI, HMI, and the waiting-list control arm. The 6-month multidomain intervention consists of management of metabolic and vascular risk factors, cognitive training and social activity, physical exercise, nutritional guidance, and motivational enhancement programs. The primary outcomes are adherence and retention rates and changes in the total scale index score of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status from baseline to the study end. The main secondary outcomes are disability, depressive symptoms, quality of life, vascular risk factors, physical performance, nutritional assessment, and motivation questionnaire. There will be an exploratory evaluation of neurotrophic, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation factors, microbiome, telomere length, electroencephalography, and neuroimaging measures. @*Conclusions@#The results obtained will provide information on the applicability of these multidomain intervention programs to at-risk elderly people.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 731-735, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833317

ABSTRACT

Limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE) is a recently established neurodegenerative disease entity. LATE neuropathological change (LATE-NC) is characterized by a TDP-43 proteinopathy that mainly involves the amygdala and medial temporal structures, with or without hippocampal sclerosis. LATE-NC is typically observed in individuals aged 80 years or older and manifests clinically as amnestic memory decline. Herein, we report a case of LATE diagnosed by brain autopsy in an 82-year-old male who had an 11-year history of memory impairment. Pathological examination revealed high Alzheimer disease neuropathological changes, as well as amygdala-predominant Lewy body pathology. In addition, immunohistochemistry for TDP-43 revealed neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, amygdala, and inferior temporal cortex. Increasing awareness of the newly defined entity LATE will enhance our understanding of the neurodegenerative processes that occur in the oldest individuals.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766021

ABSTRACT

Due to the progressive aging of Korean society and the introduction of brain banks to the Korean medical system, the possibility that pathologists will have access to healthy elderly brains has increased. The histopathological analysis of an elderly brain from a subject with relatively well-preserved cognition is quite different from that of a brain from a demented subject. Additionally, the histology of elderly brains differs from that of young brains. This brief review discusses primary age-related tauopathy; this term was coined to describe elderly brains with Alzheimer’s diseasetype neurofibrillary tangles mainly confined to medial temporal structures, and no β-amyloid pathology.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Autopsy , Brain , Cognition , Dementia , Humans , Neurofibrillary Tangles , Numismatics , Pathology , Tauopathies
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is the most common cause of vascular dementia and a major contributor to mixed dementia. CSVD is characterized by progressive cerebral white matter changes (WMC) due to chronic low perfusion and loss of autoregulation. In addition to its antiplatelet effect, cilostazol exerts a vasodilating effect and improves endothelial function. This study aims to compare the effects of cilostazol and aspirin on changes in WMC volume in CSVD.METHODS: The comparison study of Cilostazol and aspirin on cHAnges in volume of cerebral smaLL vEssel disease white matter chaNGEs (CHALLENGE) is a double blind, randomized trial involving 19 hospitals across South Korea. Patients with moderate or severe WMC and ≥ 1 lacunar infarction detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are eligible; the projected sample size is 254. Participants are randomly assigned to a cilostazol or aspirin group at a 1:1 ratio. Cilostazol slow release 200 mg or aspirin 100 mg are taken once daily for 2 years. The primary outcome measure is the change in WMC volume on MRI from baseline to 104 weeks. Secondary imaging outcomes include changes in the number of lacunes and cerebral microbleeds, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity on diffusion tensor imaging, and brain atrophy. Secondary clinical outcomes include all ischemic strokes, all vascular events, and changes in cognition, motor function, mood, urinary symptoms, and disability.CONCLUSIONS: CHALLENGE will provide evidence to support the selection of long-term antiplatelet therapy in CSVD.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01932203


Subject(s)
Anisotropy , Aspirin , Atrophy , Brain , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases , Cognition , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Homeostasis , Humans , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Perfusion , Sample Size , Stroke , Stroke, Lacunar , White Matter
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Visual assessment of medial temporal-lobe atrophy (MTA) has been quick, reliable, and easy to apply in routine clinical practice. However, one of the limitations in visual assessments of MTA is the lack of widely accepted age-adjusted norms and cutoff scores for MTA for a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to determine the optimal cutoff score on a T1-weighted axial MTA Visual Rating Scale (VRS) for differentiating patients with AD from cognitively normal elderly people. METHODS: The 3,430 recruited subjects comprising 1,427 with no cognitive impairment (NC) and 2003 AD patients were divided into age ranges of 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80–89 years. Of these, 446 participants (218 in the NC group and 228 in the AD group) were chosen by random sampling for inclusion in this study. Each decade age group included 57 individuals, with the exception of 47 subjects being included in the 80- to 89-year NC group. The scores on the T1-weighted axial MTA VRS were graded by two neurologists. The cutoff values were evaluated from the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: The optimal axial MTA VRS cutoff score from discriminating AD from NC increased with age: it was ≥as ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 in subjects aged 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80–89 years, respectively (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the optimal cutoff score on the axial MTA VRS for diagnosing of AD differed according to the decade age group. This information could be of practical usefulness in the clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alzheimer Disease , Atrophy , Cognition Disorders , Dementia , Diagnosis , Humans , Korea , Pemetrexed , ROC Curve
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Only a few studies have investigated the relationship between different subtypes and disease progression or prognosis in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Since a localized injury often produces more focal signs than a diffuse injury, we hypothesized that the clinical characteristics differ between patients with bvFTD who show diffuse frontal lobe atrophy (D-type) on axial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans versus those with focal or circumscribed frontal lobe atrophy (F-type). METHODS: In total, 94 MRI scans (74 scans from bvFTD and 20 scans from age-matched normal controls) were classified into 35 D- and 39 F-type bvFTD cases based on an axial MRI visual rating scale. We compared baseline clinical characteristics, progression in motor and cognitive symptoms, and survival times between D- and F-types. Survival analyses were performed for 62 of the 74 patients. RESULTS: While D-type performed better on neuropsychological tests than F-type at baseline, D-type had higher baseline scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III. Evaluations of motor progression showed that the disease duration with motor symptoms was shorter in D-type than F-type. Moreover, the survival time was shorter in D-type (6.9 years) than F-type (9.4 years). Cox regression analyses revealed that a high UPDRS Part III score at baseline contributed to an increased risk of mortality, regardless of the pattern of atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis is worse for D-type than for those with F-type. Shorter survival in D-type may be associated with the earlier appearance of motor symptoms.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Disease Progression , Frontal Lobe , Frontotemporal Dementia , Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mortality , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Neuropsychological Tests , Parkinson Disease , Prognosis
10.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 283-287, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. HZ-associated aseptic meningitis, a rare complication of HZ, can require hospitalization and a long treatment period. OBJECTIVE: A retrospective study was performed to identify potential factors associated with HZ-associated aseptic meningitis development. METHODS: We included all outpatients and patients admitted in the neurology and dermatology departments of a single tertiary center, who were diagnosed with HZ for two years. Among 818 patients, 578 patients were eligible for analysis. RESULTS: The demographics and potential risk factors were compared between the uncomplicated HZ group (n=554) and aseptic meningitis group (n=24). Among the potential factors, the dermatological distribution of skin rash and gender showed statistically significantly different between the two groups. Patients with craniocervical distribution of HZ accounted for 87.5% (n=21) of the aseptic meningitis group and 54.3% (n=301) of the uncomplicated HZ group (p=0.043). The aseptic meningitis group had more men (66.7%, n=16) than the uncomplicated HZ group (42.8%, n=237, p=0.033). Patients with craniocervical distribution had an odds ratio (OR) of 5.884 (p=0.001) for developing aseptic meningitis when compared with the other dermatome involvements. Additional logistic regression analysis resulted in a fading between gender difference (p=0.050) and craniocervical involvement having an OR of 5.667 for aseptic meningitis (p=0.006). CONCLUSION: In HZ patients, skin rash with craniocervical distribution and male gender were associated with a higher risk of aseptic meningitis.


Subject(s)
Demography , Dermatology , Exanthema , Herpes Zoster , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Meningitis , Meningitis, Aseptic , Neurology , Odds Ratio , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Neurology Asia ; : 349-356, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-625553

ABSTRACT

Inflammation might be associated with cognitive impairment and be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of systemic inflammation. This study aimed to investigate whether serum concentrations of hs-CRP are related to cognitive function in patients with PD. Patients with PD (n = 113, Hoehn and Yahr [H-Y] stage 1-4) underwent evaluation of serum hs-CRP and comprehensive neuropsychological tests that covered the cognitive domains of attention, language, visuospatial function, memory, and executive functions. We categorized subjects with PD as having normal cognition (n=48), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=41), or dementia (n=24). Patients with dementia had a higher hs-CRP level than patients with MCI or normal cognition (2.76 ± 2.53 vs. 1.27 ± 1.99 vs. 0.73 ± 0.88 mg/L, P=0.001). Serum hs-CRP levels were inversely associated with the Mini-Mental State Examination scores and performance on neuropsychological tests of language, visuospatial function, visual memory, and executive function. After controlling for age, sex, symptom duration, education, H-Y stage, and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor score, multiple regression analyses indicated statistically significant associations between hs-CRP levels and performance on neuropsychological tests of visuospatial function, visual memory, and executive function. This study suggests a possible relationship between serum hs-CRP levels and cognitive function in patients with PD, with higher levels of hs-CRP being associated with poor performance on tests of visuospatial function, visual memory, and executive function.


Subject(s)
Dementia
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are effective in Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment. The aim of this study is 1) to find neuropsychological factors that affect the functional response to ChEI therapy and 2) to determine whether regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) pretreatment predicts a cognitive change in response to ChEI. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 32 patients diagnosed with probable AD and treated them with donepezil, a ChEI, over one year. The patients were divided into stable (s-AD) and declined (d-AD) AD groups, based on changes in Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) scores. Patients were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Co-operative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) and Seoul Neuropsychologic Screening Battery, as well as brain single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) at baseline and last medical evaluations. The predictors of therapeutic responses were analyzed using general linear models. RESULTS: Based on their cognitive function changes, AD patients were classified into two groups: s-AD (n=14, annual change in K-MMSE score or =0.9). The s-AD at baseline showed significantly better ADCS-ADL function (p=0.04) and had a tendency to preserve frontal function compared to the d-AD group. Global Statistical Parametric Mapping analysis revealed no significant decrease of rCBF between baseline and follow-up SPECT, in either the s-AD or the d-AD groups. However, on regional perfusion analysis of baseline SPECT, the d-AD group demonstrated perfusion deficits in the supramarginal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, and rolandic operculum compared with the s-AD group. CONCLUSIONS: Highly preserved ADCS-ADLs predicted a better improvement in MMSE scores in response to ChEI therapy and a more positive functional response in the group with preserved frontal function. rCBF provided hints to the variable response to donepezil therapy with ChEI treatment.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Brain , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Linear Models , Mass Screening , Neuropsychological Tests , Perfusion , Prospective Studies , Seoul , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
13.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 45-51, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788290

ABSTRACT

Excessive accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) is one of the major mechanisms responsible for neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. Flavonoids, primarily antioxidants, are a group of polyphenolic compounds synthesized in plant cells. The present study aimed to identify flavonoid compounds that could inhibit Abeta-induced neuronal death by examining the effects of various flavonoids on the neurotoxicity of Abeta fragment 25-35 (Abeta25-35) in mouse cortical cultures. Abeta25-35 induced concentration- and exposure-time-dependent neuronal death. Neuronal death induced by 20 microM Abeta25-35 was significantly inhibited by treatment with either Trolox or ascorbic acid. Among 10 flavonoid compounds tested [apigenin, baicalein, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), kaempferol, luteolin, myricetin, quercetin, and rutin], all except apigenin showed strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity under cell-free conditions. The flavonoid compounds except apigenin at a concentration of 30 microM also significantly inhibited neuronal death induced by 20 microM Abeta25-35 at the end of 24 hours of exposure. Epicatechin, EGCG, luteolin, and myricetin showed more potent and persistent neuroprotective action than did the other compounds. These results demonstrated that oxidative stress was involved in Abeta-induced neuronal death, and antioxidative flavonoid compounds, especially epicatechin, EGCG, luteolin, and myricetin, could inhibit neuronal death. These findings suggest that these four compounds may be developed as neuroprotective agents against Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Antioxidants , Apigenin , Ascorbic Acid , Catechin , Flavonoids , Luteolin , Mice , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Oxidative Stress , Plant Cells , Quercetin
14.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 45-51, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57893

ABSTRACT

Excessive accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) is one of the major mechanisms responsible for neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. Flavonoids, primarily antioxidants, are a group of polyphenolic compounds synthesized in plant cells. The present study aimed to identify flavonoid compounds that could inhibit Abeta-induced neuronal death by examining the effects of various flavonoids on the neurotoxicity of Abeta fragment 25-35 (Abeta25-35) in mouse cortical cultures. Abeta25-35 induced concentration- and exposure-time-dependent neuronal death. Neuronal death induced by 20 microM Abeta25-35 was significantly inhibited by treatment with either Trolox or ascorbic acid. Among 10 flavonoid compounds tested [apigenin, baicalein, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), kaempferol, luteolin, myricetin, quercetin, and rutin], all except apigenin showed strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity under cell-free conditions. The flavonoid compounds except apigenin at a concentration of 30 microM also significantly inhibited neuronal death induced by 20 microM Abeta25-35 at the end of 24 hours of exposure. Epicatechin, EGCG, luteolin, and myricetin showed more potent and persistent neuroprotective action than did the other compounds. These results demonstrated that oxidative stress was involved in Abeta-induced neuronal death, and antioxidative flavonoid compounds, especially epicatechin, EGCG, luteolin, and myricetin, could inhibit neuronal death. These findings suggest that these four compounds may be developed as neuroprotective agents against Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Antioxidants , Apigenin , Ascorbic Acid , Catechin , Flavonoids , Luteolin , Mice , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Oxidative Stress , Plant Cells , Quercetin
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outcome of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is unpredictable and some patients have persistent and often incapacitating symptoms. This study was aimed to investigate whether abnormalities on initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can predict the outcome in patients with SIH. METHODS: We retrospectively included 44 patients with SIH. Brain MRI was available for all patients. Treatment consisted of conservative treatment and/or high-volume epidural blood patching. Patients were divided into two groups: favorable or non-favorable group. Favorable group was defined as clinical improvement by conservative therapy or one trial of autologous epidural blood patching; non-favorable group as more than two week of admission, two or more trials of autologous epidural blood patching, or relapse of orthostatic headache. RESULTS: Twenty-one (48%) of 44 patients were classified as the favorable group. The non-favorable group had several abnormal findings on brain MRI (16 cases vs. 5 cases in favorable group, p<0.003), including platybasia (1), skull base tumor (1), Chiari I malformation (1), diffuse mild thickening and enhancement of dural and epidural layer of thoracic spine (1), pituitary enlargement (3), sagging brain (3) and subdural hemorrhage (4). In the non-favorable group, 13 out of 23 patients (57%) showed pachymeningeal enhancement in brain MRI (2 patients in favorable group, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Brain MRI abnormalities were more frequently related with non-favorable outcomes in SIH. Pachymeningeal enhancement in particular could suggest an unfortunate prognosis.


Subject(s)
Blood Patch, Epidural , Brain , Headache , Hematoma, Subdural , Humans , Intracranial Hypotension , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Platybasia , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base , Spine
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infection with Streptococcus suis (S. suis), a zoonotic pathogen, has been reported mainly in pig-rearing and pork-consuming countries. Meningitis is the most-common clinical manifestation and is often associated with deafness and vestibular dysfunction. CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old man was referred to the hospital with headaches, fevers, chills, and hearing impairment. Meningitis was confirmed and S. suis was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. Spondylodiscitis occurred after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment, and was successfully treated with a prolonged course of antibiotics for another 4 weeks. His hearing loss was irreversible despite the improvement of other symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first human case of S. suis infection in Korea. In patients presenting with meningitis, S. suis should be considered if the characteristic features of prominent and early hearing loss are present.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chills , Deafness , Discitis , Fever , Headache , Hearing Loss , Humans , Korea , Meningitis , Middle Aged , Streptococcus , Streptococcus suis
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100460

ABSTRACT

Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a rare, serious complication of carotid revascularization either after carotid endarterectomy or carotid stent placement. Although extensive effort has been devoted to reducing the incidence of CHS, little is known about the prevention. Postprocedural hypertension is very rare due to autoregulation of carotid baroreceptors but may occur if presented with autonomic dysfunction. We present two cases of CHS after cerebral revascularization that presented autonomic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Angioplasty , Cerebral Revascularization , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Pressoreceptors , Stents
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13103

ABSTRACT

We report an unusual case of probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in hemodialysis patient. A woman 59 years of age with a past history of hypertension and end-stage renal disease presented with a stuporous state preceded by rapidly progressive cognitive dysfunction, myoclonus, and akinetic mutism. At first, the cause of the altered mental status was assumed to be uremic or hypertensive encephalopathy combined with fever. Proper managements, however, did not improve the neurologic symptoms. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilaterally asymmetric high signal intensity in both basal ganglia and cerebral cortices. Electroencephalography showed diffuse generalized theta-to-delta range slow wave and intermittent medium-to-high voltage complexes with a characteristic triphasic pattern on both hemispheres. Cerebrospinal fluid assay for the 14-3-3 protein was positive and diagnostic of CJD.


Subject(s)
14-3-3 Proteins , Akinetic Mutism , Basal Ganglia , Cerebral Cortex , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome , Dialysis , Electroencephalography , Female , Fever , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertensive Encephalopathy , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myoclonus , Neurologic Manifestations , Renal Dialysis , Stupor
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recurrent seizures result in brain damage, but it is usually gradual, minimal, and difficult to observe by visual inspection of magnetic resonance images (MRIs). It is well known that hippocampal structure is vulnerable to seizure-associated brain damage. We measured the hippocampal volume in patients with epilepsy to evaluate the degree of damage to the hippocampus. METHODS: We recruited 33 patients with epilepsy and 21 healthy subjects from January 2007 to December 2008. We subclassified the patients into two groups: (1) 14 patients with intractable epilepsy and (2) 19 patients with drug-responsive epilepsy. In each group, the volumes of the left and right hippocampus were measured by manual drawing on brain MRIs. We compared the hippocampal volume in intractable epilepsy, drug-responsive epilepsy, and healthy subjects. The compounding effect of hippocampal sclerosis was ruled out by excluding eight patients with hippocampal sclerosis; we then compared the hippocampal volume in the two groups with epilepsy. RESULTS: The volume of the bilateral hippocampus on brain MRIs was smaller in patients with intractable epilepsy than in those with drug-responsive epilepsy and healthy subjects (left, p<0.004; right, p<0.03). After excluding the patients with hippocampal sclerosis by visual inspection, the hippocampal volumes were also found to be smaller in patients with intractable epilepsy than in those with drug-responsive epilepsy (left, p<0.04; right, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: While there is no definitive abnormality of the hippocampus on visual inspection of brain MRIs, we determined the degree of hippocampal atrophy and volume loss in patients with intractable epilepsy. Hippocampal volumetry will be helpful for the assessment of brain damage in patients with intractable epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Brain , Epilepsy , Hippocampus , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Sclerosis , Seizures
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80100

ABSTRACT

Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare systemic vasculitis that is accompanied by asthma and peripheral eosinophilia. We report herein a case of a 32-year-old man with untreated CSS complicated by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the right basal ganglia. On admission, a hematologic examination revealed eosinophilia and increased perinuclearantineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody levels. A thorough stroke risk-factor evaluation was conducted, but the only risk factor found was CSS. This is the first case of CSS complicated by ICH reported in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Basal Ganglia , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Churg-Strauss Syndrome , Cytoplasm , Eosinophilia , Humans , Risk Factors , Stroke , Systemic Vasculitis
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