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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1337-1345, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Outcome analysis of urachal cancer (UraC) is limited due to the scarcity of cases and different staging methods compared to urothelial bladder cancer (UroBC). We attempted to assess survival outcomes of UraC and compare to UroBC after stage-matched analyses. @*Materials and Methods@#Total 203 UraC patients from a multicenter database and 373 UroBC patients in single institution from 2000 to 2018 were enrolled (median follow-up, 32 months). Sheldon stage conversion to corresponding TNM staging for UraC was conducted for head-to-head comparison to UroBC. Perioperative clinical variables and pathological results were recorded. Stage-matched analyses for survival by stage were conducted. @*Results@#UraC patients were younger (mean age, 54 vs. 67 years; p < 0.001), with 163 patients (80.3%) receiving partial cystectomy and 23 patients (11.3%) radical cystectomy. UraC was more likely to harbor ≥ pT3a tumors (78.8% vs. 41.8%). While 5-year recurrence-free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival were comparable between two groups (63.4%, 67%, and 62.1% in UraC and 61.5%, 75.9%, and 67.8% in UroBC, respectively), generally favorable prognosis for UraC in lower stages (pT1-2) but unfavorable outcomes in higher stages (pT4) compared to UroBC was observed, although only 5-year CSS in ≥ pT4 showed statistical significance (p=0.028). Body mass index (hazard ratio [HR], 0.929), diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.921), pathologic T category (HR, 3.846), and lymphovascular invasion (HR, 1.993) were predictors of CSS for all patients. @*Conclusion@#Despite differing histology, UraC has comparable prognosis to UroBC with relatively favorable outcome in low stages but worse prognosis in higher stages. The presented system may be useful for future grading and risk stratification of UraC.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 636-642, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976707

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The activity and safety of neoadjuvant nivolumab plus gemcitabine/cisplatin (N+GC) were tested in patients with muscle-invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma (MIBC). @*Materials and Methods@#In a prospective phase II trial, patients with cT2-T4a N0 MIBC who were eligible for cisplatin and medically appropriate to undergo radical cystectomy (RC) were enrolled. Treatment with nivolumab 3 mg/kg on days 1 and 15 plus GC (cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1, and gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15) was repeated every 28 days up to 3 or 4 cycles, depending on the surgery schedules. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR, ypT0). Secondary endpoints included pathologic downstaging (≤ ypT1), disease-free survival (DFS), and safety. @*Results@#Between September 2019 and October 2020, 51 patients were enrolled. Neoadjuvant N+GC was well tolerated. Among 49 patients who completed neoadjuvant N+GC, clinical complete response (cCR) was achieved in 59% of intent-to-treat (ITT) population. RC was performed in 34 (69%) patients. pCR was achieved in 24% (12/49) of ITT population and 35% (12/34) of RC patients. Median DFS was not reached. Over a median follow-up of 24 months, 12 patients experienced disease recurrence and were treated with palliative therapy or surgery. Although 12 patients declined surgery and were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy, DFS was longer in patients with cCR after neoadjuvant therapy than those without. Preoperative programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) did not correlate with pCR or pathologic downstaging rates. @*Conclusion@#Neoadjuvant N+GC was feasible and provided meaningful pathologic responses in patients with MIBC, regardless of baseline PD-L1 expression (ONO-4538-X41; CRIS.nih.go.kr, KCT0003804).

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 218-225, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913835

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to investigate the risk factors and patterns of locoregional recurrence (LRR) after radical nephrectomy (RN) in patients with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 245 patients who underwent RN for non-metastatic pT3-4 RCC from January 2006 to January 2016. We analyzed the risk factors associated with poor locoregional control using Cox regression. Anatomical mapping was performed on reference computed tomography scans showing intact kidneys. @*Results@#The median follow-up duration was 56 months (range, 1 to 128 months). Tumor extension to renal vessels or the inferior vena cava (IVC) and Fuhrman’s nuclear grade IV were identified as independent risk factors of LRR. The 5-year actuarial LRR rates in groups with no risk factor, one risk factor, and two risk factors were 2.3%, 19.8%, and 30.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). The locations of LRR were distributed as follows: aortocaval area (n=2), paraaortic area (n=4), retrocaval area (n=5), and tumor bed (n=11). No LRR was observed above the celiac axis (CA) or under the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). @*Conclusion@#Tumor extension to renal vessels or the IVC and Fuhrman’s nuclear grade IV were the independent risk factors associated with LRR after RN for pT3-4 RCC. The locations of LRR after RN for RCC were distributed in the tumor bed and regional lymphatic area from the bifurcation of the CA to that of the IMA.

4.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 107-114, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926797

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the performance of combining prostate health index (PHI) and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent prostate biopsy for elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥2.5 ng/mL and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. Serum markers for PSA, free PSA (fPSA), and [-2] proPSA (p2PSA) were measured, and PHI was calculated as ([p2PSA/fPSA]×[PSA]1/2). Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 3.0T scanner and scored using PI-RADSv2. csPCa was defined as either grade group (GG) ≥2 disease or GG1 cancer detected in >2 cores or >50% of positive on biopsy. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression modelling, along with receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to predict the probability of csPCa. @*Results@#Of the total 358 patients, 159 (44.4%) were diagnosed with csPCa. On univariable analysis, age, PSA density (PSAD), PHI and PI-RADSv2 were associated with csPCa. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of baseline model incorporating age and PSAD was 0.663. The AUC of combining PHI and PI-RADSv2 to baseline model was higher than that of PHI alone to baseline model (0.884 vs. 0.807, p<0.0001) and PI-RADSv2 alone to baseline model (0.884 vs. 0.846, p=0.0002), respectively. If biopsy was restricted to patients with PI-RADS 5 as well as PI-RADS 3 or 4 and PHI ≥27, 36.0% of unnecessary biopsy could be avoided at the cost of missing 4.7% of csPCa. @*Conclusions@#The combination of PHI and PI-RADSv2 to baseline model incorporating age and PSAD had higher accuracy for detection of csPCa compared with PHI or PI-RADSv2 alone.

5.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 148-154, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902530

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the predictive factors for acute urinary retention (AUR) after transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy (TTMB). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the records of 459 patients who had undergone TTMB between May 2017 and July 2020. Overall complications after TTMB were analyzed and categorized according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Factors that were likely to affect AUR were analyzed using a logistic regression model. @*Results@#Overall complications after TTMB were observed in 95 of the 459 patients (20.7%), of which AUR was the most commonly reported (17.4%, n=80), followed by hematuria (3.1%, n=14). Hematuria in one patient was categorized as Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa. All remaining complications were Clavien-Dindo grade I. In the multivariate regression model, age ≥65 (odds ratio, 2.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42–4.17; p=0.001), prostate volume ≥30 mL (odds ratio, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.19–11.62; p<0.02), and number of biopsy cores ≥30 (odds ratio, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.29–6.43; p=0.01) were identified as the predictors for AUR after TTMB. @*Conclusions@#AUR is the most common complication after TTMB. Age ≥65 years, prostate volume ≥30 mL, and number of biopsy cores ≥30 were significant predictors of AUR following TTMB.

6.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 183-192, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902526

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To analyze and compare the results of robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) at a single center with the previous large-scale studies in terms of perioperative and oncological outcomes. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively evaluated 1,013 cases of RPN in our center database from December 2008 to August 2018. Total 11 cases were excluded in final analysis. We evaluated perioperative outcomes as the Trifecta achievement, which is defined as no positive surgical margin (PSM), no perioperative complications greater than Clavien-Dindo classification I and a warm ischemia time of <25 minutes. In addition, we analyzed pathological and oncological outcomes; recurrence, metastasis, all-cause deaths, cancer-specific deaths, and 5-year survival rates. @*Results@#In 1,002 cases, the Trifecta achievement was 61.1% (n=612). The postoperative complication was 18.4% (n=184) but most were grade 2 or less (14.9%, n=145). Ninety-three cases (9.28%) had benign and 907 cases (90.5%) had malignant pathologies. A local recurrence were 14 cases (1.54%) and distant metastasis were 20 cases (2.2%) during follow-up periods. Allcause death rate was 1.2% (n=11) and cancer-specific death rate was 0.2% (n=2). The median follow-up period was 39 months. A 5-year recurrence-free survival rate, cancer-specific survival rate, and overall survival rate were 95.2%, 99.7%, and 98.4%. @*Conclusions@#In summary, our data shows comparable perioperative outcomes to other largescale studies of RPN in terms of the Trifecta achievement with similar baseline characteristics. In terms of oncological outcomes, there was lower rate of PSM and similar recurrence free survival rate.

7.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 252-262, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898803

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We compared success rates of 3 surgical techniques (holmium laser enucleation of the prostate [HoLEP], transurethral resection of the prostate [TURP], and photoselective laser vaporization prostatectomy [PVP]) for treatment of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). We aimed to identify preoperative clinical variables and urodynamic parameters that predict surgical success. @*Methods@#A total of 483 patients who underwent surgical treatment for BPO at Samsung Medical Center between 2006 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed; of these 361, 81, and 41 patients underwent HoLEP, TURP, and PVP, respectively. Prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, urodynamic parameters, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)/quality of life (QoL) index were evaluated preoperatively; uroflowmetry, postvoid residual urine, and IPSS/QoL index were measured 6 months postoperatively. Surgical success was defined based on IPSS, maximum flow rate, and QoL index and predictive factors were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses. @*Results@#Success rates of HoLEP, TURP, and PVP were 67.6%, 65.4%, and 34.1%, respectively, and the HoLEP and TURP groups were not significantly different. Regression analysis revealed prostate volume ≥50 mL and bladder outlet obstruction index (BOOI) ≥40 to be independent factors predicting HoLEP success. Only high preoperative QoL could predict the success of TURP, whereas other urodynamic parameters remained unrelated. @*Conclusions@#Patients treated with HoLEP and TURP displayed equivalent efficacies, but PVP was relatively less efficient than both. Preoperative variables of prostate volume ≥50 mL and BOOI ≥40 were independent predictive factors for the success of HoLEP but not of TURP.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 795-802, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897455

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the effects of bladder cuff method on oncological outcomes in patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. @*Materials and Methods@#The records of 1,095 patients treated with RNU performed at our hospital between 1994 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed; 856 patients with no bladder tumor history were enrolled in the present study. The management of bladder cuff was divided into two categories: extravesical ligation (EL) or transvesical resection (TR). Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine which factors were associated with intravesical recurrence (IVR)–free survival (IVRFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). @*Results@#The mean patient age was 64.8 years and the median follow-up was 37.7 months. Among the 865 patients, 477 (55.7%) underwent the TR and 379 (44.3%) the EL. Significantly higher IVRFS (p=0.001) and OS (p=0.013) were observed in the TR group. In multivariable analysis, IVR, CSS, and OS were independently associated with the EL. Among 379 patients treated with the EL, eight underwent remnant ureterectomy. Based on radical cystectomy–free survival, significant difference was not observed between the two groups. However, significantly higher IVRFS was observed in the TR group when the tumor was located in the renal pelvis. @*Conclusion@#Intramural complete excision of the distal ureter during RNU should be the gold standard approach compared with EL for the management of distal ureter in terms of oncological outcomes.

9.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 148-154, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894826

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the predictive factors for acute urinary retention (AUR) after transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy (TTMB). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the records of 459 patients who had undergone TTMB between May 2017 and July 2020. Overall complications after TTMB were analyzed and categorized according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Factors that were likely to affect AUR were analyzed using a logistic regression model. @*Results@#Overall complications after TTMB were observed in 95 of the 459 patients (20.7%), of which AUR was the most commonly reported (17.4%, n=80), followed by hematuria (3.1%, n=14). Hematuria in one patient was categorized as Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa. All remaining complications were Clavien-Dindo grade I. In the multivariate regression model, age ≥65 (odds ratio, 2.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42–4.17; p=0.001), prostate volume ≥30 mL (odds ratio, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.19–11.62; p<0.02), and number of biopsy cores ≥30 (odds ratio, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.29–6.43; p=0.01) were identified as the predictors for AUR after TTMB. @*Conclusions@#AUR is the most common complication after TTMB. Age ≥65 years, prostate volume ≥30 mL, and number of biopsy cores ≥30 were significant predictors of AUR following TTMB.

10.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 183-192, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To analyze and compare the results of robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) at a single center with the previous large-scale studies in terms of perioperative and oncological outcomes. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively evaluated 1,013 cases of RPN in our center database from December 2008 to August 2018. Total 11 cases were excluded in final analysis. We evaluated perioperative outcomes as the Trifecta achievement, which is defined as no positive surgical margin (PSM), no perioperative complications greater than Clavien-Dindo classification I and a warm ischemia time of <25 minutes. In addition, we analyzed pathological and oncological outcomes; recurrence, metastasis, all-cause deaths, cancer-specific deaths, and 5-year survival rates. @*Results@#In 1,002 cases, the Trifecta achievement was 61.1% (n=612). The postoperative complication was 18.4% (n=184) but most were grade 2 or less (14.9%, n=145). Ninety-three cases (9.28%) had benign and 907 cases (90.5%) had malignant pathologies. A local recurrence were 14 cases (1.54%) and distant metastasis were 20 cases (2.2%) during follow-up periods. Allcause death rate was 1.2% (n=11) and cancer-specific death rate was 0.2% (n=2). The median follow-up period was 39 months. A 5-year recurrence-free survival rate, cancer-specific survival rate, and overall survival rate were 95.2%, 99.7%, and 98.4%. @*Conclusions@#In summary, our data shows comparable perioperative outcomes to other largescale studies of RPN in terms of the Trifecta achievement with similar baseline characteristics. In terms of oncological outcomes, there was lower rate of PSM and similar recurrence free survival rate.

11.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 252-262, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891099

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We compared success rates of 3 surgical techniques (holmium laser enucleation of the prostate [HoLEP], transurethral resection of the prostate [TURP], and photoselective laser vaporization prostatectomy [PVP]) for treatment of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). We aimed to identify preoperative clinical variables and urodynamic parameters that predict surgical success. @*Methods@#A total of 483 patients who underwent surgical treatment for BPO at Samsung Medical Center between 2006 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed; of these 361, 81, and 41 patients underwent HoLEP, TURP, and PVP, respectively. Prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, urodynamic parameters, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)/quality of life (QoL) index were evaluated preoperatively; uroflowmetry, postvoid residual urine, and IPSS/QoL index were measured 6 months postoperatively. Surgical success was defined based on IPSS, maximum flow rate, and QoL index and predictive factors were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses. @*Results@#Success rates of HoLEP, TURP, and PVP were 67.6%, 65.4%, and 34.1%, respectively, and the HoLEP and TURP groups were not significantly different. Regression analysis revealed prostate volume ≥50 mL and bladder outlet obstruction index (BOOI) ≥40 to be independent factors predicting HoLEP success. Only high preoperative QoL could predict the success of TURP, whereas other urodynamic parameters remained unrelated. @*Conclusions@#Patients treated with HoLEP and TURP displayed equivalent efficacies, but PVP was relatively less efficient than both. Preoperative variables of prostate volume ≥50 mL and BOOI ≥40 were independent predictive factors for the success of HoLEP but not of TURP.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 795-802, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889751

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the effects of bladder cuff method on oncological outcomes in patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. @*Materials and Methods@#The records of 1,095 patients treated with RNU performed at our hospital between 1994 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed; 856 patients with no bladder tumor history were enrolled in the present study. The management of bladder cuff was divided into two categories: extravesical ligation (EL) or transvesical resection (TR). Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine which factors were associated with intravesical recurrence (IVR)–free survival (IVRFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). @*Results@#The mean patient age was 64.8 years and the median follow-up was 37.7 months. Among the 865 patients, 477 (55.7%) underwent the TR and 379 (44.3%) the EL. Significantly higher IVRFS (p=0.001) and OS (p=0.013) were observed in the TR group. In multivariable analysis, IVR, CSS, and OS were independently associated with the EL. Among 379 patients treated with the EL, eight underwent remnant ureterectomy. Based on radical cystectomy–free survival, significant difference was not observed between the two groups. However, significantly higher IVRFS was observed in the TR group when the tumor was located in the renal pelvis. @*Conclusion@#Intramural complete excision of the distal ureter during RNU should be the gold standard approach compared with EL for the management of distal ureter in terms of oncological outcomes.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e342-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831715

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the strategy for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) with low prostate specific antigen (PSA) level (2.5–4.0 ng/mL), prostate biopsy patients with low PSA were assessed. We evaluated the risk of low PSA PCa and the strategy for screening low-PSA patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the patients who underwent prostate biopsy with low PSA level. Baseline characteristics, PSA level before prostate biopsy, prostate volume, prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), and pathological data were assessed. @*Results@#Among the 1986 patients, 24.97% were diagnosed with PCa. The PSAD was 0.12 ± 0.04 ng/mL2 in the PCa-diagnosed group and 0.10 ± 0.04 ng/mL2 in non-cancer-diagnosed group (P < 0.001). Of the 496 patients diagnosed with PCa, 302 (60.89%) were in the intermediate- or high-risk group. PSAD was 0.13 ± 0.04 ng/mL2 in the intermediate- or highrisk group and 0.11 ± 0.03 ng/mL2 in the very low- and low-risk group (P < 0.001). Of 330 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, 85.15% were diagnosed as having significant cancer. There was significant correlation between PSAD and PCa (r = 0.294, P < 0.001).PSAD with a specificity of 80.00% of a clinically significant cancer diagnosis was assessed at 0.1226 ng/mL2 . @*Conclusion@#The PCa detection rate in the low-PSA group was not lower than that of previous studies of patients with PSA from 4.0 to 10.0 ng/mL. Further, it may be helpful to define a strategy for PCa detection using PSAD in the low-PSA group.

14.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 194-200, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902521

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#There remains a lot of unmet need to increase understanding of node-positive (ypN+) muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy to decide the appropriate therapeutics. @*Materials and Methods@#In a retrospective study using the center cancer chemotherapy registry, we found 113 MIBC patients who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy involving gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP) followed by radical cystectomy between 2010 and 2014. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared according to the pathologic node positivity (ypN- vs. ypN+). Among a total of 165 patients with MIBC who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy involving GP, 118 underwent radical cystectomy. In 46 patients with ypN+ disease, DFS and OS were evaluated according to administration of adjuvant GP. @*Results@#After neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy, 41% of patients had ypN+ disease, which showed significantly shorter DFS (median, 7.4 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3–9.6 months) and OS (median, 20.0 months; 95% CI, 13.4–26.6 months) compared to those with ypN- disease. The patients with ypN+ disease had a high risk of recurrence or death, regardless of the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy or adjuvant regimen. @*Conclusions@#Within the limitations of this retrospective study, MIBC patients with ypN+ disease despite neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy had a poor prognosis. Further studies involving novel, effective adjuvant treatment including immunotherapy agents are needed to reduce the high risk of recurrence or death in these patients.

15.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 194-200, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894817

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#There remains a lot of unmet need to increase understanding of node-positive (ypN+) muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy to decide the appropriate therapeutics. @*Materials and Methods@#In a retrospective study using the center cancer chemotherapy registry, we found 113 MIBC patients who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy involving gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP) followed by radical cystectomy between 2010 and 2014. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared according to the pathologic node positivity (ypN- vs. ypN+). Among a total of 165 patients with MIBC who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy involving GP, 118 underwent radical cystectomy. In 46 patients with ypN+ disease, DFS and OS were evaluated according to administration of adjuvant GP. @*Results@#After neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy, 41% of patients had ypN+ disease, which showed significantly shorter DFS (median, 7.4 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3–9.6 months) and OS (median, 20.0 months; 95% CI, 13.4–26.6 months) compared to those with ypN- disease. The patients with ypN+ disease had a high risk of recurrence or death, regardless of the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy or adjuvant regimen. @*Conclusions@#Within the limitations of this retrospective study, MIBC patients with ypN+ disease despite neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy had a poor prognosis. Further studies involving novel, effective adjuvant treatment including immunotherapy agents are needed to reduce the high risk of recurrence or death in these patients.

16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1269-1274, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763233

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Treatment targeting immune checkpoint with programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors has demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). We investigated the efficacy and safety of atezolizumab in mUC patients who failed platinum-based chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study using the Samsung Medical Center cancer chemotherapy registry was performed on 50 consecutive patients with mUC treated with atezolizumab, regardless of their PD-L1(SP142) status, as salvage therapy after chemotherapy failure between May 2017 and June 2018. Endpoints included overall response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), and safety. RESULTS: Among 50 patients, men constituted 76% and the median age was 68 years (range, 46 to 82 years). Twenty-three patients (46%) received atezolizumab as second-line therapy. PD-L1 (SP142) status IC0/1 and IC2/3 were found in 21 (42%) and 21 (42%) of patients, respectively; in eight patients (16%), PD-L1 (SP142) expression was not available. Atezolizumab was generally well tolerated, with pruritus and fatigue being the most commonly observed toxicities. As a result, partial response was noted in 20 patients (40%), with 12 (24%) stable diseases. RRwas higherin IC2/3 (62%) than in IC0/1 patients (24%, p=0.013). The median PFS was 7.4 months (95% confidence interval, 3.4 to 11.4 months). As expected, PFS also was significantly longer in IC2/3 patients than in IC0/1 (median, 12.7 vs. 2.1 months; p=0.005). PFS was not significantly influenced by age, sex, performance status, number of previous chemotherapy, site of metastases, or any of the baseline laboratory parameters. CONCLUSION: In this retrospective study, atezolizumab demonstrated clinically efficacy and tolerability in unselected mUC patients who failed platinum-based chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Fatigue , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pruritus , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 963-972, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763183

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare oncologic outcomes between open nephroureterectomy (ONU) and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of consecutive ONU and LNU cases from five tertiary institutions were retrospectively analyzed between 2000 and 2012. The propensity-score matching methodology was used to compare the two surgical approaches in terms of age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, tumor location, grade, pathologic T and N categories, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, and follow-up duration. The Kaplan-Meier with log-rank tests and clustered Cox regression were used to compare the estimated rates of survival for each surgical approach and to investigate the effect of the surgical approach on each prognostic outcome. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-eight propensity-score matching pairs (n=1,276) were compared; LNU was significantly better than ONU in all types of survival, including intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS), disease-free survival, overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (p < 0.05). The 3-year OS and CSS rates were significantly higher with LNU than with ONU (p < 0.05). Compared with ONU, LNU had significantly better 3-year OS and CSS rates (82.9% and 86.2% vs. 78.3% and 81.8%); there were no differences at 5 years. In subgroup analysis of the early-staged group, advanced-stage group, lymph node–positive group, and lymph node–negative group, the two approaches did not significantly affect prognostic outcomes, except LNU improved the IVRFS in the lymph node–negative or no history of previous bladder cancer group. CONCLUSION: LNU had a significantly better prognostic outcome than ONU after propensity-score matching.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Laparoscopy , Medical Records , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1064-1072, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763173

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The lower incidence of bladder cancer among women has led to a lack of information on female radical cystectomy (RC). This study aimed to analyze the characteristics related with female RC in a cohort from multiple academic institutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 384 female patients who underwent RC for bladder cancer. Epidemiologic, perioperative variables including urologic referral periodwith consequent pathologic stage distributions were assessed. The changes in surgical techniques over time were illustrated. Also, we evaluated recurrence-free survival (RFS) at 2 and 5 years and overall survival (OS) at 5 years with stage-specific analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 35 months (interquartile rage [IQR], 9 to 55). The average time to urologic referral with initial symptoms was 5.5 (IQR, 1 to 6) months and over 20% of patients visited clinics after 6 months. In subsequent stage distributions according to referral period, T2 or higher stage distributions were abruptly increased after 1 year. Overall 2-year/5-year RFS rates were 0.72/0.57 and 5-year OS was 0.61. Notable surgical descriptions were as follows: 91% of patients underwent open RC; 80% of patients underwent an ileal conduit; and 83% of patients received anterior exenteration. However, the proportions of robotic surgery, orthotopic neobladder and organ sparing cystectomy have increased recently. CONCLUSION: We identified the general characteristics and changes in pattern of female RC. Our results also suggest that women are susceptible to delays in referral to an urologist and are at greater risk for worse prognosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Cohort Studies , Cystectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Korea , Methods , Prognosis , Rage , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urinary Diversion
19.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 60-65, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760324

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare biopsy performance of 2 approaches for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided biopsy and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy with 2nd and 3rd repeat biopsy patients in prostate cancer detection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed 2,868 patients who was performed prostate biopsy between September 2013 to March 2017 at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea with TRUS-guided random biopsy and MRI fusion, MRI cognitive, and MRI-guided biopsy as 2nd and 3rd repeat biopsy and propensity matching was applied to reduce bias. Detection rate of each study was compared with 1:1 matching. RESULTS: Among 265 patients who performed TRUS 2nd biopsy, positivity rate for prostate cancer (PCa) was 18.49% (n=49/265) while 54.72% (n=145/265) for MRI-guided biopsy. In 3rd biopsy, positivity rate for PCa of TRUS biopsy was 17.74% (n=11/62) while 56.45% (n=35/62) for MRI guided biopsy. There was no significant difference in the detection rate for the patient with Gleason score 8 or more. CONCLUSIONS: MRI-guided biopsy was associated with a higher detection rate of prostate cancer with especially in patients with prior negative biopsy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bias , Biopsy , Cohort Studies , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Grading , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Propensity Score , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Ultrasonography
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 240-251, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719426

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared oncologic outcomes of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) who underwent open nephroureterectomy (ONU) or laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive cases of ONU and LNU between 2000 and 2012 at five participating institutions were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical characteristics and pathologic outcomes were compared between the two surgical approaches. The influence of the type of surgical approach on intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were assessed with the log-rank test. Predictors of IVRFS, PFS, CSS, and OS were also analyzed with a multivariable Cox regression model. RESULTS: A total of 1,521 patients with UTUC were eligible for the present study (ONU, 906; LNU, 615). The estimated 5-year IVRFS (57.8 vs. 51.0%, p=0.010), CSS (80.4 vs. 76.4%, p=0.032), and OS (75.8 vs. 71.4%, p=0.026) rates were significantly different between the two groups in favor of LNU. Moreover, in patients with locally advanced disease (pT3/pT4), the LNU group showed better 5-year IVRFS (62.9 vs. 54.1%, p=0.038), CSS (64.3 vs. 56.9%, p=0.022), and OS (60.4 vs. 53.1%, p=0.018) rates than the ONU group. Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed that type of surgical approach was independently associated with IVRFS, but was not related to PFS, CSS, and OS. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that LNU provided better oncologic control of IVRFS, CSS, and OS compared with ONU for the management of patients with UTUC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease-Free Survival , Laparoscopy , Methods , Retrospective Studies
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