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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896179

ABSTRACT

We surveyed on the infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae (ZTM) in freshwater fishes from Soyang-cheon (a branch stream of Mangyeong-gang) in Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, the Republic of Korea. A total of 927 fishes were individually examined with the artificial digestion method during 2013-2015 (462 fish in 15 spp.) and 2018-2019 (465 fish in 25 spp.). Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae were detected in 207 (31.4%) out of 659 fishes in 14 positive fish species (PFS), and their mean intensity was 114 per fish infected (PFI). Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 302 (37.4%) out of 808 fishes in 21 PFS, and their mean intensity was 12 PFI. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 222 (59.0%) out of 376 fishes in 12 PFS, and their mean intensity was 383 PFI. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were found in 139 (22.1%) out of 628 fishes in 10 PFS, and their mean intensity was 7 PFI. Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae were detected in 14 (6.5%) out of 214 fishes in 4 PFS, and their mean intensity was 2.4 PFI. Metorchis orientalis metacercariae were detected in 36 (13.5%) out of 267 fishes in 5 PFS, and their mean intensity was 4.3 PFI. Conclusively, the prevalence and infection intensity of ZTM is generally not so high in fishes from Soyang-cheon. However, those of C. sinensis metacercariae are more or less higher in 2 fish species, Pungtungia herzi and Sarcocheilichthys variegatus wakiyae.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896161

ABSTRACT

The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium spp. is a diagnostic antigen and useful biomarker for monitoring short-term/seasonal changes to malaria transmission. Using P. vivax CSP antibody ELISA, epidemiological characteristics were analyzed in the residents of Ganghwa, Cheorwon, Paju, and Goseong from 2017 to 2018. In Ganghwa and Cheorwon, 1.6% and 1.2% of residents, respectively, were PvCSP-antibody-positive in 2018, which indicates a decrease of 0.4% in the positive rate compared to 2017. The annual parasite incidence (API) in Ganghwa and Cheorwon was 24.9 and 10.5 in 2017 and 20.3 and 10.7 in 2018, respectively. Although the changes were not significant, the API in Ganghwa decreased slightly by 4.5 in 2018 compared to the previous year. In Paju and Goseong, 3.9% and 2.0% of residents were positive for the PvCSP antibody. The API in Paju was 13.1 in 2017 and 16.0 in 2018, although no malaria patients were reported for the 2 years. Therefore, the results suggest that PvCSP is a useful antigen for confirming initial malaria infection. Additionally, considering that the antibody is relatively transient, it can be employed for sero-epidemiological studies to determine the extent of malaria transmission in the current year.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896159

ABSTRACT

The infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae (ZTM) was investigated in total 568 freshwater fishes (19 species) from the irrigation canal of Togyo-jeosuji (Reservoir) in Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, the Republic of Korea for 3 years (2018-2020). All fishes were examined using the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis (CsMc) were detected in 180 (43.8%) out of 411 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 38 per fish infected (PFI). Especially, in 2 fish species, i.e., Pseudorasbora parva and Puntungia herzi, the prevalence was 82.1% and 31.3%, and the infection intensity with CsMc was 88 and 290 PFI, respectively. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae (MsMc) were found in 403 (74.1%) out of 544 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 62 PFI. In the pale chub, Zacco platypus, the prevalence of MsMc was 98.6%, and their infection intensity was 144 PFI. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 171 (38.9%) out of 440 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 1,844 PFI. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were found in 94 (19.6%) out of 479 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 3 PFI. Metorchis orientalis metacercariae were detected in 43 (29.3%) out of 147 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 4 PFI. By the present study, it has been confirmed that some species of ZTM, including CsMc and MsMc, are prevalent in fishes from the irrigation canal of Togyo-jeosuji in Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903883

ABSTRACT

We surveyed on the infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae (ZTM) in freshwater fishes from Soyang-cheon (a branch stream of Mangyeong-gang) in Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, the Republic of Korea. A total of 927 fishes were individually examined with the artificial digestion method during 2013-2015 (462 fish in 15 spp.) and 2018-2019 (465 fish in 25 spp.). Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae were detected in 207 (31.4%) out of 659 fishes in 14 positive fish species (PFS), and their mean intensity was 114 per fish infected (PFI). Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 302 (37.4%) out of 808 fishes in 21 PFS, and their mean intensity was 12 PFI. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 222 (59.0%) out of 376 fishes in 12 PFS, and their mean intensity was 383 PFI. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were found in 139 (22.1%) out of 628 fishes in 10 PFS, and their mean intensity was 7 PFI. Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae were detected in 14 (6.5%) out of 214 fishes in 4 PFS, and their mean intensity was 2.4 PFI. Metorchis orientalis metacercariae were detected in 36 (13.5%) out of 267 fishes in 5 PFS, and their mean intensity was 4.3 PFI. Conclusively, the prevalence and infection intensity of ZTM is generally not so high in fishes from Soyang-cheon. However, those of C. sinensis metacercariae are more or less higher in 2 fish species, Pungtungia herzi and Sarcocheilichthys variegatus wakiyae.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903865

ABSTRACT

The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium spp. is a diagnostic antigen and useful biomarker for monitoring short-term/seasonal changes to malaria transmission. Using P. vivax CSP antibody ELISA, epidemiological characteristics were analyzed in the residents of Ganghwa, Cheorwon, Paju, and Goseong from 2017 to 2018. In Ganghwa and Cheorwon, 1.6% and 1.2% of residents, respectively, were PvCSP-antibody-positive in 2018, which indicates a decrease of 0.4% in the positive rate compared to 2017. The annual parasite incidence (API) in Ganghwa and Cheorwon was 24.9 and 10.5 in 2017 and 20.3 and 10.7 in 2018, respectively. Although the changes were not significant, the API in Ganghwa decreased slightly by 4.5 in 2018 compared to the previous year. In Paju and Goseong, 3.9% and 2.0% of residents were positive for the PvCSP antibody. The API in Paju was 13.1 in 2017 and 16.0 in 2018, although no malaria patients were reported for the 2 years. Therefore, the results suggest that PvCSP is a useful antigen for confirming initial malaria infection. Additionally, considering that the antibody is relatively transient, it can be employed for sero-epidemiological studies to determine the extent of malaria transmission in the current year.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903863

ABSTRACT

The infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae (ZTM) was investigated in total 568 freshwater fishes (19 species) from the irrigation canal of Togyo-jeosuji (Reservoir) in Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, the Republic of Korea for 3 years (2018-2020). All fishes were examined using the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis (CsMc) were detected in 180 (43.8%) out of 411 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 38 per fish infected (PFI). Especially, in 2 fish species, i.e., Pseudorasbora parva and Puntungia herzi, the prevalence was 82.1% and 31.3%, and the infection intensity with CsMc was 88 and 290 PFI, respectively. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae (MsMc) were found in 403 (74.1%) out of 544 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 62 PFI. In the pale chub, Zacco platypus, the prevalence of MsMc was 98.6%, and their infection intensity was 144 PFI. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 171 (38.9%) out of 440 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 1,844 PFI. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were found in 94 (19.6%) out of 479 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 3 PFI. Metorchis orientalis metacercariae were detected in 43 (29.3%) out of 147 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 4 PFI. By the present study, it has been confirmed that some species of ZTM, including CsMc and MsMc, are prevalent in fishes from the irrigation canal of Togyo-jeosuji in Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875530

ABSTRACT

The infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae (ZTM) was surveyed in freshwater fishes from the water systems of Geum-gang (River) in the Republic of Korea (Korea). A total of 1,161 freshwater fishes from 6 local sites of Geum-gang were examined with the artificial digestion method for 4 years (2012-2015). Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae were detected in 122 (37.2%) out of 328 fishes in the positive fish species from 4 surveyed areas, and their mean intensity was 43 per fish infected. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 432 (51.7%) out of 835 fishes in the positive fish species from all 6 surveyed areas, and their mean intensity was 30 per fish infected. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 285 (75.0%) out of 380 fishes in the positive fish species from 6 surveyed areas, and their mean intensity was 2,100 per fish infected. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were found in 56 (19.7%) out of 284 fishes in the positive fish species from 5 surveyed areas, and their mean intensity was 10 per fish infected. Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae were detected in 98 (57.3%) out of 171 fishes in the positive fish species from only 2 surveyed areas, and their mean intensity was 11 per fish infected. Conclusively, the endemicity of ZTM is not so high in fishes from water systems of Geum-gang in Korea although it is more or less different by fish species, surveyed areas and ZTM species.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875521

ABSTRACT

The infection status with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) was examined in freshwater fishes from Yongjeon-cheon (a branch of Nakdong-gang) located in Cheongsong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). A total of 750 fishes in 19 species were examined by the artificial digestion method for 2 years (2019 and 2020). CsMc were detected in 378 (51.4%) out of 735 fishes in 14 species (73.7%), and the infection intensity was 666 per fish infected. In 2019, CsMc were found in 172 (68.0%) out of 253 fishes in 10 species, and the infection intensity was 565 per fish infected. In 2020, CsMc were detected in 206 (62.2%) out of 331 fishes in 10 species, and the infection intensity was 751 per fish infected. The other zoonotic trematode, ie. Metagonimus spp., Centrocestus armatus, Echinostoma spp. and Clinostomum complanatum, metacercariae were also detected in fishes from the survey streams, but their endemicities were relatively low. Conclusively, it was first confirmed that CsMc are highly endemic in fishes from Yongjeon-cheon in Cheongsong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919312

ABSTRACT

The incidence of vivax malaria in Korea was reduced to a low plateau. For successful elimination of vivax malaria, socio-behavioral changes in the communities are essential. This study aimed to figure out awareness of the inhabitants on the vivax malaria endemicity. The 407 participants including vivax malaria patients and uninfected inhabitants in Gimpo- and Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do, known as high-risk areas in Korea. We used a community-based study design and non-probability sampling method using primary data. Except for the perception about the public health facilities’ capability to cope with anti-malaria programs, the 2 groups of participants shared the same level of awareness about public promotional and educational measures and opinions for malaria elimination from the community. Thus, our future goals for malaria prevention and elimination are to develop more active and well-organized community-based education and evaluation programs collaborating with the community healthcare authorities and local governments.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919310

ABSTRACT

The endemicity of zoonotic trematode metacercariae (ZTM) was investigated with total 871 freshwater fishes (19 species) from Deokcheon-gang (a branch stream of Gyeongho-gang) in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea for 3 years (2018-2020). All fishes were examined with the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis (CsMc) were detected in 233 (36.3%) out of 642 fish in 11 positive fish species (PFS), and their infection intensity was 27 per fish infected (PFI). Especially, in index fish, Puntungia herzi, of CsMc infection, prevalence was 64.2% and infection intensity was 37 PFI. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae (MsMc) were found in 760 (87.5%) out of 869 fish in 18 PFS and their infection intensity was 228 PFI. In sweet smelt, Plecoglossus altivelis, the prevalence of MsMc was 97.6% and their infection intensity was 3,570 PFI. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 209 (29.4%) out of 710 fish in 8 PFS and their infection intensity was 1,361 PFI. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were found in 293 (42.6%) out of 688 fish in 15 PFS and their infection intensity was 5 PFI. Metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum and Metorchis orientalis were also detected in 2.7% and 21.2% fish in 4 PFS and their infection intensities were 3.1 and 3.4 PFI respectively. By the present study, it was confirmed that some species of ZTM including CsMc and MsMc are more or less prevalent in fishes from Deokcheon-gang in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919309

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and intensity of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OvMc) were investigated in fish from 3 southern administrative regions along the Mekong River in Cambodia, i.e., Phnom Penh, Takeo, and Kandal Provinces from 2017 to 2020. A total of 295 freshwater fish (24 species) were transported to our laboratory with ice and examined using the artificial digestion method. In Phnom Penh, among 4 fish species positive for OvMc, 9 (23.7%) of 38 specimens examined were infected, and their intensity of infection averaged 4.3 metacercariae per infected fish. In Takeo Province, among 10 fish species positive for OvMc, 24 (38.1%) out of 63 fish examined were infected, and their intensity of infection was av. 14.4 metacercariae per infected fish. In particular, all of 3 Osteochilus schlegelii fish examined were infected, and their infection intensity was high, 34.7 metacercariae per fish. In Kandal Province, among 6 fish species positive for OvMc, 46 (90.2%) out of 51 specimens examined were infected, and their infection intensity was 24.0 metacercaraie per infected fish. All fish of Systomus orphoides (n=17), Barbonymus altus (n=14), and Rasbora aurotaenia (n=2) were infected, and their intensity of infection averaged 37.7, 21.6, and 18.5 metacercariae per fish, respectively. Metacercariae of Haplochis yokogawai, Haplorchis taichui, and Centrocestus formosanus were detected in fish from Takeo and Kandal Provinces. From these results, it has been confirmed that a variety of fish species from Phnom Penh, Takeo, and Kandal Provinces are commonly infected with OvMc, and preventive measures to avoid human O. viverrini infection should be performed in Cambodia.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919302

ABSTRACT

An understanding of the knowledges, attitudes and perceptions of different populations is key for public health policy makers. Here, a survey was performed on knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about malaria diagnosis, prevention, control, and treatment. The 407 survey participants included both uninfected inhabitants and patients from 2 cities (Gimpo- and Paju-si) of Northern Gyeonggi-do, known as high-risk areas for vivax malaria. We used community-based study design and non-probability sampling method using the primary data. Association between variables were tested using χ2-tests. In general, the information on malaria reported by the participants in this study was unsystematic and included inaccurate details. The knowledge of malaria symptoms, identified as headache, chills and fever, was high, but the surveyed community lacks knowledge of the specific medications used for malaria treatment, with a large number of respondents having no knowledge of any form of medication. Survey questions with high correct answer rates included questions about easy treatment of malaria in Korea, the high daytime activity of malaria-borne mosquitoes, and the infection risk posed by outdoor activities. However, a large portion of the respondents was unable to provide simple medical and biological information about the disease. This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practical behavior of the surveyed community with respect to malaria and the implications reported here could be applicable to other malaria endemic areas in Korea.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896144

ABSTRACT

Morphological and molecular characterization of clinostomid metacercariae (CMc) was performed with the specimens collected in fish from Korea and Myanmar. Total 6 batches of clinostomid specimens by the fish species and geographical localities, 5 Korean and 1 Myanmar isolates, were analyzed with morphological (light microscopy and SEM) and molecular methods (the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene and internal transcribed spacer 1/5.8S rRNA sequence). There were some morphological variations among CMc specimens from Korea. However, some morphometrics, i.e., the size of worm body and each organ, ratio of body length to body width, and morphology of cecal lumens, were considerably different between the specimens from Korea and Myanmar. The surface ultrastructures were somewhat different between the specimens from Korea and Myanmar. The CO1 sequences of 5 Korean specimens ranging 728-736 bp showed 99.6-100% identity with Clinostomum complanatum (GenBank no. KM923964). They also showed 99.9-100% identity with C. complanatum (FJ609420) in the ITS1 sequences ranging 692-698 bp. Meanwhile, the ITS1 sequences of Myanmar specimen showed 99.9% identity with Euclinostomum heterostomum (KY312847). Five sequences from Korean specimens clustered with the C. complanatum genes, but not clustered with Myanmar specimens. Conclusively, it was confirmed that CMc from Korea were morphologically and molecularly identical with C. complanatum and those from Myanmar were E. heterostomum.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896136

ABSTRACT

Present study was performed to know the infection status of Gnathostoma sp. larvae in swamp eels from Cambodia. We purchased total 30 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from local markets in Pursat and Takeo Provinces and Phnom Penh on May and November 2017 and May 2018. All collected eels were transferred to our laboratory with ice and each of them was examined by artificial digestion method. A total of 15 larval gnathostomes (1-5 larvae) were detected from 55.6% (5/9) swamp eels in Pursat Province. No larval gnathostomes were found in 21 swamp eels in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) detected were 2.575-3.825 (3.250) mm in length and 0.375-0.425 (0.386) mm in width. They had the characteristic head bulb (av. 0.104×0.218 mm) with 4 rows of hooklets, long muscular esophagus (1.048 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.615 mm). The number of hooklets in 4 rows on the head bulb was 41, 44, 47, and 50. In scanning electron microscopy, characteristic features were 4 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, cervical papillae, tegumental spines regularly arranged in transverse striations, and anus. The larval gnathostomes were identified as AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum based on the morphological characters. By the present study, it has been confirmed that G. spinigerum larvae are infected in Asian swamp eels, M. albus, in Pursat Province, Cambodia.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896135

ABSTRACT

A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic helminth larvae in fish from a local market of North Dagon District in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 486 fish in 13 species were collected 8 times from December 2015 to December 2019. All fish were transported under ice to a laboratory in Korea and examined for helminth larvae using artificial digestion method. Larval gnathostomes and metacercariae of more than 8 zoonotic trematode species, i.e., Opisthorchis viverrini, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp., were detected. Larval gnathostomes were found in 58 (16.0%) out of 362 fish of 6 species, with mean intensity of 2.8 per fish infected. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were detected in 10 (2.9%) out of 349 fish of 5 species, with mean intensity of 16.9 per fish infected. Metacercarial prevalences of 4 intestinal flukes, H. taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, and Centrocestus spp., were 16.8%, 26.0%, 12.5%, and 15.0% in the positive fish species, respectively, and mean metacercarial intensity was 63.3, 26.8, 86.2, and 8.7 per fish infected. Metacercariae of S. falcatus and P. cambodiensis were detected only from the mullet, Chelon macrolepis. Metacercariae of Procerovum sp. were found in Channa striata and Anabas testudineus. Collectively, it was confirmed that the fish were infected with gnathostome larvae and metacercariae of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes in Yangon City, Myanmar.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896134

ABSTRACT

Knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) of mosquitoes confer resistance to insecticides. Although insecticide resistance has been suspected to be widespread in the natural population of Aedes aegypti in Myanmar, only limited information is currently available. The overall prevalence and distribution of kdr mutations was analyzed in Ae. aegypti from Mandalay areas, Myanmar. Sequence analysis of the VGSC in Ae. aegypti from Myanmar revealed amino acid mutations at 13 and 11 positions in domains II and III of VGSC, respectively. High frequencies of S989P (68.6%), V1016G (73.5%), and F1534C (40.1%) were found in domains II and III. T1520I was also found, but the frequency was low (8.1%). The frequency of S989P/V1016G was high (55.0%), and the frequencies of V1016G/F1534C and S989P/V1016G/F1534C were also high at 30.1% and 23.5%, respectively. Novel mutations in domain II (L963Q, M976I, V977A, M994T, L995F, V996M/A, D998N, V999A, N1013D, and F1020S) and domain III (K1514R, Y1523H, V1529A, F1534L, F1537S, V1546A, F1551S, G1581D, and K1584R) were also identified. These results collectively suggest that high frequencies of kdr mutations were identified in Myanmar Ae. aegypti, indicating a high level of insecticide resistance.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903848

ABSTRACT

Morphological and molecular characterization of clinostomid metacercariae (CMc) was performed with the specimens collected in fish from Korea and Myanmar. Total 6 batches of clinostomid specimens by the fish species and geographical localities, 5 Korean and 1 Myanmar isolates, were analyzed with morphological (light microscopy and SEM) and molecular methods (the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene and internal transcribed spacer 1/5.8S rRNA sequence). There were some morphological variations among CMc specimens from Korea. However, some morphometrics, i.e., the size of worm body and each organ, ratio of body length to body width, and morphology of cecal lumens, were considerably different between the specimens from Korea and Myanmar. The surface ultrastructures were somewhat different between the specimens from Korea and Myanmar. The CO1 sequences of 5 Korean specimens ranging 728-736 bp showed 99.6-100% identity with Clinostomum complanatum (GenBank no. KM923964). They also showed 99.9-100% identity with C. complanatum (FJ609420) in the ITS1 sequences ranging 692-698 bp. Meanwhile, the ITS1 sequences of Myanmar specimen showed 99.9% identity with Euclinostomum heterostomum (KY312847). Five sequences from Korean specimens clustered with the C. complanatum genes, but not clustered with Myanmar specimens. Conclusively, it was confirmed that CMc from Korea were morphologically and molecularly identical with C. complanatum and those from Myanmar were E. heterostomum.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903840

ABSTRACT

Present study was performed to know the infection status of Gnathostoma sp. larvae in swamp eels from Cambodia. We purchased total 30 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from local markets in Pursat and Takeo Provinces and Phnom Penh on May and November 2017 and May 2018. All collected eels were transferred to our laboratory with ice and each of them was examined by artificial digestion method. A total of 15 larval gnathostomes (1-5 larvae) were detected from 55.6% (5/9) swamp eels in Pursat Province. No larval gnathostomes were found in 21 swamp eels in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) detected were 2.575-3.825 (3.250) mm in length and 0.375-0.425 (0.386) mm in width. They had the characteristic head bulb (av. 0.104×0.218 mm) with 4 rows of hooklets, long muscular esophagus (1.048 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.615 mm). The number of hooklets in 4 rows on the head bulb was 41, 44, 47, and 50. In scanning electron microscopy, characteristic features were 4 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, cervical papillae, tegumental spines regularly arranged in transverse striations, and anus. The larval gnathostomes were identified as AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum based on the morphological characters. By the present study, it has been confirmed that G. spinigerum larvae are infected in Asian swamp eels, M. albus, in Pursat Province, Cambodia.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903839

ABSTRACT

A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic helminth larvae in fish from a local market of North Dagon District in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 486 fish in 13 species were collected 8 times from December 2015 to December 2019. All fish were transported under ice to a laboratory in Korea and examined for helminth larvae using artificial digestion method. Larval gnathostomes and metacercariae of more than 8 zoonotic trematode species, i.e., Opisthorchis viverrini, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp., were detected. Larval gnathostomes were found in 58 (16.0%) out of 362 fish of 6 species, with mean intensity of 2.8 per fish infected. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were detected in 10 (2.9%) out of 349 fish of 5 species, with mean intensity of 16.9 per fish infected. Metacercarial prevalences of 4 intestinal flukes, H. taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, and Centrocestus spp., were 16.8%, 26.0%, 12.5%, and 15.0% in the positive fish species, respectively, and mean metacercarial intensity was 63.3, 26.8, 86.2, and 8.7 per fish infected. Metacercariae of S. falcatus and P. cambodiensis were detected only from the mullet, Chelon macrolepis. Metacercariae of Procerovum sp. were found in Channa striata and Anabas testudineus. Collectively, it was confirmed that the fish were infected with gnathostome larvae and metacercariae of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes in Yangon City, Myanmar.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903838

ABSTRACT

Knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) of mosquitoes confer resistance to insecticides. Although insecticide resistance has been suspected to be widespread in the natural population of Aedes aegypti in Myanmar, only limited information is currently available. The overall prevalence and distribution of kdr mutations was analyzed in Ae. aegypti from Mandalay areas, Myanmar. Sequence analysis of the VGSC in Ae. aegypti from Myanmar revealed amino acid mutations at 13 and 11 positions in domains II and III of VGSC, respectively. High frequencies of S989P (68.6%), V1016G (73.5%), and F1534C (40.1%) were found in domains II and III. T1520I was also found, but the frequency was low (8.1%). The frequency of S989P/V1016G was high (55.0%), and the frequencies of V1016G/F1534C and S989P/V1016G/F1534C were also high at 30.1% and 23.5%, respectively. Novel mutations in domain II (L963Q, M976I, V977A, M994T, L995F, V996M/A, D998N, V999A, N1013D, and F1020S) and domain III (K1514R, Y1523H, V1529A, F1534L, F1537S, V1546A, F1551S, G1581D, and K1584R) were also identified. These results collectively suggest that high frequencies of kdr mutations were identified in Myanmar Ae. aegypti, indicating a high level of insecticide resistance.

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