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1.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 161-166, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928524

ABSTRACT

Ethnicity might be associated with treatment outcomes in advanced prostate cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) combined with apalutamide in East Asians with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). The original phase 3 Targeted Investigational Treatment Analysis of Novel Anti-androgen (TITAN) trial was conducted at 260 sites in 23 countries. This subgroup analysis included patients enrolled in 62 participating centers in China, Japan, and Korea. Radiographic progression-free survival (PFS), time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, and PSA changes from baseline were compared between groups in the East Asian population. The intent-to-treat East Asian population included 111 and 110 participants in the apalutamide and placebo groups, respectively. The 24-month radiographic PFS rates were 76.1% and 52.3% in the apalutamide and placebo groups, respectively (apalutamide vs placebo: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.506; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.302-0.849; P = 0.009). Median time to PSA progression was more favorable with apalutamide than placebo (HR = 0.210; 95% CI, 0.124-0.357; P < 0.001). Median maximum percentages of PSA decline from baseline were 99.0% and 73.9% in the apalutamide and placebo groups, respectively. The most common adverse event (AE) was rash in the apalutamide group, with a higher rate than that in the placebo group (37.3% vs 9.1%). The most common grade 3 or 4 AEs were rash (12 [10.9%]) and hypertension (12 [10.9%]) for apalutamide. The efficacy and safety of apalutamide in the East Asian subgroup of the TITAN trial are consistent with the global results.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Exanthema/chemically induced , Far East , Humans , Male , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Thiohydantoins/adverse effects
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927021

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease, because it prolongs survival and improves quality of life. Allograft biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing allograft rejection. However, it is invasive and reactive, and continuous monitoring is unrealistic. Various biomarkers for diagnosing allograft rejection have been developed over the last two decades based on omics technologies to overcome these limitations. Omics technologies are based on a holistic view of the molecules that constitute an individual. They include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The omics approach has dramatically accelerated biomarker discovery and enhanced our understanding of multifactorial biological processes in the field of transplantation. However, clinical application of omics-based biomarkers is limited by several issues. First, no large-scale prospective randomized controlled trial has been conducted to compare omics-based biomarkers with traditional biomarkers for rejection. Second, given the variety and complexity of injuries that a kidney allograft may experience, it is likely that no single omics approach will suffice to predict rejection or outcome. Therefore, integrated methods using multiomics technologies are needed. Herein, we introduce omics technologies and review the latest literature on omics biomarkers predictive of allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927010

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Renal ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is closely associated with high morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs) exert powerful therapeutic effects in renal ischemia. However, the efficacy of iMSC-derived exosomes (iExo) on I/R injuries remains largely unknown. @*Methods@#Human iPSCs were differentiated into iMSCs using a modified one-step method. Ultrafiltration, combined with purification, was used to isolate iExo from iMSCs. iExo was administered following I/R injury in a mouse model. The effect of iExo on I/R injury was assessed through changes in renal function, histology, and expression of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis markers. Further, we evaluated its association with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling pathway. @*Results@#Mice subjected to I/R injury exhibited typical AKI patterns; serum creatinine level, tubular necrosis, apoptosis, inflammatory cytokine production, and oxidative stress were markedly increased compared to sham mice. However, treatment with iExo attenuated these changes, significantly improving renal function and tissue damage, similar to the renoprotective effects of iMSCs on I/R injury. Significant induction of activated ERK 1/2 signaling molecules was observed in mice treated with iExo compared to those in the I/R injury group. @*Conclusions@#The present study demonstrates that iExo administration ameliorated renal damage following I/R, suggesting that iMSC-derived exosomes may provide a novel therapeutic approach for AKI treatment.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926795

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the role of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) variation as a predictor of prostate cancer in patients who underwent prebiopsy multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). @*Materials and Methods@#The clinicopathological data of 266 patients with PSA ≤20 ng/mL who underwent prebiopsy MRI and prostate biopsy between September 2019 and February 2021 were included. PSA variation was defined as the difference in PSA values taken when a prostate biopsy was recommended and performed (median 20 days). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curves (AUCs) for predicting prostate cancer were analyzed through 4 models that considered conventional clinical variables and PSA variation. @*Results@#Of the 258 patients, 166 (64.3%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The prostate cancer (+) group had a lower median PSA variation (-0.09 mg/mL vs. -0.27 ng/mL, p=0.006) and higher proportion of patients with PSA variation within -0.54 to 0.05 ng/mL (40 ng/mL [range, 24.1%] vs. 9 ng/mL [9.8%], p=0.002) than the prostate cancer (-) group. There was no significant difference in the duration between the 2 PSA measurements. When PSA variation and conventional variables, such as age, PSA density, prostate biopsy history, number of target lesions, were considered, the highest AUC value was 0.870. In a subgroup analysis of patients with PSA ≤10 ng/mL, the highest AUC value was 0.860 when PSA variation and conventional variables were considered. @*Conclusions@#A large PSA variation within 1 month was a negative predictor of prostate cancer among patients who underwent prebiopsy MRI.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875472

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated whether serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) can predict mortality in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). @*Methods@#This study enrolled 169 patients who underwent serum NGAL testing at CRRT initiation from June 2017 to January 2019. The predictive power of serum NGAL level for 28-day mortality was compared to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) score and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score via area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AuROC) value. @*Results@#There were 55 survivors and 114 non-survivors at 28 days post-CRRT initiation. Median serum NGAL level was significantly higher in the non-survivor group than in the survivor group (743.0 ng/mL vs. 504.0 ng/mL, p = 0.003). The AuROC value of serum NGAL level was 0.640, which was lower than APACHEII score and SOFA score values (0.767 and 0.715, respectively). However, in the low APACHE-II score group (< 27.5), AuROC value of serum NGAL was significantly increased (0.698), and it was an independent risk factor for 28 day-mortality (hazard ratio, 2.405; 95% confidence interval, 1.209 to 4.783; p = 0.012). @*Conclusions@#In patients with AKI requiring CRRT, serum NGAL levels may be useful for predicting short-term mortality in those with low APACHE-II scores.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875448

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To investigate if BK virus (BKV)-specific T cell immunity measured by an interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay can predict the outcome of BK virus infection in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). @*Methods@#We included 68 KTRs with different viremia status (no viremia [n = 17], BK viremia [n = 27], and cleared viremia [n = 24]) and 44 healthy controls (HCs). The BK viremia group was divided into controller ( 3 months) according to sustained duration of BKV infection. We compared BKV-ELISPOT results against five BKV peptides (large tumor antigen [LT], St, VP1-3). @*Results@#BKV-ELISPOT results were higher in three KTRs groups with different BKV infection status than the HCs group (p < 0.05). In KTR groups, they were higher in cleared viremia group than no viremia or BK viremia group. Within the BK viremia group, controller group had higher LT-ELISPOT results compared to noncontroller group (p = 0.032). Also, KTRs without BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVN) had higher LT, St, VP1, and VP2-ELISPOT results than those with BKVN (p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#BKV-ELISPOT assay may be effective in predicting clinical outcomes of BKV infection in terms of clearance of BK virus and development of BKVN.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903676

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), is a promising antioxidant; however, low bioavailability owing to lipid-solubility is a limiting factor. We developed water-soluble CoQ10 (CoQ10-W) and compared its effects with conventional lipid-soluble CoQ10 (CoQ10-L) in an experimental model of chronic tacrolimus (Tac) nephropathy. @*Methods@#CoQ10-W was developed from a glycyrrhizic-carnitine mixed layer CoQ10 micelle based on acyltransferases. Chronic nephropathy was induced in rats with 28-day Tac treatment; they were concomitantly treated with CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W. CoQ10 level in plasma and kidney were measured using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. CoQ10-W and CoQ10-L effects on Tac-induced nephropathy were assessed in terms of renal function, histopathology, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death. Their effects on cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were assessed in cultured proximal tubular cells, human kidney 2 (HK-2) cells. @*Results@#The plasma CoQ10 level was significantly higher in the CoQ10-W group than in the CoQ10-L group. Tac treatment caused renal dysfunction, typical pathologic lesions, and oxidative stress markers. Serum creatinine was restored in the Tac + CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W groups compared with that in the Tac group. CoQ10-W administration reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis markers. Mitochondrial ultrastructure assessment revealed that the addition of CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W with Tac increased mitochondrial size and number than Tac treatment alone. In vitro investigations revealed that both CoQ10-L and CoQ10-W improved cell viability and reduced ROS production in the Tac-induced HK-2 cell injury. @*Conclusions@#CoQ10-W has a better therapeutic effect in Tac-induced renal injury than conventional CoQ10-L, possibly associated with improved CoQ10 bioavailability

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902529

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To identify the indication for recommending prebiopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to prevent prostate cancer missed diagnoses in cases without prebiopsy MRI. @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2017 and September 2020, 585 patients suspected with prostate cancer underwent prostate biopsy after MRI. For patients with visible lesions, MRI-targeted biopsy using an image-based fusion program was performed in addition to the 12- core systematic biopsy. Patients for whom MRI was performed in other institutions (n=4) and patients who underwent target biopsy alone (n=7) were excluded. @*Results@#Of 574 patients (median prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level, 6.88 ng/mL; mean age, 68.2 years), 342 (59.6%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer (visible lesions=312/449 [69.5%]; nonvisible lesions=30/123 [24.0%]). The detection rates of visible lesions stratified using the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score (3 vs. 4 vs. 5) were 30.9% (54 of 175), 61.2% (150 of 245), and 90.1% (127 of 141), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that PSA density was a significant factor for presence of visible lesions, prostate cancer, and significant prostate cancer diagnosis. Among patients with positive lesions, 27 (8.2%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer concomitant with negative systematic biopsy results. A PSA density of 0.15 ng/mL/cm3 was identified as the significant cutoff value for predicting positive target biopsy in groups with negative systematic biopsy. Sixty of the negative target lesions (26.1%) were diagnosed using systematic biopsy. @*Conclusions@#To maximize cancer detection rates, both targeted and systematic biopsies should be implemented. PSA density was identified as a useful factor for recommending prebiopsy MRI to patients suspected with prostate cancer.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901540

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study evaluated the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) on posttransplant clinical outcomes for deceased donor (DD) kidney transplantation (KT) using the Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) system. @*Methods@#Overall, 657 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) receiving kidneys from 526 DDs from four transplant centers were included. We divided them into the high and low KDPI donor groups by 65%, the KDPI score, and both groups were subdivided into the AKI-DDKT and non-AKI-DDKT subgroups according to AKI in DDs. @*Results@#There was no significant difference in the incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) between the high and low KDPI-KTR groups; however, the AKI-DDKT subgroup showed significantly higher incidence of DGF than the non-AKI-DDKT subgroup in both groups (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). The death-censored graft survival rate was significantly lower in the high KDPI-KTR group than in the low KDPI-KTR group (p = 0.005). Only in the high KDPI-KTR group, the death-censored graft survival rate was significantly lower in the KT from DDs with AKI stage 3 than KT from DDs with non-AKI or AKI stage 1 or 2 (p = 0.040). The interaction between AKI stage 3 in DDs and high KDPI on the allograft outcome was significant (p = 0.002). @*Conclusion@#KTs from DDs with AKI stage 3 showed an adverse impact on the allograft outcome in the high KDPI-KTR group. Therefore, DDs with a high KDPI score should be managed carefully so that severe AKI does not occur prior to KT.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897441

ABSTRACT

Decision-making for treatment of newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) is complex due to the multiple initial treatment modalities available. We aimed to externally validate the SCaP (Severance Study Group of Prostate Cancer) Survival Calculator that incorporates a long short-term memory artificial neural network (ANN) model to estimate survival outcomes of PCa according to initial treatment modality. Materials and Methods The validation cohort consisted of clinicopathological data of 4,415 patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven PCa between April 2005 and November 2018 at three institutions. Area under the curves (AUCs) and time-to-event calibration plots were utilized to determine the predictive accuracies of the SCaP Survival Calculator in terms of progression to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC)–free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results Excellent discrimination was observed for CRPC-free survival, CSS, and OS outcomes, with AUCs of 0.962, 0.944, and 0.884 for 5-year outcomes and 0.959, 0.928, and 0.854 for 10-year outcomes, respectively. The AUC values were higher for all survival endpoints compared to those of the development cohort. Calibration plots showed that predicted probabilities of 5-year survival endpoints had concordance comparable to those of the observed frequencies. However, calibration performances declined for 10-year predictions with an overall underestimation. Conclusion The SCaP Survival Calculator is a reliable and useful tool for determining the optimal initial treatment modality and for guiding survival predictions for patients with newly diagnosed PCa. Further modifications in the ANN model incorporating cases with more extended follow-up periods are warranted to improve the ANN model for long-term predictions.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895972

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), is a promising antioxidant; however, low bioavailability owing to lipid-solubility is a limiting factor. We developed water-soluble CoQ10 (CoQ10-W) and compared its effects with conventional lipid-soluble CoQ10 (CoQ10-L) in an experimental model of chronic tacrolimus (Tac) nephropathy. @*Methods@#CoQ10-W was developed from a glycyrrhizic-carnitine mixed layer CoQ10 micelle based on acyltransferases. Chronic nephropathy was induced in rats with 28-day Tac treatment; they were concomitantly treated with CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W. CoQ10 level in plasma and kidney were measured using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. CoQ10-W and CoQ10-L effects on Tac-induced nephropathy were assessed in terms of renal function, histopathology, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death. Their effects on cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were assessed in cultured proximal tubular cells, human kidney 2 (HK-2) cells. @*Results@#The plasma CoQ10 level was significantly higher in the CoQ10-W group than in the CoQ10-L group. Tac treatment caused renal dysfunction, typical pathologic lesions, and oxidative stress markers. Serum creatinine was restored in the Tac + CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W groups compared with that in the Tac group. CoQ10-W administration reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis markers. Mitochondrial ultrastructure assessment revealed that the addition of CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W with Tac increased mitochondrial size and number than Tac treatment alone. In vitro investigations revealed that both CoQ10-L and CoQ10-W improved cell viability and reduced ROS production in the Tac-induced HK-2 cell injury. @*Conclusions@#CoQ10-W has a better therapeutic effect in Tac-induced renal injury than conventional CoQ10-L, possibly associated with improved CoQ10 bioavailability

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889737

ABSTRACT

Decision-making for treatment of newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) is complex due to the multiple initial treatment modalities available. We aimed to externally validate the SCaP (Severance Study Group of Prostate Cancer) Survival Calculator that incorporates a long short-term memory artificial neural network (ANN) model to estimate survival outcomes of PCa according to initial treatment modality. Materials and Methods The validation cohort consisted of clinicopathological data of 4,415 patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven PCa between April 2005 and November 2018 at three institutions. Area under the curves (AUCs) and time-to-event calibration plots were utilized to determine the predictive accuracies of the SCaP Survival Calculator in terms of progression to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC)–free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results Excellent discrimination was observed for CRPC-free survival, CSS, and OS outcomes, with AUCs of 0.962, 0.944, and 0.884 for 5-year outcomes and 0.959, 0.928, and 0.854 for 10-year outcomes, respectively. The AUC values were higher for all survival endpoints compared to those of the development cohort. Calibration plots showed that predicted probabilities of 5-year survival endpoints had concordance comparable to those of the observed frequencies. However, calibration performances declined for 10-year predictions with an overall underestimation. Conclusion The SCaP Survival Calculator is a reliable and useful tool for determining the optimal initial treatment modality and for guiding survival predictions for patients with newly diagnosed PCa. Further modifications in the ANN model incorporating cases with more extended follow-up periods are warranted to improve the ANN model for long-term predictions.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894825

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To identify the indication for recommending prebiopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to prevent prostate cancer missed diagnoses in cases without prebiopsy MRI. @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2017 and September 2020, 585 patients suspected with prostate cancer underwent prostate biopsy after MRI. For patients with visible lesions, MRI-targeted biopsy using an image-based fusion program was performed in addition to the 12- core systematic biopsy. Patients for whom MRI was performed in other institutions (n=4) and patients who underwent target biopsy alone (n=7) were excluded. @*Results@#Of 574 patients (median prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level, 6.88 ng/mL; mean age, 68.2 years), 342 (59.6%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer (visible lesions=312/449 [69.5%]; nonvisible lesions=30/123 [24.0%]). The detection rates of visible lesions stratified using the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score (3 vs. 4 vs. 5) were 30.9% (54 of 175), 61.2% (150 of 245), and 90.1% (127 of 141), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that PSA density was a significant factor for presence of visible lesions, prostate cancer, and significant prostate cancer diagnosis. Among patients with positive lesions, 27 (8.2%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer concomitant with negative systematic biopsy results. A PSA density of 0.15 ng/mL/cm3 was identified as the significant cutoff value for predicting positive target biopsy in groups with negative systematic biopsy. Sixty of the negative target lesions (26.1%) were diagnosed using systematic biopsy. @*Conclusions@#To maximize cancer detection rates, both targeted and systematic biopsies should be implemented. PSA density was identified as a useful factor for recommending prebiopsy MRI to patients suspected with prostate cancer.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893836

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study evaluated the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) on posttransplant clinical outcomes for deceased donor (DD) kidney transplantation (KT) using the Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) system. @*Methods@#Overall, 657 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) receiving kidneys from 526 DDs from four transplant centers were included. We divided them into the high and low KDPI donor groups by 65%, the KDPI score, and both groups were subdivided into the AKI-DDKT and non-AKI-DDKT subgroups according to AKI in DDs. @*Results@#There was no significant difference in the incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) between the high and low KDPI-KTR groups; however, the AKI-DDKT subgroup showed significantly higher incidence of DGF than the non-AKI-DDKT subgroup in both groups (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). The death-censored graft survival rate was significantly lower in the high KDPI-KTR group than in the low KDPI-KTR group (p = 0.005). Only in the high KDPI-KTR group, the death-censored graft survival rate was significantly lower in the KT from DDs with AKI stage 3 than KT from DDs with non-AKI or AKI stage 1 or 2 (p = 0.040). The interaction between AKI stage 3 in DDs and high KDPI on the allograft outcome was significant (p = 0.002). @*Conclusion@#KTs from DDs with AKI stage 3 showed an adverse impact on the allograft outcome in the high KDPI-KTR group. Therefore, DDs with a high KDPI score should be managed carefully so that severe AKI does not occur prior to KT.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919163

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Cigarette smoking is an important modifiable risk factor in kidney disease progression. However, the underlying mechanisms for this are lacking. This study aimed to assess whether nicotine (NIC), a major toxic component of cigarette smoking, would exacerbates tacrolimus (TAC)-induced renal injury. @*Methods@#Sprague-Dawley rats were treated daily with NIC, TAC, or both drugs for 4 weeks. The influence of NIC on TAC-caused renal injury was examined via renal function, histopathology, oxidative stress, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and programmed cell death (apoptosis and autophagy). @*Results@#Both NIC and TAC significantly impaired renal function and histopathology, while combined NIC and TAC treatment aggravated these parameters beyond the effects of either alone. Increased oxidative stress, ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, proinf lammatory and profibrotic cytokine expressions, and programmed cell death from either NIC or TAC were also aggravated by the two combined. @*Conclusions@#Our observations suggest that NIC exacerbates chronic TAC nephrotoxicity, implying that smoking cessation may be beneficial for transplant smokers taking TAC.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917065

ABSTRACT

In kidney transplantation (KT), overcoming donor shortage is particularly challenging in patients with preexisting donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) against human leukocyte antigen (HLA), called HLA-incompatible KT (HLAi KT), carrying the risk of rejection and allograft loss. Thus, it is necessary to accurately evaluate the degree of sensitization before HLAi KT, and undertake appropriate pretreatment strategies. To determine the degree of sensitization, complement-dependent cytotoxicity has been the only method employed; the development of a method using flow cytometry further improved the test sensitivity. However, these tests present disadvantages, including the need for living cells, with a solid-phase assay developed to resolve this problem. Currently, the method using Luminex (Luminex Corp.) is widely used in clinical practice. As this method measures DSAs using single antigen beads, it is possible to classify immunological risks by measuring the type and amount of DSAs. Furthermore, there have been major advances in methods that involve DSA removal before HLAi KT. In the early stages of desensitization, plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulins were the main treatment methods employed; however, the introduction of CD20 monoclonal antibody and proteasome inhibitors further increased the success rate of desensitization. Currently, HLAi KT has been established as an important transplant method, but an understanding of DSAs and a novel desensitization treatment are warranted.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917043

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is a frequent feature in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this study was to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells, differentiate ECs (hiPSC-ECs) from patients with ESRD, and appraise the usefulness of hiPSC-ECs as a model to investigate EC dysfunction. @*Methods@#We generated hiPSCs using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from three patients with ESRD and three healthy controls (HCs). Next, we differentiated hiPSC-ECs using the generated hiPSCs and assessed the expression of endothelial markers by immunofluorescence. The differentiation efficacy, EC dysfunction, and molecular signatures of EC-related genes based on microarray analysis were compared between the ESRD and HC groups. @*Results@#In both groups, hiPSCs and hiPSC-ECs were successfully obtained based on induced pluripotent stem cell or EC marker expression in immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. However, the efficiency of differentiation of ECs from hiPSCs was lower in the ESRD-hiPSCs than in the HC-hiPSCs. In addition, unlike HC-hiPSC-ECs, ESRD-hiPSC-ECs failed to form interconnecting branching point networks in an in vitro tube formation assay. During microarray analysis, transcripts associated with oxidative stress and inflammation were upregulated and transcripts associated with vascular development and basement membrane extracellular matrix components were downregulated in ESRD-hiPSC-ECs relative to in HC-hiPSC-ECs. @*Conclusion@#ESRD-hiPSC-ECs showed a greater level of EC dysfunction than HC-hiPSC-ECs did based on functional assay results and molecular profiles. hiPSC-ECs may be used as a disease model to investigate the pathophysiology of EC dysfunction in ESRD.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834934

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to compare the effect of anemia on clinical outcomes according to age in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). @*Methods@#A total of 3,409 patients from the Clinical Research Center for ESRD were included and divided into three groups by age: age < 40 (n = 488), 40 ≤ age < 60 (n = 1,650), and age ≥ 60 (n = 1,271). We compared overall and cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalization according to mean hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. @*Results@#Among participants ≥ 60 years of age, the Hb < 10 g/dL group had greater all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.098; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.567-2.808; P < 0.001) than the 10 ≤ Hb < 12 g/dL group, whereas among participants < 40 years of age, the Hb ≥ 12 g/dL group had greater mortality than the 10 ≤ Hb < 12 g/dL group. Moreover, in participants ≥ 60 years of age, the HR for all-cause hospitalization for the Hb < 10 g/dL group was significantly greater than that of the 10 ≤ Hb < 12 g/dL group (HR, 1.472; 95% CI, 1.057-2.051; P = 0.022), whereas it was significantly lower in the Hb ≥ 12 g/dL group (HR, 0.544; 95% CI, 0.362-0.820; P = 0.004) However, among participants < 40 years of age, the incidence of all-cause hospitalization did not differ according to the Hb concentration (HR, 1.273; 95% CI, 0.814-1.991; P = 0.290 for the Hb < 10 g/dL group; reference, 10 ≤ Hb < 12 g/dL; HR, 0.787; 95% CI, 0.439-1.410; P = 0.265 for Hb ≥ 12 g/dL group). @*Conclusion@#The impact of anemia on mortality was more significant in elderly ESRD patients. Strict monitoring and management of anemia should be required for elderly ESRD patients.

19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 652-659, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833327

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The benefits of early administration of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-only recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) following radical prostatectomy (RP) are controversial. We investigated the impact of early versus delayed ADT on survival outcomes in patients with non-metastatic, localized or locally advanced PCa who received radiation therapy (RT) following RP and later developed distant metastasis. @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 69 patients with non-metastatic, localized or locally advanced PCa who received RT following RP and later developed distant metastasis between January 2006 and December 2012. Patients were stratified according to the level of PSA at which ADT was administered (<2 ng/mL vs. ≥2 ng/mL). Study endpoints were progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)-free survival and cancer-specific survival (CSS). @*Results@#Patients were stratified according to the criteria of 2 ng/mL of PSA at which ADT was administered, based on the Youden sensitivity analysis. Delayed ADT at PSA ≥2 ng/mL was an independent prognosticator of cancer-specific mortality (p=0.047), and a marginally significant prognosticator of progression to CRPC (p=0.051). During the median follow-up of 81.0 (interquartile range 54.2–115.7) months, patients who received early ADT at PSA <2 ng/mL had significantly higher CSS rates compared to patients who received delayed ADT at PSA ≥2 ng/mL (p=0.002). Progression to CRPC-free survival was comparable between the two groups (p=0.331). @*Conclusion@#Early ADT at the PSA level of less than 2 ng/mL confers CSS benefits in patients with localized or locally advanced PCa who were previously treated with RP.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831888

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has antioxidant effects and is commercially available and marketed extensively. However, due to its low bioavailability, its effects are still controversial. We developed a water-soluble CoQ10-based micelle formulation (CoQ10-W) and tested it in an experimental model of tacrolimus (TAC)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). @*Methods@#We developed CoQ10-W from a glycyrrhizic-carnitine mixed layer CoQ10 micelle preparation based on acyltransferases. TAC-induced DM rats were treated with either lipid-soluble CoQ10 (CoQ10-L) or CoQ10-W for 4 weeks. Their plasma and pancreatic CoQ10 concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. The therapeutic efficacies of CoQ10-W and CoQ10-L on TAC-induced DM were compared using functional and morphological parameters and their effects on cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were also evaluated in cultured rat insulinoma cells. @*Results@#The plasma CoQ10 level was significantly increased in the CoQ10-W group compared to that in the CoQ10-L group. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion revealed that CoQ10-W controlled hyperglycemia and restored insulin secretion significantly better than CoQ10-L. The TAC-mediated decrease in pancreatic islet size was significantly attenuated by CoQ10-W but not by CoQ10-L. TAC-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis were significantly more reduced by CoQ10-W than CoQ10-L. Electron microscopy revealed that CoQ10-W restored TAC-induced attenuation in the number of insulin granules and the average mitochondrial area, unlike CoQ10-L. In vitro studies showed that CoQ10-L and CoQ10-W both improved cell viability and reduced ROS production in TAC-treated islet cells to a similar extent. @*Conclusions@#CoQ10-W has better therapeutic efficacy than CoQ10-L in TAC-induced DM.

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