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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202114


Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. The cytokine array results showed that WCE inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion. Also, WCE reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha- and interleukin-6-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activity. Furthermore, during sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation of human skin, WCE reduced SLS-induced skin erythema and improved barrier regeneration. These results indicate that WCE may be a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent.

Eleocharis , Erythema , Humans , Necrosis , NF-kappa B , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Plants , Reactive Oxygen Species , Regeneration , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Toxicological Research ; : 279-288, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73341


Rats were administered zearalenone (ZEA) via gavage at dosages of 0, 1, 5, and 30 mg/kg for 36 days. On treatment day 8, inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine (Vac) was injected intraperitoneally. Antibody production against porcine parvovirus was then measured as a function of ZEA treatment. Compared to the vaccine alone, ZEA treatment, with or without Vac, decreased the serum level of IgG. The level of IgM decreased in all ZEA groups at day 22, but the decrease was sustained only in the medium-dose ZEA group at day 36. The level of IgA was unchanged in the Vac only and ZEA groups at day 22, but was decreased in the 5 mg/kg ZEA plus Vac group compared to the Vac only group at day 36. The level of IgE was decreased by all doses of ZEA at day 22, but was unaffected in ZEA plus Vac groups compared to the Vac only group. The levels of IL-1 in the thymus and spleen; INF-gamma in serum; IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10 in the thymus; and IL-10 and IFN-gamma in the spleen decreased after ZEA administration. Furthermore, the levels of IL-1beta in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node, IL-1beta in the thymus, IL-2 in the thymus and spleen, IL-6 in the thymus, IL-10 and IFN-gamma in the spleen, and GM-CSF and TNF-alpha in the thymus decreased after vaccination in rats exposed to ZEA. In conclusion, these results suggest that ZEA exposure via drinking water can cause an immunosuppressive effect by decreasing immunoglobulins in serum and cytokines in lymphoid organs.

Animals , Antibody Formation , Cytokines , Drinking Water , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Immunoglobulins , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-6 , Lymph Nodes , Parvovirus, Porcine , Rats , Spleen , Thymus Gland , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccination , Zea mays , Zearalenone
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76910


The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution, prevalence and relationship of the localized periodontitis of root fusion in maxillary and mandibular molars. One hundred patients who had eight maxillary and mandibular molars(third molars excluded) were consecutively selected for the study subjects. The subjects provided a total of 800 molars, i.e., 400 maxillary and 400 mandibular molars. A decision about root fusion was made on the radiographic examination. Probing depth, plaque index, gingival index and mobility were measured. The results were as follows. 1. 15.9% of the molars had a fused root. 22% of the maxillary molars and 9.8% of the mandibular molars had a fused molars. 2. In maxillary molars, the results of probing depth, plaque index, gingival index, mobility are more higher in test group than in control group, and there was a significantly difference except plaque index of maxillary first molars group(p<0.01). 3. In mandibular molars, the results of probing depth, plaque index, gingival index, mobility are more higher in test group than in control group, and there was a significantly difference(p<0.01). As a result of this study, it can be concluded that, in management of molars with a root fusion, we should detect the molars through the precise radiographic examination, early periodontal treatment and systematic treatment plan should be chosen. And postoperative continuing supportive periodontal therapy is needed.

Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105684


PURPOSE: In order to evaluate the efficacy of PEFL (cisplatin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin) chemotherapy and to identify favorable subsets, we conducted a phase II trial of PEFL regimen for patients with carcinomas of unknown primary origin (CUPO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 38 patients was enrolled in this study between May 1995 and September 1997. CUPO was defined as the presence of metastatic cancer documented in the absence of an identifiable primary site. All entered patients were treated with PEFL combination chemotherapy (cisplatin 20 mg/m(2)/day i.v, days 1-5, etoposide 100 mg/m(2)/day i.v. days 1, 3 & 5, 5-fluorouracil 800 mg/m(2)/day continuous infusion days 1-5, and leucovorin 20 mg/m(2)/day i.v, days 1-5; repeated every 4 weeks). The end points of this study were response and survival. To identify favorable subsets, univariate and multivariate analyses were perfonned. RESULTS: Among 38 patients, 29 had measurable lesions. Three (11%) out of 27 evaluable patients had a complete response and 7 (26%) had a partial response (response rate 37%; 95% confidence interval 19~55%). The median survival of the total 38 enrolled patients was 9.1 (range; 1~21.9+) months. The median progression-free survival of the 27 evaluable patients was 5.3 (range 0~ 16.0) months. Among total 132 cycles of chemotherapy, leukopenia of grade II or more was observed in 15% and thrombocytopenia of grade I in 4%. There was no treatment-related death. Main non-hematologic toxicities were nausea/vomiting (79%), stomatitis (70%), and neurotoxicity (33%). The prognostic factor analyses identified 2 favorable subgroups; One was the patient group whose disease had poorly differentiated histology and presented in cervical lymph node. This group of patients had better response rate than other patients (response rate; 71% vs 25%, p=0.02). The other was the patient group who had normal tumor markers (CEA, CA 125 and CA 19-9). This group of patients had better survival than other patients(median survival; 14.8 vs 8.4 months, p=0.05). CONCLUSION: PEFL chemotherapy seemed to be moderately active and tolerable in patients with CUPO. Among heterogenous patients with CUPO, the subset with cervical lymph node and poorly differentiated histology responded better to the chemotherapy and those with normal tumor markers tended toward longer survival.

Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Etoposide , Fluorouracil , Humans , Leucovorin , Leukopenia , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Stomatitis , Thrombocytopenia , Biomarkers, Tumor
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53996


OBJECTIVE: The combination of vincristine and doxorubicin by continuous infusion was reported to reduce tumor mass more rapidly than standard regimens, which maybe a result of effect on more slowly proliferating plasma cells. We conducted a phase II study to determine the activity and safety of VAD (vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone) chemotherapy, in which vincristine and doxorubicin are administered as a continuous infusion, for previously untreated multiple myeloma. METHODS: VAD chemotherapy (vincristine 0.4 mg/day 24 hour-continuous infusion, days 1~4; doxorubicin 9 mg/m2/day 24 hour-continuous infusion, days 1~4; dexamethasone 40 mg/day p.o. days 1~4) was given to eligible patients every 4 weeks and we assessed response and toxicity of the regimen. RESULTS: Between January 1991 and March 1997, total 25 patients entered this trial and 22 were evaluable. The complete response rate was 14%(3/22) and overall response rate was 59%(13/22, 95% C.I.: 38~80%). The time to response was 1.0~6.8(median 2.9) months. Progression free survival was 2~39+(median 11.5) months and the overall survival was 3+~42+(median 19.7) months. Toxicities of VAD regimen were leukopenia, infection, stomatitis and neurotoxicity, but there was no treatment-related death. CONCLUSION: VAD chemotherapy was tolerable, but not more active than the alkylating agent-based chemotherapy as a front-line treatment for the patients with multiple myeloma. But, because of its rapid response and relatively mild myelotoxicity, it could play a role for advanced or highly complicated disease and for remission induction before consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy.

Dexamethasone , Disease-Free Survival , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Humans , Leukopenia , Multiple Myeloma , Plasma Cells , Remission Induction , Stomatitis , Vincristine