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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834845

ABSTRACT

Endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT) has been a standard of care for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large artery occlusion (LAO) within 6 hours after onset since the five landmark ERT trials up to 2015 demonstrated its clinical benefit. Recently, two randomized clinical trials demonstrated that ERT, even in the late time window up to 16 hours or 24 hours after last known normal time, improved the outcome of patients who had a target mismatch defined as either clinical-core mismatch or perfusion-core mismatch, which prompted the update of national guidelines in several countries. Accordingly, to provide evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations for ERT in patients with acute LAO in Korea, the Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee of the Korean Stroke Society decided to revise the previous Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines of Stroke for ERT. For this update, the members of the writing group were appointed by the Korean Stroke Society and the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology. After thorough reviewing the updated evidence from two recent trials and relevant literature, the writing members revised recommendations, for which formal consensus was achieved by convening an expert panel composed of 45 experts from the participating academic societies. The current guidelines are intended to help healthcare providers, patients, and their caregivers make their well-informed decisions and to improve the quality of care regarding ERT. The ultimate decision for ERT in a particular patient must be made in light of circumstances specific to that patient.

2.
Journal of Stroke ; : 64-75, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834643

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in endovascular thrombectomy have enabled the histopathologic analysis of fresh thrombi in patients with acute stroke. Histologic analysis has shown that the thrombus composition is very heterogeneous between patients. However, the distribution pattern of each thrombus component often differs between patients with cardiac thrombi and those with arterial thrombi, and the efficacy of endovascular thrombectomy is different according to the thrombus composition. Furthermore, the thrombus age is related to the efficacy of reperfusion therapy. Recent studies have shown that neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps contribute to thrombus formation and resistance to reperfusion therapy. Histologic features of thrombi in patients with stroke may provide some clues to stroke etiology, which is helpful for determining the strategy of stroke prevention. Research on thrombus may also be helpful for improving reperfusion therapy, including the development of new thrombolytic agents.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833514

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) fails in approximately 20% of anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (ACLVO).Nonetheless, the factors that affect clinical outcomes of non-recanalized AC-LVO despite EVT are less studied. Thepurpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting clinical outcomes in non-recanalized AC-LVO patients despite EVT. @*Materials and Methods@#This was a retrospective analysis of clinical and imaging data from 136 consecutive patients whodemonstrated recanalization failure (modified thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia [mTICI], 0–2a) despite EVT for AC-LVO. Datawere collected in prospectively maintained registries at 16 stroke centers. Collateral status was categorized into good or poorbased on the CT angiogram, and the mTICI was categorized as 0–1 or 2a on the final angiogram. Patients with good (modifiedRankin Scale [mRS], 0–2) and poor outcomes (mRS, 3–6) were compared in multivariate analysis to evaluate the factorsassociated with a good outcome. @*Results@#Thirty-five patients (25.7%) had good outcomes. The good outcome group was younger (odds ratio [OR], 0.962;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.932–0.992; p = 0.015), had a lower incidence of hypertension (OR, 0.380; 95% CI, 0.173–0.839; p = 0.017) and distal internal carotid artery involvement (OR, 0.149; 95% CI, 0.043–0.520; p = 0.003), lower initialNational Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (OR, 0.789; 95% CI, 0.713–0.873; p < 0.001) and good collateral status(OR, 13.818; 95% CI, 3.971–48.090; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the initial NIHSS (OR, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.638–0.905; p = 0.002), good collateral status (OR, 14.130; 95% CI, 2.264–88.212; p = 0.005) and mTICI 2a recanalization (OR,5.636; 95% CI, 1.216–26.119; p = 0.027) remained as independent factors with good outcome in non-recanalized patients. @*Conclusion@#Baseline NIHSS score, good collateral status, and mTICI 2a recanalization remained independently associatedwith clinical outcome in non-recanalized patients. mTICI 2a recanalization would benefit patients with good collaterals innon-recanalized AC-LVO patients despite EVT.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833418

ABSTRACT

Proximal flow control achieved with a balloon guide catheter (BGC) during endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke is reviewed in this article. In clinical practice, BGCs offer a multi-faceted approach for clot retrieval by creating proximal flow arrest, reducing embolic burden, and shortening procedure time. Evaluation of frontline thrombectomy procedures with BGCs revealed advantages of combined use over the conventional guide catheter (CGC), notably in the significant reduction of distal emboli to both the affected and previously unaffected territories. Recently, new measures of early and complete reperfusion at first thrombectomy pass have been identified as independent predictors of improved outcomes, which were consistently demonstrated with use of BGC as a safe and effective option to minimize number of passes during intervention. Prior randomized controlled trials reported the positive correlation between BGC-treated patients and a lower risk of mortality as well as shortened procedure time. While BGC use is more common in stent retriever-mediated mechanical thrombectomy, preliminary data has shown the potential benefit of device application during contact aspiration thrombectomy to achieve successful recanalization. However, the question of which major endovascular strategy reigns superior as a frontline remains to be answered. Along with clinical case assessments, BGC performance during in-vitro simulation was analyzed to further understand mechanisms for optimization of thrombectomy technique.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832880

ABSTRACT

Acute ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and death around the world, especially in developed countries. Since the introduction of the 2nd generation devices, endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke has rapidly developed and is now considered to be a standard treatment. Here, we summarize the results of recent randomized clinical trials that have compared endovascular thrombectomy with conventional treatment for acute stroke and review the indications, current devices, and endovascular thrombectomy methods used.

6.
Neurointervention ; : 71-81, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760600

ABSTRACT

Endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT) has been a standard of care for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large artery occlusion (LAO) within 6 hours after onset, since five landmark ERT trials conducted by 2015 demonstrated its clinical benefit. Recently, two randomized clinical trials demonstrated that ERT, even in the late time window of up to 16 hours or 24 hours after last known normal time, improved the outcome of patients who had a target mismatch, defined as either clinical-core mismatch or perfusion-core mismatch, which prompted the update of national guidelines in several countries. Accordingly, to provide evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations for ERT in patients with acute LAO in Korea, the Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee of the Korean Stroke Society decided to revise the previous Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines of Stroke for ERT. For this update, the members of the writing group were appointed by the Korean Stroke Society and the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology. After thoroughly reviewing the updated evidence from two recent trials and relevant literature, the writing members revised recommendations, for which formal consensus was achieved by convening an expert panel composed of 45 experts from the participating academic societies. The current guidelines are intended to help healthcare providers, patients, and their caregivers make well-informed decisions and to improve the quality of care regarding ERT. The ultimate decision for ERT in a particular patient must be made in light of circumstances specific to that patient.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Caregivers , Cerebral Infarction , Consensus , Health Personnel , Humans , Korea , Mechanical Thrombolysis , Reperfusion , Standard of Care , Stroke , Writing
7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1285-1292, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760295

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the coil-protected technique for liquid embolization in neurovascular malformations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients who underwent coil-protected liquid embolization for symptomatic cranial (n = 13) and spinal (n = 9) arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were identified. A total of 36 target feeder vessels were embolized with N-butyl cyanoacrylate and/or Onyx (Medtronic). This technique was used to promote delivery of a sufficient amount of liquid embolic agent into the target shunt or nidus in cases where tortuous feeding arteries preclude a microcatheter wedging techniqu and/or to prevent reflux of the liquid embolic agent in cases with a short safety margin. The procedure was considered technically successful if the target lesion was sufficiently filled with liquid embolic agent without unintentional reflux. Angiographic and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Technical success was achieved for all 36 target feeders. Post-embolization angiographies revealed complete occlusion in 16 patients and near-complete and partial occlusion in three patients each. There were no treatment-related complications. Of the six patients who showed near-complete or partial occlusion, five received additional treatments: two received stereotactic radiosurgery for cerebral AVM, two underwent surgical removal of cerebral AVM, and one underwent additional embolization by direct puncture for a mandibular AVM. Finally, all patients showed complete (n = 19) or near-complete (n = 3) occlusion of the target AVF or AVM on follow-up angiographies. The presenting neurological symptoms improved completely in 15 patients (68.2%) and partially in seven patients (31.8%). CONCLUSION: The coil-protected technique is a safe and effective method for liquid embolization, especially in patients with various neurovascular shunts or malformations who could not be successfully treated with conventional techniques.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Arteries , Arteriovenous Fistula , Arteriovenous Malformations , Cyanoacrylates , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Methods , Punctures , Radiosurgery , Retrospective Studies
8.
Journal of Stroke ; : 231-240, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766240

ABSTRACT

Endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT) has been a standard of care for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large artery occlusion (LAO) within 6 hours after onset, since five landmark ERT trials conducted by 2015 demonstrated its clinical benefit. Recently, two randomized clinical trials demonstrated that ERT, even in the late time window of up to 16 hours or 24 hours after last known normal time, improved the outcome of patients who had a target mismatch, defined as either clinical-core mismatch or perfusion-core mismatch, which prompted the update of national guidelines in several countries. Accordingly, to provide evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations for ERT in patients with acute LAO in Korea, the Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee of the Korean Stroke Society decided to revise the previous Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines of Stroke for ERT. For this update, the members of the writing group were appointed by the Korean Stroke Society and the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology. After thoroughly reviewing the updated evidence from two recent trials and relevant literature, the writing members revised recommendations, for which formal consensus was achieved by convening an expert panel composed of 45 experts from the participating academic societies. The current guidelines are intended to help healthcare providers, patients, and their caregivers make well-informed decisions and to improve the quality of care regarding ERT. The ultimate decision for ERT in a particular patient must be made in light of circumstances specific to that patient.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Caregivers , Cerebral Infarction , Consensus , Health Personnel , Humans , Korea , Mechanical Thrombolysis , Reperfusion , Standard of Care , Stroke , Writing
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We report the results of a pilot clinical study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of a newly-developed, retrievable flow diverter (FloWise; Taewoong Medical) for the treatment of internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 patients were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were 1) unruptured aneurysm with a dome size of ≥ 8 mm and a neck size of ≥ 4 mm at the ICA, or 2) two or more unruptured aneurysms of any size able to be spanned by a single FloWise at the ICA. Co-primary effectiveness end points were technical success of FloWise placement, and a 50% or greater decrease in aneurysm volume at the 6-month follow-up angiogram. The primary safety end point was the new development of neurological deficits persisting for more than 1-month post-treatment. RESULTS: Ten patients harboring 14 ICA aneurysms (median diameter, 9.4 mm; range, 2.3–31.0 mm) were enrolled between January 2016 and July 2017. FloWise placement was successful in all patients. There were no newly-developed neurological deficits during the 6-month clinical follow-up period. One patient did not receive follow-up imaging due to pregnancy. Nine patients with 12 aneurysms received a 6-month angiographic follow-up. Ten aneurysms (83.3%) showed decreases in volume greater than 50% (mean volume decrease, 82.8 ± 32.9%), of which 8 (66.7%, 95% confidence interval, 35.4–98.0%) showed complete occlusion. One patient was retreated due to mass symptom aggravation. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, FloWise appeared to be safe and effective for ICA aneurysm treatment. A prospective multicenter study to validate the effectiveness and safety of FloWise would be worthwhile.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Carotid Artery, Internal , Clinical Study , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neck , Pilot Projects , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788678

ABSTRACT

Despite advancements in treating ruptured cerebral aneurysms, an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is still a grave cerebrovascular disease associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Based on the literature published to date, worldwide academic and governmental committees have developed clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to propose standards for disease management in order to achieve the best treatment outcomes for aSAHs. In 2013, the Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgeons issued a Korean version of the CPGs for aSAHs. The group researched all articles and major foreign CPGs published in English until December 2015 using several search engines. Based on these articles, levels of evidence and grades of recommendations were determined by our society as well as by other related Quality Control Committees from neurointervention, neurology and rehabilitation medicine. The Korean version of the CPGs for aSAHs includes risk factors, diagnosis, initial management, medical and surgical management to prevent rebleeding, management of delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm, treatment of hydrocephalus, treatment of medical complications and early rehabilitation. The CPGs are not the absolute standard but are the present reference as the evidence is still incomplete, each environment of clinical practice is different, and there is a high probability of variation in the current recommendations. The CPGs will be useful in the fields of clinical practice and research.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Brain Ischemia , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Diagnosis , Disease Management , Hydrocephalus , Intracranial Aneurysm , Mortality , Neurology , Quality Control , Rehabilitation , Risk Factors , Search Engine , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Surgeons
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717866

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical trials demonstrated the clinical benefit of endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion. These trials confirmed that good outcome after EVT depends on the time interval from symptom onset to reperfusion and that in-hospital delay leads to poor clinical outcome. However, there has been no universally accepted in-hospital workflow and performance benchmark for rapid reperfusion. Additionally, wide variety in workflow for EVT is present between each stroke centers. In this consensus statement, Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology and Korean Stroke Society Joint Task Force Team propose a standard workflow to reduce door-to-reperfusion time for stroke patients eligible for EVT. This includes early stroke identification and pre-hospital notification to stroke team of receiving hospital in pre-hospital phase, the transfer of stroke patients from door of the emergency department to computed tomography (CT) room, warming call to neurointervention (NI) team for EVT candidate prior to imaging, NI team preparation in parallel with thrombolysis, direct transportation from CT room to angiography suite following immediate decision of EVT and standardized procedure for rapid reperfusion. Implementation of optimized workflow will improve stroke time process metrics and clinical outcome of the patient treated with EVT.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Angiography , Benchmarking , Consensus , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Joints , Reperfusion , Stroke , Transportation
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765248

ABSTRACT

Despite advancements in treating ruptured cerebral aneurysms, an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is still a grave cerebrovascular disease associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Based on the literature published to date, worldwide academic and governmental committees have developed clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to propose standards for disease management in order to achieve the best treatment outcomes for aSAHs. In 2013, the Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgeons issued a Korean version of the CPGs for aSAHs. The group researched all articles and major foreign CPGs published in English until December 2015 using several search engines. Based on these articles, levels of evidence and grades of recommendations were determined by our society as well as by other related Quality Control Committees from neurointervention, neurology and rehabilitation medicine. The Korean version of the CPGs for aSAHs includes risk factors, diagnosis, initial management, medical and surgical management to prevent rebleeding, management of delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm, treatment of hydrocephalus, treatment of medical complications and early rehabilitation. The CPGs are not the absolute standard but are the present reference as the evidence is still incomplete, each environment of clinical practice is different, and there is a high probability of variation in the current recommendations. The CPGs will be useful in the fields of clinical practice and research.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Brain Ischemia , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Diagnosis , Disease Management , Hydrocephalus , Intracranial Aneurysm , Mortality , Neurology , Quality Control , Rehabilitation , Risk Factors , Search Engine , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Surgeons
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758421

ABSTRACT

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the mandible is a rare vascular condition that can manifest as a wide range of symptoms and, on rare occasions, cause fatal hemorrhage. The symptoms of mandibular AVM can range from soft tissue swelling and tooth mobility to severe hemorrhage. The recognition of early symptoms is crucial for the prevention of a fatal hemorrhage and for the proper diagnosis and treatment of mandibular AVM. For emergency hemostasis of a ruptured mandibular AVM, manual compression with gauze, topical thrombin, absorbable hemostat, suturing the lesion, and replanting the extracted tooth is recommended. Multiple treatment options for mandibular AVM are available, such as arterial embolization, venous embolization, direct surgical closure, and bone resection. A combination of treatment options should be considered in complicated cases. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl with a previous history of telangiectasia on the right cheek presented with cardiac arrest resulting from massive bleeding immediately after a tooth extraction.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Malformations , Cheek , Child , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Female , Heart Arrest , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Humans , Mandible , Telangiectasis , Thrombin , Tooth , Tooth Extraction , Tooth Mobility
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714375

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical trials demonstrated the clinical benefit of endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion. These trials confirmed that good outcome after EVT depends on the time interval from symptom onset to reperfusion and that in-hospital delay leads to poor clinical outcome. However, there has been no universally accepted in-hospital workflow and performance benchmark for rapid reperfusion. Additionally, wide variety in workflow for EVT is present between each stroke centers. In this consensus statement, Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology and Korean Stroke Society Joint Task Force Team propose a standard workflow to reduce door-to-reperfusion time for stroke patients eligible for EVT. This includes early stroke identification and pre-hospital notification to stroke team of receiving hospital in pre-hospital phase, the transfer of stroke patients from door of the emergency department to computed tomography (CT) room, warming call to neurointervention team for EVT candidate prior to imaging, neurointervention team preparation in parallel with thrombolysis, direct transportation from CT room to angiography suite following immediate decision of EVT and standardized procedure for rapid reperfusion. Implementation of optimized workflow will improve stroke time process metrics and clinical outcome of the patient treated with EVT.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Angiography , Benchmarking , Consensus , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Joints , Reperfusion , Stroke , Transportation
15.
Neurointervention ; : 41-47, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730268

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Adjuvant coils may offer advantages in flow control during glue embolization of high flow vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) patients but involves specific issues such as feasibility, durability and coil mass effect. The purpose of this study is to assess the outcome of adjuvant coils in addition to transarterial glue embolization for treatment of these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five pediatric VGAM patients (age range; 11 weeks to 2 yrs 2 mos) with high flow fistulous angioarchitecture were treated with adjuvant coils 1) in the distal feeding artery and/or 2) in the vein of Galen followed by glue embolization of the shunt. The angiographic / clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Adjuvant coils were deployed in the distal feeding artery (n=3), vein of Galen pouch plus distal feeding artery (n=2). Additional transarterial glue embolization of the fistulae was successfully performed (n=4). Complete occlusion was achieved with coils in one case. Complete occlusion was achieved for all mural type cases (n=4). Residual feeders remained in a case of choroidal type of VGAM. No complications were noted related to the treatment. All patients showed normal development on follow up (range: 7.6 to 88.8 mo, mean 49.3 mo). Initial hydrocephalus improved on follow up despite coil mass effect in dilated vein of Galen. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant coils for flow control with glue embolization may be a safe and effective treatment method for VGAM patients with high flow fistulous feeders.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Aneurysm , Arteries , Cerebral Veins , Choroid , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Methods , Veins
16.
Neurointervention ; : 71-72, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730262

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203212

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Different angiographic protocols may influence the radiation dose and image quality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of filtration and focal spot size on radiation dose and image quality for diagnostic cerebral angiography using an in-vitro model and in-vivo patient groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiation dose and image quality were analyzed by varying the filtration and focal spot size on digital subtraction angiography exposure protocols (1, inherent filtration + large focus; 2, inherent + small; 3, copper + large; 4, copper + small). For the in-vitro analysis, a phantom was used for comparison of radiation dose. For the in-vivo analysis, bilateral paired injections, and patient cohort groups were compared for radiation dose and image quality. Image quality analysis was performed in terms of contrast, sharpness, noise, and overall quality. RESULTS: In the in-vitro analysis, the mean air kerma (AK) and dose area product (DAP)/frame were significantly lower with added copper filtration (protocols 3 and 4). In the in-vivo bilateral paired injections, AK and DAP/frame were significantly lower with filtration, without significant difference in image quality. The patient cohort groups with added filtration (protocols 3 and 4) showed significant reduction of total AK and DAP/patient without compromise to the image quality. Variations in focal spot size showed no significant differences in radiation dose and image quality. CONCLUSION: Addition of filtration for angiographic exposure studies can result in significant total radiation dose reduction without loss of image quality. Focal spot size does not influence radiation dose and image quality. The routine angiographic protocol should be judiciously investigated and implemented.


Subject(s)
Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Cerebral Angiography , Cohort Studies , Copper , Filtration , Humans , Noise , Radiation Exposure
18.
Neurointervention ; : 40-44, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730368

ABSTRACT

Blood-blister like aneurysms (BBAs) are challenging lesions because of their wide fragile neck. Flow-diverting stents (FDSs), such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED), have been applied to treat BBAs less amenable to more established techniques of treatment. However, the use of FDSs, including the PED, in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still remains controversial. We report a case of aneurysm regrowth following PED application for a ruptured BBA that overlapped the origin of the dominant posterior communicating artery (PCoA), which was successfully treated after coil trapping of the origin of the fetal-type PCoA. And, we discuss the clinical significance of the fetal-type PCoA communicating with a BBA in terms of PED failure.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Arteries , Embolization, Therapeutic , Neck , Stents , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 131-142, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72823

ABSTRACT

In a meta-analysis of individual patient data from 5 randomized controlled trials, endovascular treatment (EVT) mainly using a stent retriever achieved successful recanalization in 71.1% of patients suffering from acute stroke due to anterior circulation large artery occlusion (LAO). However, EVT still failed in 28.9% of LAO cases in those 5 successful trials. Stent retriever failure may occur due to anatomical challenges (e.g., a tortuous arterial tree from the aortic arch to a target occlusion site), a large quantity of clots, tandem occlusion, clot characteristics (fresh versus organized clots), different pathomechanisms (embolic versus non-embolic occlusion), etc. Given that recanalization success is the most important factor in the neurological outcome of acute stroke patients, it is important to seek solutions for such difficult cases. In this review, the basic technique of EVT is briefly summarized and then various difficult cases with diverse conditions are discussed along with suggested solutions.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Thoracic , Arteries , Humans , Stents , Stroke , Treatment Failure , Trees
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182777

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe stroke due to acute large cerebral artery occlusion are likely to be severely disabled or die if reperfusion is not achieved in a timely manner. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-TPA) administered within 4.5 hours after stroke onset was previously the only proven therapy, but IV-TPA alone does not sufficiently improve the outcome of patients with acute large artery occlusion. With the introduction of the advanced endovascular therapy that enables faster and more successful recanalization, recent randomized trials consecutively and consistently demonstrated the benefit of adding endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT) to IV-TPA. Accordingly, to update the recommendations, we assembled members of a writing committee appointed by the Korean Stroke Society, the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology, and the Society of Korean Endovascular Neurosurgeons. The writing committee revised recommendations based on a review of the accumulated evidence, and a formal consensus was achieved by convening a panel of 34 experts from the participating academic societies. The current guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for ERT in patients with acute large cerebral artery occlusion regarding patient selection, treatment modalities, neuroimaging evaluation, and system organization.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Cerebral Arteries , Consensus , Humans , Neuroimaging , Neurosurgeons , Patient Selection , Reperfusion , Stroke , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Writing
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