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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915031

ABSTRACT

Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common hereditary motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy. CMT is usually classified into two categories based on pathology: demyelinating CMT type 1 (CMT1) and axonal CMT type 2 (CMT2) neuropathy. CMT1 can be distinguished by assessing the median motor nerve conduction velocity as greater than 38 m/s. The main clinical features of axonal CMT2 neuropathy are distal muscle weakness and loss of sensory and areflexia. In addition, they showed unusual clinical features, including delayed development, hearing loss, pyramidal signs, vocal cord paralysis, optic atrophy, and abnormal pupillary reactions. Recently, customized treatments for genetic diseases have been developed, and pregnancy diagnosis can enable the birth of a normal child when the causative gene mutation is found in CMT2. Therefore, accurate diagnosis based on genotype/phenotypic correlations is becoming more important. In this review, we describe the latest findings on the phenotypic characteristics of axonal CMT2 neuropathy. We hope that this review will be useful for clinicians in regard to the diagnosis and treatment of CMT.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914330

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute pediatric vasculitis that affects genetically susceptible infants and children. To identify coding variants that influence susceptibility to KD, we conducted whole exome sequencing of 159 patients with KD and 902 controls, and performed a replication study in an independent 586 cases and 732 controls. We identified five rare coding variants in five genes (FCRLA, PTGER4, IL17F, CARD11, and SIGLEC10) associated with KD (odds ratio [OR], 1.18–4.41; p = 0.0027–0.031). We also performed association analysis in 26 KD patients with coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs; diameter > 5 mm) and 124 patients without CAAs (diameter < 3 mm), and identified another five rare coding variants in five genes (FGFR4, IL31RA, FNDC1, MMP8, and FOXN1), which may be associated with CAA (OR, 3.89–37.3; p = 0.0058–0.0261). These results provide insights into new candidate genes and genetic variants potentially involved in the development of KD and CAA.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874684

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene (GDAP1) are known to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). These mutations are very rare in most countries, but not in certain Mediterranean countries. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of Korean CMT patients with GDAP1 mutations. @*Methods@#Gene sequencing was applied to 1,143 families in whom CMT had been diagnosed from 2005 to 2020. PMP22 duplication was found in 344 families, and whole-exome sequencing was performed in 699 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained using either a 1.5-T or 3.0-T MRI system. @*Results@#We found ten patients from eight families with GDAP1 mutations: five with autosomal dominant (AD) CMT type 2K (three families with p.R120W and two families with p.Q218E) and three with autosomal recessive (AR) intermediate CMT type A (two families with homozygous p.H256R and one family with p.P111H and p.V219G mutations). The frequency was about 1.0% exclusive of the PMP22 duplication, which is similar to that in other Asian countries. There were clinical differences among AD GDAP1 patients according to mutation sites. Surprisingly, fat infiltrations evident in lower-limb MRI differed between AD and AR patients. The posterior-compartment muscles in the calf were affected early and predominantly in AD patients, whereas AR patients showed fat infiltration predominantly in the anterolateral-compartment muscles. @*Conclusions@#This is the first cohort report on Korean patients with GDAP1 mutations. The patients with AD and AR inheritance routes exhibited different clinical and neuroimaging features in the lower extremities. We believe that these results will help to expand the knowledge of the clinical, genetic, and neuroimaging features of CMT.

4.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 177-188, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832462

ABSTRACT

Inherited peripheral neuropathy (IPN) is caused by heterogeneous genetic mutations in more than 100 genes. So far, several treatment options for IPN have been developed and clinically evaluated using small molecules. However, gene therapy-based therapeutic strategies have not been aggressively investigated, likely due to the complexities of inheritance in IPN. Indeed, because the majority of the causative mutations of IPN lead to gainof- function rather than loss-of-function, developing a therapeutic strategy is more difficult, especially considering gene therapy for genetic diseases began with the simple idea of replacing a defective gene with a functional copy. Recent advances in gene manipulation technology have brought novel approaches to gene therapy and its clinical application for IPN treatment. For example, in addition to the classically used gene replacement for mutant genes in recessively inherited IPN, other techniques including gene addition to modify the disease phenotype, modulations of target gene expression, and techniques to edit mutant genes have been developed and evaluated as potent therapeutic strategies for dominantly inherited IPN. In this review, the current status of gene therapy for IPN and future perspectives will be discussed.

5.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 279-288, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739538

ABSTRACT

Charcot-Marie Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), the major type of CMT, is caused by duplication of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene whose overexpression causes structural and functional abnormalities in myelination. We investigated whether miRNA-mediated regulation of PMP22 expression could reduce the expression level of PMP22, thereby alleviating the demyelinating neuropathic phenotype of CMT1A. We found that several miRNAs were down-regulated in C22 mouse, a CMT1A mouse model. Among them, miR-381 could target 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of PMP22 in vitro based on Western botting and quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) results. In vivo efficacy of miR-381 was assessed by administration of LV-miR-381, an miR-381 expressing lentiviral vector, into the sciatic nerve of C22 mice by a single injection at postnatal day 6 (p6). Administration of LV-miR-381 reduced expression level of PMP22 along with elevated level of miR-381 in the sciatic nerve. Rotarod performance analysis revealed that locomotor coordination of LV-miR-381 administered C22 mice was significantly enhanced from 8 weeks post administration. Electrophysiologically, increased motor nerve conduction velocity was observed in treated mice. Histologically, toluidine blue staining and electron microscopy revealed that structural abnormalities of myelination were improved in sciatic nerves of LV-miR-381 treated mice. Therefore, delivery of miR-381 ameliorated the phenotype of peripheral neuropathy in CMT1A mouse model by down-regulating PMP22 expression. These data suggest that miRNA can be used as a potent therapeutic strategy to control diseases with copy number variations such as CMT1A.


Subject(s)
Animals , Demyelinating Diseases , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , MicroRNAs , Microscopy, Electron , Myelin Sheath , Neural Conduction , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Phenotype , Sciatic Nerve , Tolonium Chloride , Tooth Diseases , Untranslated Regions
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195762

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mitochondrial diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders, which make their exact diagnosis and classification difficult. The purpose of this study was to identify pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in 2 Korean families with myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) and Leigh syndrome, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole mtDNAs were sequenced by the method of mtDNA-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). RESULTS: Two causative mtDNA mutations were identified from the NGS data. An m.8344A>G mutation in the tRNA-Lys gene (MT-TK ) was detected in a MERRF patient (family ID: MT132), and an m.9176T>C (p.Leu217Pro) mutation in the mitochondrial ATP6 gene (MT-ATP6) was detected in a Leigh syndrome patient (family ID: MT130). Both mutations, which have been reported several times before in affected individuals, were not found in the control samples. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that mtDNA-targeted NGS will be helpful for the molecular diagnosis of genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial diseases with complex phenotypes.


Subject(s)
Classification , Diagnosis , DNA, Mitochondrial , Humans , Leigh Disease , MERRF Syndrome , Mitochondrial Diseases , Phenotype
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the gene encoding periaxin (PRX) are known to cause autosomal recessive Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy (DSN) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4F. However, there have been no reports describing Korean patients with these mutations. CASE REPORT: We examined a Korean DSN patient with an early-onset, slowly progressive, demyelinating neuropathy with prominent sensory involvement. Whole-exome sequencing and subsequent capillary sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous nonsense mutations (p.R392X and p.R679X) in PRX. One mutation was transmitted from each of the patient's parents. No unaffected family member had both mutations, and the mutations were not found in healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that these novel compound heterozygous nonsense mutations are the underlying cause of DSN. The clinical, electrophysiologic, and pathologic phenotypes in this family were similar to those described previously for patients with PRX mutations. We have identified the first PRX mutation in a Korean patient with DSN.


Subject(s)
Capillaries , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease , Codon, Nonsense , Hereditary Sensory and Motor Neuropathy , Humans , Parents , Peripheral Nerves , Phenotype
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe herein the application of whole exome sequencing (WES) for the molecular genetic diagnosis of a large Korean family with dominantly inherited myopathy. CASE REPORT: The affected individuals presented with slowly progressive proximal weakness and ankle contracture. They were initially diagnosed with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) based on clinical and pathologic features. However, WES and subsequent capillary sequencing identified a pathogenic splicing-site mutation (c.1056+1G>A) in COL6A1, which was previously reported to be an underlying cause of Bethlem myopathy. After identification of the genetic cause of the disease, careful neurologic examination revealed subtle contracture of the interphalangeal joint in the affected members, which is a characteristic sign of Bethlem myopathy. Therefore, we revised the original diagnosis from LGMD to Bethlem myopathy. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of identification of COL6A1-mediated Bethlem myopathy in Korea, and indicates the utility of WES for the diagnosis of muscular dystrophy.


Subject(s)
Ankle , Capillaries , Contracture , Diagnosis , Exome , Humans , Joints , Korea , Molecular Biology , Muscular Diseases , Muscular Dystrophies , Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle , Neurologic Examination
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18089

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a peripheral neuropathy mainly divided into CMT type 1 (CMT1) and CMT2 according to the phenotype and genotype. Although molecular pathologies for each genetic causative have not been revealed in CMT2, the correlation between cell death and accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of Schwann cells is well documented in CMT1. Establishment of in vitro models of ER stress-mediated Schwann cell death might be useful in developing drug-screening systems for the treatment of CMT1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To develop high-throughput screening (HTS) systems for CMT1, we generated cell models using transient expression of mutant proteins and chemical induction. RESULTS: Overexpression of wild type and mutant peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) induced ER stress. Similar results were obtained from mutant myelin protein zero (MPZ) proteins. Protein localization revealed that expressed mutant PMP22 and MPZ proteins accumulated in the ER of Schwann cells. Overexpression of wild type and L16P mutant PMP22 also reduced cell viability, implying protein accumulation-mediated ER stress causes cell death. To develop more stable screening systems, we mimicked the ER stress-mediated cell death in Schwann cells using ER stress inducing chemicals. Thapsigargin treatment caused cell death via ER stress in a dose dependent manner, which was measured by expression of ER stress markers. CONCLUSION: We have developed genetically and chemically induced ER stress models using Schwann cells. Application of these models to HTS systems might facilitate the elucidation of molecular pathology and development of therapeutic options for CMT1.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , Cell Survival , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Genotype , Mass Screening , Mutant Proteins , Myelin P0 Protein , Myelin Sheath , Pathology, Molecular , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Phenotype , Schwann Cells , Thapsigargin
13.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 169-172, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39648

ABSTRACT

Compared with biochemical information available about the diseases in the central nervous system, that for peripheral neuropathy is quite limited primarily due to the difficulties in obtaining samples. Characterization of the core pathology is a prerequisite to the development of personalized medicine for genetically heterogeneous diseases, such as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN). Here, we first documented the transcriptome profile of distal sural nerve obtained from HMSN patients. RNA-seq analysis revealed that over 12,000 genes are expressed in distal sural nerve. Among them 4,000 transcripts are novel and 10 fusion genes per sample were observed. Comparing dataset from whole exome sequencing revealed that over 1,500 transcriptional base modifications occur during transcription. These data implicate that dynamic alterations are generated when genetic information are transitioned in distal sural nerve. Although, we could not find significant alterations associated with HMSN, these data might provide crucial information about the pathophysiology of HMSN. Therefore, next step in the development of therapeutic strategy for HMSN might be unveiling biochemical and biophysical abnormalities derived from those potent variation.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Dataset , Exome , Gene Expression Profiling , Hereditary Sensory and Motor Neuropathy , Humans , Pathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Sural Nerve , Transcriptome , Precision Medicine
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 676-682, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58590

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the characteristics of Korean adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively selected 12 Korean AMN patients diagnosed by clinical analysis and increased plasma content of very long chain fatty acids. RESULTS: All 12 patients were men. Patient ages at symptom onset ranged from 18 to 55 years. Family history was positive in two patients. The phenotype distributions consisted of AMN without cerebral involvement in seven patients, AMN with cerebral involvement in two patients, and the spinocerebellar phenotype in three patients. Nerve conduction studies revealed abnormalities in four patients and visual evoked tests revealed abnormalities in three patients. Somatosensory evoked potential tests revealed central conduction defects in all of the tested patients. Spinal MRI showed diffuse cord atrophy or subtle signal changes in all 12 patients. Brain MRI findings were abnormal in six of the nine tested patients. These brain abnormalities reflected the clinical phenotypes. Mutational analysis identified nine different ABCD1 mutations in 10 of 11 tested patients. Among them, nine have been previously reported and shown to be associated with various phenotypes; one was a novel mutation. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the present study is the first to report on the clinical and mutational spectrum of Korean AMN patients, and confirms various clinical presentations and the usefulness of brain MRI scan.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/genetics , Adolescent , Adrenoleukodystrophy/diagnosis , Adult , Brain/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Young Adult
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91984

ABSTRACT

Charcot-Marie-Tooth X type 1 (CMTX1) is caused by mutations in the connexin 32 gene (Cx32) on the X chromosome. Electrophysiologically, CMTX1 is usually associated with intermediate slowing of conduction velocities and severe impairments in male patients. In addition, patients with CMTX1 rarely present conduction block and temporal dispersion, which are characteristic findings in acquired demyelinating neuropathy. We report herein, for the first time in Korea, two patients with Cx32 mutations who exhibited unusual electrophysiological findings.


Subject(s)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease , Humans , Korea , Male , X Chromosome
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 5 (CMTX5) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase I (PRPS1). There has been only one case report of CMTX5 patients. The aim of this study was to identify the causative gene in a family with CMTX with peripheral neuropathy and deafness. CASE REPORT: A Korean family with X-linked recessive CMT was enrolled. The age at the onset of hearing loss of the male proband was 5 months, and that of steppage gait was 6 years; he underwent cochlear surgery at the age of 12 years. In contrast to what was reported for the first patients with CMTX5, this patient did not exhibit optic atrophy. Furthermore, there was no cognitive impairment, respiratory dysfunction, or visual disturbance. Assessment of his family history revealed two male relatives with very similar clinical manifestations. Electrophysiological evaluations disclosed sensorineural hearing loss and peripheral neuropathy. Whole-exome sequencing identified a novel p.Ala121Gly (c.362C>G) PRPS1 mutation as the underlying genetic cause of the clinical phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: A novel mutation of PRPS1 was identified in a CMTX5 family in which the proband had a phenotype of peripheral neuropathy with early-onset hearing loss, but no optic atrophy. The findings of this study will expand the clinical spectrum of X-linked recessive CMT and will be useful for the molecular diagnosis of clinically heterogeneous peripheral neuropathies.


Subject(s)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease , Deafness , Diphosphates , Exome , Gait , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Humans , Male , Optic Atrophy , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Phenotype , Ribose-Phosphate Pyrophosphokinase
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 1A (CMT1A) is the demyelinating form of CMT that is significantly associated with PMP22 duplication. Some studies have found that the disease-related disabilities of these patients are correlated with their compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), while others have suggested that they are related to the nerve conduction velocities. In the present study, we investigated the correlations between the disease-related disabilities and the electrophysiological values in a large cohort of Korean CMT1A patients. METHODS: We analyzed 167 CMT1A patients of Korean origin with PMP22 duplication using clinical and electrophysiological assessments, including the CMT neuropathy score and the functional disability scale. RESULTS: Clinical motor disabilities were significantly correlated with the CMAPs but not the motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCVs). Moreover, the observed sensory impairments matched the corresponding reductions in the sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) but not with slowing of the sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCVs). In addition, CMAPs were strongly correlated with the disease duration but not with the age at onset. The terminal latency index did not differ between CMT1A patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: In CMT1A patients, disease-related disabilities such as muscle wasting and sensory impairment were strongly correlated with CMAPs and SNAPs but not with the MNCVs or SNCVs. Therefore, we suggest that the clinical disabilities of CMT patients are determined by the extent of axonal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Axons , Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease , Cohort Studies , Humans , Muscles , Neural Conduction
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213035

ABSTRACT

Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2 (BSCL2) gene is known to be associated with different clinical phenotypes; Silver syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 with a dominant hand involvement and distal hereditary motor neuropathy type V (dHMN-V). Up to now, only two heterozygous mutations (N88S and S90L) in BSCL2 have been reported. We identified a N88S BSCL2 mutation in a dHMN-V family with a spastic gait by whole-exome sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a N88S BSCL2 mutation in Korean patient.


Subject(s)
Exome , Gait Disorders, Neurologic , Hand , Humans , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized , Silver , Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary
20.
Hanyang Medical Reviews ; : 154-158, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192559

ABSTRACT

Extraordinary advances in stem cell research have initiated an era of hope for strategies to treat intractable human diseases. Personalized regenerative treatment using stem cells is expected to accelerate continuous investment and research efforts throughout the world. Despite of their constraints, adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells have been used for cell transplantation for several intractable diseases. Besides adult and embryonic stem cells, the recent studies of induced pluripotent stem cells widened the possibility of patient-specific cell therapy, drug discovery, and disease modeling. This review focuses on the developments and potential applications of the stem cells for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Adult Stem Cells , Cell Transplantation , Drug Discovery , Embryonic Stem Cells , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Investments , Median Neuropathy , Neural Stem Cells , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Stem Cell Research , Stem Cells , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Transplants
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