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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900026

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic hepatitis B is the most common cause of liver cirrhosis in South Korea. However, alcoholic liver disease has shown an increasing trend. Although the clinical implications surrounding liver cirrhosis have been changing over the years, few studies have recently examined cirrhosis epidemiology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate changes in liver cirrhosis etiology and severity in Korea. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 16,888 records of cirrhotic patients from six tertiary hospitals in Korea from 2008 to 2017. Continuous and non-continuous variables were processed via linear and Poisson regression, expressed as beta (B) coefficients and as exponentiated values of coefficients (Exp[B]), respectively. @*Results@#Chronic hepatitis B showed a decreasing trend (Exp[B] = 0.975, P < 0.001), whereas alcohol showed an increasing trend (Exp[B] = 1.013, P = 0.003), occupying the most common etiology in 2017. The Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score and decompensated liver cirrhosis prevalence did not change over the 10-year period. The incidence of variceal bleeding, severe ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis significantly decreased from 12.3% to 7.7%, 7.8% to 4.1%, 1.0% to 0.5%, and 1.9% to 1.1%, respectively (P < 0.05 for all). In the subgroup analysis, the chronic hepatitis B group showed improving CTP scores (B = −0.025, P < 0.001) and decreasing decompensated liver cirrhosis rates (Exp[B] = 0.977, P = 0.016), whereas the alcohol group demonstrated increasing CTP class C (Exp[B] = 1.031, P = 0.005) and model for end-stage liver disease scores (B = 0.081, P = 0.005) over 10 years. @*Conclusion@#The chronic hepatitis B group exhibited improved results, whereas the alcohol group still presented poor liver functions and outcomes. Future national policies and systematic approaches addressing the incidence, prevention, and treatment of alcoholic liver cirrhosis are indispensable.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 606-615, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898434

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recent data indicate the presence of liver enzyme abnormalities in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to evaluate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of COVID-19 patients with abnormal liver enzymes. @*Methods@#We performed a retrospective, multicenter study of 874 COVID-19 patients admitted to five tertiary hospitals from February 20 to April 14, 2020. Data on clinical features, laboratory parameters, medications, and treatment outcomes were collected until April 30, 2020, and compared between patients with normal and abnormal aminotransferases. @*Results@#Abnormal aminotransferase levels were observed in 362 patients (41.1%), of which 94 out of 130 (72.3%) and 268 out of 744 (36.0%) belonged to the severe and non-severe COVID-19 categories, respectively. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for male patients, patients with a higher body mass index, patients with severe COVID-19 status, and patients with lower platelet counts were 1.500 (1.029 to 2.184, p=0.035), 1.097 (1.012 to 1.189, p=0.024), 2.377 (1.458 to 3.875, p=0.001), and 0.995 (0.993 to 0.998, p>0.001), respectively, indicating an independent association of these variables with elevated aminotransferase levels. Lopinavir/ ritonavir and antibiotic use increased the odds ratio of abnormal aminotransferase levels after admission (1.832 and 2.646, respectively, both p<0.05). The median time to release from quarantine was longer (22 days vs 26 days, p=0.001) and the mortality rate was higher (13.0% vs 2.9%, p<0.001) in patients with abnormal aminotransferase levels. @*Conclusions@#Abnormal aminotransferase levels are common in COVID-19 patients and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Multivariate analysis of patients with normal aminotransferase levels on admission showed that the use of lopinavir/ritonavir and antibiotics was associated with abnormal aminotransferase levels; thus, careful monitoring is needed.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892322

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic hepatitis B is the most common cause of liver cirrhosis in South Korea. However, alcoholic liver disease has shown an increasing trend. Although the clinical implications surrounding liver cirrhosis have been changing over the years, few studies have recently examined cirrhosis epidemiology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate changes in liver cirrhosis etiology and severity in Korea. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 16,888 records of cirrhotic patients from six tertiary hospitals in Korea from 2008 to 2017. Continuous and non-continuous variables were processed via linear and Poisson regression, expressed as beta (B) coefficients and as exponentiated values of coefficients (Exp[B]), respectively. @*Results@#Chronic hepatitis B showed a decreasing trend (Exp[B] = 0.975, P < 0.001), whereas alcohol showed an increasing trend (Exp[B] = 1.013, P = 0.003), occupying the most common etiology in 2017. The Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score and decompensated liver cirrhosis prevalence did not change over the 10-year period. The incidence of variceal bleeding, severe ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis significantly decreased from 12.3% to 7.7%, 7.8% to 4.1%, 1.0% to 0.5%, and 1.9% to 1.1%, respectively (P < 0.05 for all). In the subgroup analysis, the chronic hepatitis B group showed improving CTP scores (B = −0.025, P < 0.001) and decreasing decompensated liver cirrhosis rates (Exp[B] = 0.977, P = 0.016), whereas the alcohol group demonstrated increasing CTP class C (Exp[B] = 1.031, P = 0.005) and model for end-stage liver disease scores (B = 0.081, P = 0.005) over 10 years. @*Conclusion@#The chronic hepatitis B group exhibited improved results, whereas the alcohol group still presented poor liver functions and outcomes. Future national policies and systematic approaches addressing the incidence, prevention, and treatment of alcoholic liver cirrhosis are indispensable.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 606-615, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890730

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recent data indicate the presence of liver enzyme abnormalities in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to evaluate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of COVID-19 patients with abnormal liver enzymes. @*Methods@#We performed a retrospective, multicenter study of 874 COVID-19 patients admitted to five tertiary hospitals from February 20 to April 14, 2020. Data on clinical features, laboratory parameters, medications, and treatment outcomes were collected until April 30, 2020, and compared between patients with normal and abnormal aminotransferases. @*Results@#Abnormal aminotransferase levels were observed in 362 patients (41.1%), of which 94 out of 130 (72.3%) and 268 out of 744 (36.0%) belonged to the severe and non-severe COVID-19 categories, respectively. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for male patients, patients with a higher body mass index, patients with severe COVID-19 status, and patients with lower platelet counts were 1.500 (1.029 to 2.184, p=0.035), 1.097 (1.012 to 1.189, p=0.024), 2.377 (1.458 to 3.875, p=0.001), and 0.995 (0.993 to 0.998, p>0.001), respectively, indicating an independent association of these variables with elevated aminotransferase levels. Lopinavir/ ritonavir and antibiotic use increased the odds ratio of abnormal aminotransferase levels after admission (1.832 and 2.646, respectively, both p<0.05). The median time to release from quarantine was longer (22 days vs 26 days, p=0.001) and the mortality rate was higher (13.0% vs 2.9%, p<0.001) in patients with abnormal aminotransferase levels. @*Conclusions@#Abnormal aminotransferase levels are common in COVID-19 patients and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Multivariate analysis of patients with normal aminotransferase levels on admission showed that the use of lopinavir/ritonavir and antibiotics was associated with abnormal aminotransferase levels; thus, careful monitoring is needed.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832268

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly worldwide, the implication of pre-existing liver disease on the outcome of COVID-19 remains unresolved. @*Methods@#A total of 1,005 patients who were admitted to five tertiary hospitals in South Korea with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included in this study. Clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients with coexisting liver disease as well as the predictors of disease severity and mortality of COVID-19 were assessed. @*Results@#Of the 47 patients (4.7%) who had liver-related comorbidities, 14 patients (1.4%) had liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was more common in COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia than in those with non-severe pneumonia (4.5% vs. 0.9%, P=0.006). Compared to patients without liver cirrhosis, a higher proportion of patients with liver cirrhosis required oxygen therapy; were admitted to the intensive care unit; had septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or acute kidney injury; and died (P @*Conclusions@#This study suggests liver cirrhosis is a significant risk factor for COVID-19. Stronger personal protection and more intensive treatment for COVID-19 are recommended in these patients.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831608

ABSTRACT

Background@#Liver cirrhosis has become a heavy burden not only for patients, but also for our society. However, little is known about the recent changes in clinical outcomes and characteristics of patients with cirrhosis-related complications in Korea. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate changes in characteristics of patients with liver cirrhosis in Daegu-Gyeongbuk province in Korea over the past 15 years. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 15,716 liver cirrhotic patients from 5 university hospitals in Daegu-Gyeongbuk province from 2000 to 2014. The Korean Standard Classification of Diseases-6 code associated with cirrhosis was investigated through medical records and classified according to the year of first visit. @*Results@#A total of 15,716 patients was diagnosed with cirrhosis. A number of patients newly diagnosed with cirrhosis has decreased each year. In 2000, patients were most likely to be diagnosed with hepatitis B virus (HBV) cirrhosis, followed by alcoholic cirrhosis. There was a significant decrease in HBV (P < 0.001), but alcohol, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) showed a significant increase during the study period (alcohol, P = 0.036; HCV, P = 0.001; NAFLD, P = 0.001). At the time of initial diagnosis, the ratio of Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class A gradually increased from 23.1% to 32.9% (P < 0.001). The most common cause of liver-related hospitalization in 2000 was hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (25.5%); in 2014, gastrointestinal bleeding with esophageal and gastric varices (21.4%) was the most common cause. Cases of hospitalization with liver-related complication represented 76.4% of all cases in 2000 but 70.9% in 2014. Incidence rate of HCC has recently increased. In addition, HCC-free survival was significantly lower in CTP class A than in classes B and C. Finally, there was significant difference in HCC occurrence according to causes (P < 0.001). HBV and HCV cirrhosis had lower HCC-free survival than alcoholic and NAFLD cirrhosis. @*Conclusion@#In recent years, the overall number of cirrhosis patients has decreased. This study confirmed the recent trend in decrease of cirrhosis, especially of cirrhosis due to HBV, and the increase of HCV, alcoholic and NAFLD cirrhosis. Targeted screening for at-risk patients will facilitate early detection of liver diseases allowing effective intervention and may have decreased the development of cirrhosis and its complications.

7.
Immune Network ; : e6-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898560

ABSTRACT

IL-17 is produced by RAR-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt)-expressing cells including Th17 cells, subsets of γδT cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). The biological significance of IL-17-producing cells is well-studied in contexts of inflammation, autoimmunity and host defense against infection. While most of available studies in tumor immunity mainly focused on the role of T-bet-expressing cells, including cytotoxic CD8⁺ T cells and NK cells, and their exhaustion status, the role of IL-17-producing cells remains poorly understood. While IL-17-producing T-cells were shown to be anti-tumorigenic in adoptive T-cell therapy settings, mice deficient in type 17 genes suggest a protumorigenic potential of IL-17-producing cells. This review discusses the features of IL-17-producing cells, of both lymphocytic and myeloid origins, as well as their suggested pro- and/or anti-tumorigenic functions in an organ-dependent context. Potential therapeutic approaches targeting these cells in the tumor microenvironment will also be discussed.

8.
Immune Network ; : e6-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890856

ABSTRACT

IL-17 is produced by RAR-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt)-expressing cells including Th17 cells, subsets of γδT cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). The biological significance of IL-17-producing cells is well-studied in contexts of inflammation, autoimmunity and host defense against infection. While most of available studies in tumor immunity mainly focused on the role of T-bet-expressing cells, including cytotoxic CD8⁺ T cells and NK cells, and their exhaustion status, the role of IL-17-producing cells remains poorly understood. While IL-17-producing T-cells were shown to be anti-tumorigenic in adoptive T-cell therapy settings, mice deficient in type 17 genes suggest a protumorigenic potential of IL-17-producing cells. This review discusses the features of IL-17-producing cells, of both lymphocytic and myeloid origins, as well as their suggested pro- and/or anti-tumorigenic functions in an organ-dependent context. Potential therapeutic approaches targeting these cells in the tumor microenvironment will also be discussed.

9.
Immune Network ; : 6-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811176

ABSTRACT

IL-17 is produced by RAR-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt)-expressing cells including Th17 cells, subsets of γδT cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). The biological significance of IL-17-producing cells is well-studied in contexts of inflammation, autoimmunity and host defense against infection. While most of available studies in tumor immunity mainly focused on the role of T-bet-expressing cells, including cytotoxic CD8⁺ T cells and NK cells, and their exhaustion status, the role of IL-17-producing cells remains poorly understood. While IL-17-producing T-cells were shown to be anti-tumorigenic in adoptive T-cell therapy settings, mice deficient in type 17 genes suggest a protumorigenic potential of IL-17-producing cells. This review discusses the features of IL-17-producing cells, of both lymphocytic and myeloid origins, as well as their suggested pro- and/or anti-tumorigenic functions in an organ-dependent context. Potential therapeutic approaches targeting these cells in the tumor microenvironment will also be discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autoimmunity , Child , Child, Orphaned , Friends , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-17 , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocytes , Mice , T-Lymphocytes , Th17 Cells , Tumor Microenvironment
11.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 407-415, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763481

ABSTRACT

Acute gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage is a dreaded complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapy and radiologic intervention for gastroesophageal bleeding have rapidly developed in the recent decades. Endoscopic treatment is initially performed to stop variceal hemorrhage. For the treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding, endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is considered the endoscopic treatment of choice. In cases of gastric variceal hemorrhage, the type of gastric varices (GVs) is important in deciding the strategy of endoscopic treatment. Endoscopic variceal obturation (EVO) is recommended for fundal variceal bleeding. For the management of gastroesophageal varix type 1 bleeding, both EVO and EVL are available treatment options; however, EVO is preferred over EVL. If endoscopic management fails to control variceal hemorrhage, radiologic interventional modalities could be considered. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is a good option for rescue treatment in refractory variceal bleeding. In cases of refractory hemorrhage of GVs in patients with a gastrorenal shunt, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration could be considered as a salvage treatment.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Hemorrhage , Humans , Ligation , Liver Cirrhosis , Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical , Salvage Therapy , Varicose Veins
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 375-378, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759944

ABSTRACT

Pylephlebitis (septic thrombophlebitis of the portal venous system) is a rare but serious complication of intra-abdominal infections that drain into the portal venous system. Its diagnosis is based on imaging; computed tomography may reveal a thrombus in the portal vein. Bacteremia may also be evident. As the symptoms are nonspecific, early clinical diagnosis is difficult, and delayed treatment can compromise outcomes. We report a case with extensive pylephlebitis and a liver abscess associated with Streptococcus intermedius sepsis; the case was treated successfully with antibiotics and anticoagulants. Such cases have not been widely reported.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anticoagulants , Bacteremia , Diagnosis , Intraabdominal Infections , Liver Abscess , Liver , Portal Vein , Sepsis , Streptococcus intermedius , Streptococcus , Thrombophlebitis , Thrombosis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Previous studies have reported a high rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) and a low rate of serious adverse events with the use of daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) combination therapy. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DCV and ASV combination therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b infection in real world.@*METHODS@#We enrolled 278 patients (184 treatment-naïve patients) from five hospitals in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do. We evaluated the rates of rapid virologic response (RVR), end-of-treatment response (ETR), and SVR at 12 weeks after completion of treatment (SVR12). Furthermore, we investigated the rate of adverse events and predictive factors of SVR12 failure.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of patients was 59.5 ± 10.6 years, and 140 patients (50.2%) were men. Seventy-seven patients had cirrhosis. Baseline information regarding nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) sequences was available in 268 patients. Six patients presented with pretreatment NS5A resistance-associated variants. The RVR and the ETR rates were 96.6% (258/267) and 95.2% (223/232), respectively. The overall SVR12 rate was 91.6% (197/215). Adverse events occurred in 17 patients (7.9%). Six patients discontinued treatment because of liver enzyme elevation (n = 4) and severe nausea (n = 2). Among these, four achieved SVR12. Other adverse events observed were fatigue, headache, diarrhea, dizziness, loss of appetite, skin rash, and dyspnea. Univariate analysis did not show significant predictive factors of SVR12 failure.@*CONCLUSIONS@#DCV and ASV combination therapy showed high rates of RVR, ETR, and SVR12 in chronic HCV genotype 1b-infected patients in real world and was well tolerated without serious adverse events.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#The optimal management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with partial virologic response (PVR) to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of prolonged TDF therapy in treatment-naïve CHB patients with PVR to TDF therapy in real practice.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively investigated the efficacy of prolonged TDF therapy in treatment-naïve CHB patients with PVR to TDF. PVR was defined as a decrease in serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA over 2 log₁₀ IU/mL from baseline, with detectable HBV DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction at week 48.@*RESULTS@#We included 232 patients who underwent TDF therapy for over 48 weeks. Forty-two patients (18.1%) showed PVR. In multivariate analysis, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, and high levels of serum HBV DNA at baseline and week 12 were independent predictive factors for PVR during TDF therapy. Out of 42 patients with PVR, 39 (92.9%) achieved virologic response (VR) during continuous TDF treatment; the cumulative VR rates at 24, 36, and 48 months were 79.8%, 88.2%, and 95.6%, respectively. With an additional 12 months of therapy, VR was achieved in 28/31 (90.3%) patients with HBV DNA < 100 IU/mL, compared to 5/11 (45.5%) patients with HBV DNA ≥ 100 IU/mL, at week 48.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The vast majority of patients achieved VR through prolonged TDF therapy, thus TDF treatment can be maintained in nucleos(t)ide-naïve patients with PVR at week 48, especially in those with low viremia.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766670

ABSTRACT

We report two patients who complained of transient anterograde amnesia and repetitive questioning, that developed after taking zolpidem and lasted for several hours. The clinical manifestations of these patients fulfill the clinical criteria for transient global amnesia (TGA). The typical clinical manifestation of TGA following the consumption of zolpidem suggests a possible relationship associated with its drug mechanism.


Subject(s)
Amnesia, Anterograde , Amnesia, Transient Global , Humans
16.
Immune Network ; : 163-170, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191878

ABSTRACT

The expansion of allergen-specific CD4⁺ T cells is a critical step in inducing airway inflammation during allergic asthma. Such clonal expansion of T cells is initiated through the interaction between allergen-bearing dendritic cells and allergen-specific naïve T cells in the draining lymph nodes. Whether such T cell clonal expansion also occurs in the lung, the primary organ encountering inhaled allergens, remains unclear. Compared with wild-type mice, we found similar frequencies of CD4⁺ T cells in the lung of lymph node-deficient Rorgt(gfp/gfp) mice after repeated exposure to inhaled allergens. In addition, we observed an evident population of CD4⁺ T cells that underwent clonal expansion in the lung of allergen-challenged mice treated with an S1P antagonist FTY720 in an in vivo proliferation study with CFSE-labeled OT-II T cells. Moreover, the expansion of allergen-specific CD4⁺ T cells was significantly enhanced in the lungs of Rorgt(gfp/gfp) mice in comparison to that of wild-type mice. These results together demonstrate that the clonal expansion of allergen-specific CD4⁺ T cells occurs in the absence of the lymph nodes, indicating that the lung can act as a primary site of the clonal expansion of CD4⁺ T cells in response to inhaled allergens.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Asthma , Dendritic Cells , Fingolimod Hydrochloride , Inflammation , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Mice , T-Lymphocytes
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10152

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a major cause of community acquired respiratory infections. And it also causes a number of extrapulmonary manifestations including cardiovascular, dermatological, musculoskeletal, and hematological systems. But, acute hepatitis without lung involvement is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of 32-year-old man who presented with fever, chilling, myalgia, and headache. Biochemical analysis showed severely impaired liver function and leukopenia. Laboratory tests and liver biopsy demonstrated a hepatocellular pattern of M. pneumoniae-associated acute hepatitis. Clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters are improved rapidly under treatment with macrolide. Therefore, We recommend that phsycians should consider a possibility of M. pneumoniae infection in acute hepatitis without lung and extrapulmonary involvement, when other more frequent causes have been excluded.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Fever , Headache , Hepatitis , Humans , Leukopenia , Liver , Lung , Myalgia , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Respiratory Tract Infections
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226870

ABSTRACT

CXCR5⁺ T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are associated with aberrant autoantibody production in patients with antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases including lupus. Follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells expressing CXCR5 and Bcl6 have been recently identified as a specialized subset of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells that control germinal center reactions. In this study, we show that retroviral transduction of CXCR5 gene in Foxp3⁺ Treg cells induced a stable expression of functional CXCR5 on their surface. The Cxcr5-transduced Treg cells maintained the expression of Treg cell signature genes and the suppressive activity. The expression of CXCR5 as well as Foxp3 in the transduced Treg cells appeared to be stable in vivo in an adoptive transfer experiment. Moreover, Cxcr5-transduced Treg cells preferentially migrated toward the CXCL13 gradient, leading to an effective suppression of antibody production from B cells stimulated with Tfh cells. Therefore, our results demonstrate that enforced expression of CXCR5 onto Treg cells efficiently induces Tfr cell-like properties, which might be a promising cellular therapeutic approach for the treatment of antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Antibody Formation , Autoimmune Diseases , B-Lymphocytes , Germinal Center , Humans , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Zidovudine
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) remains controversial. We compared the outcomes of hepatic resection (HR), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and sorafenib therapy as treatments for HCC with PVTT. METHODS: Patients diagnosed as HCC with PVTT between January 2000 and December 2011 who received treatment with sorafenib, HR, or TACE were included. Patients with main PVTT, superior mesenteric vein tumor thrombosis, or Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class C were excluded. The records of 172 patients were analyzed retrospectively. HR, TACE, and sorafenib treatment were performed is 40, 80, and 52 patients respectively. PVTT was classified as either involving the segmental branch (type I) or extending to involve the right or left portal vein (type II). RESULTS: The median survival time was significantly longer in the HR group (19.9 months) than in the TACE and sorafenib groups (6.6 and 6.2 months, respectively; both p<0.001), and did not differ significantly between the latter two groups (p=0.698). Among patients with CTP class A, type I PVTT or unilobar-involved HCC, the median survival time was longer in the HR group than in the TACE and sorafenib groups (p=0.006). In univariate analyses, the initial treatment method, tumor size, PVTT type, involved lobe, CTP class, and presence of cirrhosis or ascites were correlated with overall survival. The significant prognostic factors for overall survival in Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis were initial treatment method (HR vs. TACE: hazard ratio=1.750, p=0.036; HR vs. sorafenib: hazard ratio=2.262, p=0.006), involved lobe (hazard ratio=1.705, p=0.008), PVTT type (hazard ratio=1.617, p=0.013), and CTP class (hazard ratio=1.712, p=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with TACE or sorafenib, HR may prolong the survival of patients with HCC in cases of CTP class A, type I PVTT or unilobar-involved HCC.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Phenylurea Compounds/therapeutic use , Portal Vein , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/complications
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719912

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An outbreak of food poisoning occurred among the baseball club students at a high school in Ulsan city in 2014. An epidemiological investigation was carried out to examine the infection source and the transmission route of pathogen, and to prevent a recurrence. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted for 26 male students and 2 food handlers. Rectal swabs were examined in 7 students and the 2 food handlers, and an environmental investigation was performed. A retrospective cohort study was used to evaluate the association between risk factors and disease. RESULTS: The attack rate was 35.7% (10 persons/28 persons) from June 9 to 14, and Enterotoxigenic E. coli ST/LT was isolated from 7 among 28 persons. The study revealed that no food was a significant risk factor for the outbreak. There were no connection between environmental factors and the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The major risk factors for this outbreak were presumed to be the contaminated ice cube and ice making machines and eating ice cube from the machines. More strict personal and environmental hygiene need to be enforced to prevent such outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Baseball , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Eating , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli , Food Contamination , Foodborne Diseases , Humans , Hygiene , Ice , Male , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
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