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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Because the etiologies of bronchiectasis and related diseases vary significantly among different regions and ethnicities, this study aimed to develop a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A modified Delphi method was used to develop expert consensus statements on a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. Initial statements proposed by a core panel, based on international bronchiectasis guidelines, were discussed in an online meeting and two email surveys by a panel of experts (≥70% agreement). @*Results@#The study involved 21 expert participants, and 30 statements regarding a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis were classified as recommended, conditional, or not recommended. The consensus statements of the expert panel were as follows: A standardized diagnostic bundle is useful in clinical practice; diagnostic tests for specific diseases, including immunodeficiency and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, are necessary when clinically suspected; initial diagnostic tests, including sputum microbiology and spirometry, are essential in all patients with bronchiectasis, and patients suspected with rare causes such as primary ciliary dyskinesia should be referred to specialized centers. @*Conclusion@#Based on this Delphi survey, expert consensus statements were generated including specific diagnostic, laboratory, microbiological, and pulmonary function tests required to manage patients with bronchiectasis in South Korea.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 224-230, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875615

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is ubiquitous in the environment, but NTM lung disease (NTM-LD) is uncommon. Since exposure to NTM is inevitable, patients who develop NTM-LD are likely to have specific susceptibility factors, such as primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). PCD is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia and is characterized by chronic respiratory tract infection, organ laterality defect, and infertility. In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and investigated the genetic characteristics of adult NTM patients with suspected PCD. @*Materials and Methods@#WES was performed in 13 NTM-LD patients who were suspected of having PCD by clinical symptoms and/or ultrastructural ciliary defect observed by transmission electron microscopy. A total of 45 PCD-causing genes, 23 PCDcandidate genes, and 990 ciliome genes were analyzed. @*Results@#Four patients were found to have biallelic loss-of-function (LoF) variants in the following PCD-causing genes: CCDC114, DNAH5, HYDIN, and NME5. In four other patients, only one LoF variant was identified, while the remaining five patients did not have any LoF variants. @*Conclusion@#At least 30.8% of NTM-LD patients who were suspected of having PCD had biallelic LoF variants, and an additional 30.8% of patients had one LoF variant. Therefore, PCD should be considered in patients with NTM-LD with symptoms or signs suspicious of PCD.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762469

ABSTRACT

The GENEDIA MTB/NTM Detection Kit (GENEDIA MTB/NTM; Green Cross Medical Science Corp., Chungbuk, Korea) is a multiplex real-time PCR assay used for differential identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). While the importance of differential identification of MTB/NTM is recognized, there is limited data on the performance of GENEDIA MTB/NTM assay to date. A total of 687 consecutive sputum specimens were cultured and analyzed with the GENEDIA MTB/NTM and GENEDIA MTB assays. Nineteen specimens (2.8%) were MTBC-positive, and 69 (10.0%) were NTM-positive based on mycobacterial culture. All specimens showed concordant results for MTBC using both assays, with a kappa value of 1.00, overall sensitivity of 63.2% (12/19), and specificity of 100% (668/668). The overall NTM sensitivity and specificity were 23.2% (16/69) and 99.7% (616/618) for GENEDIA MTB/NTM. The association between NTM-positivity using GENEDIA MTB/NTM and the diagnosis of NTM pulmonary disease was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the two real-time PCR assays showed similar diagnostic performance for MTBC detection. However, the sensitivity for NTM detection was lower than that for MTBC detection.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Lung Diseases , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904146

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a threat to public health and is the leading cause of death globally. Isoniazid (INH) is an important first-line agent for the treatment of TB considering its early bactericidal activity. Resistance to INH is now the most common type of resistance. Resistance to INH reduces the probability of treatment success and increases the risk of acquiring resistance to other first-line drugs such as rifampicin (RIF), thereby increasing the risk of multidrug-resistant-TB. Studies in the 1970s and 1980s showed high success rates for INH-resistant TB cases receiving regimens comprised of first-line drugs. However, recent data have indicated that INH-resistant TB patients treated with only first-line drugs have poor outcomes. Fortunately, based on recent systematic meta-analyses, the World Health Organization published consolidated guidelines on drug-resistant TB in 2019. Their key recommendations are treatment with RIF-ethambutol (EMB)-pyrazinamide (PZA)-levofloxacin (LFX) for 6 months and no addition of injectable agents to the treatment regimen. The guidelines also emphasize the importance of excluding resistance to RIF before starting RIF-EMB-PZA-LFX regimen. Additionally, when the diagnosis of INH-resistant TB is confirmed long after starting the first-line TB treatment, the clinician must decide whether to start a 6-month course of RIF-EMB-PZA-LFX based on the patient's condition. However, these recommendations are based on observational studies, not randomized controlled trials, and are thus conditional and based on low certainty of the effect estimates. Therefore, further work is needed to optimize the treatment of INH-resistant TB.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896442

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a threat to public health and is the leading cause of death globally. Isoniazid (INH) is an important first-line agent for the treatment of TB considering its early bactericidal activity. Resistance to INH is now the most common type of resistance. Resistance to INH reduces the probability of treatment success and increases the risk of acquiring resistance to other first-line drugs such as rifampicin (RIF), thereby increasing the risk of multidrug-resistant-TB. Studies in the 1970s and 1980s showed high success rates for INH-resistant TB cases receiving regimens comprised of first-line drugs. However, recent data have indicated that INH-resistant TB patients treated with only first-line drugs have poor outcomes. Fortunately, based on recent systematic meta-analyses, the World Health Organization published consolidated guidelines on drug-resistant TB in 2019. Their key recommendations are treatment with RIF-ethambutol (EMB)-pyrazinamide (PZA)-levofloxacin (LFX) for 6 months and no addition of injectable agents to the treatment regimen. The guidelines also emphasize the importance of excluding resistance to RIF before starting RIF-EMB-PZA-LFX regimen. Additionally, when the diagnosis of INH-resistant TB is confirmed long after starting the first-line TB treatment, the clinician must decide whether to start a 6-month course of RIF-EMB-PZA-LFX based on the patient's condition. However, these recommendations are based on observational studies, not randomized controlled trials, and are thus conditional and based on low certainty of the effect estimates. Therefore, further work is needed to optimize the treatment of INH-resistant TB.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The burden of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease (PD) is increasing globally. To understand the treatment outcomes and prognosis of NTM-PD, a unified registry is needed. In this project, we aim to construct a multicenter prospective observational cohort with NTM-PD in South Korea (NTM-KOREA).@*METHODS@#The primary objective of this study is to analyze treatment outcomes according to the species. In addition, recurrence rate, adverse events, the impact of each drug on treatment outcomes as well as the impact of characteristics of mycobacteriology will be analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the study are as follows: fulfilling the criteria for NTM-PD having one of the following etiologic organisms: Mycobacterium avium complex, M. abscessus subspecies abscessus, M. abscessus subspecies massiliense, or M. kansasii; receiving the first treatment for NTM-PD after enrollment; age >20 years; and consenting to participate in the study. Seven institutions will participate in patient enrollment and about 500 patients are expected to be enrolled. Participants will be recruited from 1 March 2020 until 19 March 2024 and will be observed through 19 March 2029. During the follow-up period, participants' clinical course will be tracked and their clinical data as well as NTM isolates will be collected.@*CONCLUSION@#NTM-KOREA will be the first nationwide observational cohort for NTM-PD in South Korea. It will provide the information to optimize treatment modalities and will contribute to deeper understanding of the treatment outcomes and long-term prognosis of patients with NTM-PD in South Korea.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 670-678, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833325

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections is challenging due to the difficulty of obtaining sufficient specimens. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) needle rinse fluid has become an emerging diagnostic material. This study evaluated the role of routine fungal culture from EBUS-TBNA needle rinse fluid, in addition to histopathologic examination and fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA core tissue, in the diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections. @*Materials and Methods@#Among patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA, those with results for at least one of three tests (histopathologic examination, fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA core tissue or needle rinse fluid) were included. Patients with a positive test were divided into two groups (clinical fungal infection and suspected fungal contamination) according to their clinical assessment and therapeutic response to antifungal. @*Results@#Of 6072 patients, 41 (0.7%) had positive fungal tests and 9 (22%) were diagnosed as clinical fungal infection. Of the 5222 patients who were evaluated using a fungal culture from EBUS-TBNA needle rinse fluid, 35 (0.7%) had positive results. However, only 4 out of 35 (11.4%) were classified as clinical fungal infection. Positive results were determined in 4 of the 68 (5.9%) evaluated by a fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA core tissue, and all were diagnosed as clinical fungal infection. @*Conclusion@#Routine fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA needle rinse fluid is not useful due to the low incidence of fungal infection and high rate of contamination. However, fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA core tissue and needle rinse fluid should be considered in patients with clinically suspected fungal infection.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The burden of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease (PD) is increasing globally. To understand the treatment outcomes and prognosis of NTM-PD, a unified registry is needed. In this project, we aim to construct a multicenter prospective observational cohort with NTM-PD in South Korea (NTM-KOREA).METHODS: The primary objective of this study is to analyze treatment outcomes according to the species. In addition, recurrence rate, adverse events, the impact of each drug on treatment outcomes as well as the impact of characteristics of mycobacteriology will be analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the study are as follows: fulfilling the criteria for NTM-PD having one of the following etiologic organisms: Mycobacterium avium complex, M. abscessus subspecies abscessus, M. abscessus subspecies massiliense, or M. kansasii; receiving the first treatment for NTM-PD after enrollment; age >20 years; and consenting to participate in the study. Seven institutions will participate in patient enrollment and about 500 patients are expected to be enrolled. Participants will be recruited from 1 March 2020 until 19 March 2024 and will be observed through 19 March 2029. During the follow-up period, participants' clinical course will be tracked and their clinical data as well as NTM isolates will be collected.CONCLUSION: NTM-KOREA will be the first nationwide observational cohort for NTM-PD in South Korea. It will provide the information to optimize treatment modalities and will contribute to deeper understanding of the treatment outcomes and long-term prognosis of patients with NTM-PD in South Korea.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742452

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, which presents with a progressive worsening dyspnea, and thus a poor outcome. The members of the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases as well as the participating members of the Korea Interstitial Lung Disease Study Group drafted this clinical practice guideline for IPF management. This guideline includes a wide range of topics, including the epidemiology, pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and acute exacerbation of IPF in Korea. Additionally, we suggested the PICO for the use of pirfenidone and nintendanib and for lung transplantation for the treatment of patients with IPF through a systemic literature review using experts' help in conducting a meta-analysis. We recommend this guideline to physicians, other health care professionals, and government personnel in Korea, to facilitate the treatment of patients with IPF.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Disease Management , Dyspnea , Epidemiology , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Korea , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung Transplantation , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766544

ABSTRACT

The incidence and prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in South Korea remain high despite the fact that South Korea is a high-income country, and pulmonary TB is an important public health issue in terms of both morbidity and mortality. Thus, rapid diagnosis and management of active pulmonary TB are crucial for effective TB control, which can help to prevent the transmission of TB and the occurrence of new TB cases. However, because the clinical and radiological presentations of pulmonary TB may occasionally be nonspecific, identification of causative microorganisms using laboratory tests is the most important diagnostic method. Recently-developed microbiological and molecular techniques are commonly employed in current clinical practice. In particular, advances in liquid culture system, line probe assays, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay have reduced the identification time and facilitate the identification of drug-resistance TB. However, as various tests have both advantages and limitations, physicians should be aware of the principles underpinning the tests when interpreting the results. Thus, the clinical and radiological characteristics of pulmonary TB and several diagnostic laboratory tests that we describe below will aid physicians in diagnosing pulmonary TB efficiently.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Drug Resistance , Incidence , Korea , Methods , Mortality , Prevalence , Public Health , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
13.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 166-170, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760499

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium shimoidei is a nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM), and is rarely reported as a pathogen causing the NTM pulmonary disease. We describe here the case of a 52-year-old male with symptoms such as chronic cough and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiologic studies revealed a cavitary lesion in the left upper lobe of his lung. Sputum culture was positive for NTM, which was later identified as M. shimoidei using 16S rRNA and hsp65 sequencing. The patient's symptoms, radiologic evidence, and positive culture results together substantiate that this is the first case of M. shimoidei pulmonary disease from Korea.


Subject(s)
Cough , Humans , Korea , Lung , Lung Diseases , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Sputum , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 343-352, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759949

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium abscessus is the second most important pathogen in pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), following Mycobacterium avium. Mycobacterium abscessus is classified into three subspecies: M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. Mycobacterium abscessus is the most difficult to treat NTM due to its resistance to many antibiotics. Treatment should include an initial regimen of 2–3 injectable and oral antibiotics for several weeks or months, followed by inhaled amikacin and 1–3 oral antibiotics, depending on the subspecies and drug susceptibility patterns, including macrolide susceptibility. The continuation phase should be continued for a minimum of 12 months after culture conversion. Suitable injectable antibiotics include amikacin, imipenem, cefoxitin, and tigecycline, while oral antibiotics include macrolides (azithromycin or clarithromycin), clofazimine, linezolid, and moxifloxacin. Surgery can be a useful adjunctive therapy for some patients with refractory disease. However, the overall treatment prognosis is still unsatisfactory. Therefore, novel and more effective interventions are required for the treatment of M. abscessus pulmonary disease.


Subject(s)
Amikacin , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cefoxitin , Clofazimine , Humans , Imipenem , Linezolid , Lung Diseases , Macrolides , Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Prognosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919435

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, which presents with a progressive worsening dyspnea, and thus a poor outcome. The members of the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases as well as the participating members of the Korea Interstitial Lung Disease Study Group drafted this clinical practice guideline for IPF management. This guideline includes a wide range of topics, including the epidemiology, pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and acute exacerbation of IPF in Korea. Additionally, we suggested the PICO for the use of pirfenidone and nintendanib and for lung transplantation for the treatment of patients with IPF through a systemic literature review using experts' help in conducting a meta-analysis. We recommend this guideline to physicians, other health care professionals, and government personnel in Korea, to facilitate the treatment of patients with IPF.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916205

ABSTRACT

The incidence and prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in South Korea remain high despite the fact that South Korea is a high-income country, and pulmonary TB is an important public health issue in terms of both morbidity and mortality. Thus, rapid diagnosis and management of active pulmonary TB are crucial for effective TB control, which can help to prevent the transmission of TB and the occurrence of new TB cases. However, because the clinical and radiological presentations of pulmonary TB may occasionally be nonspecific, identification of causative microorganisms using laboratory tests is the most important diagnostic method. Recently-developed microbiological and molecular techniques are commonly employed in current clinical practice. In particular, advances in liquid culture system, line probe assays, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay have reduced the identification time and facilitate the identification of drug-resistance TB. However, as various tests have both advantages and limitations, physicians should be aware of the principles underpinning the tests when interpreting the results. Thus, the clinical and radiological characteristics of pulmonary TB and several diagnostic laboratory tests that we describe below will aid physicians in diagnosing pulmonary TB efficiently.

17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1004-1007, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717927

ABSTRACT

Bronchiectasis is a chronic disease characterized by airway infection and inflammation, leading to permanent dilation of the bronchi. Evaluation of underlying etiology is important in managing young bronchiectasis patients with recurrent infections caused by unusual pathogens. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) protein plays a key role in STAT signaling and immune system regulation. Heterozygotes for gain-of-function (GOF) alleles of the STAT1 gene usually display autosomal dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and a wide range of clinical features, such as bronchiectasis. Here, we report on a patient with CMC and bronchiectasis with various types of infections who carried a pathogenic variant of the STAT1 gene. The 24-year-old female presented with recurrent respiratory bacterial and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections complicated by severe bronchiectasis and CMC. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a c.800C>T (p.Ala267Val) heterozygous mutation in the STAT1 gene. Further analysis by Sanger sequencing of STAT1 from the patient and her parents revealed the patient had a de novo occurrence of the variant. This is the first report of a Korean patient with a GOF pathogenic variant in STAT1. Physicians should be aware of the existence of this variant as a genetic factor associated with CMC and bronchiectasis complicated by recurrent infection.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Bronchi , Bronchiectasis , Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous , Chronic Disease , Female , Heterozygote , Humans , Immune System , Inflammation , Korea , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Parents , Respiratory Tract Infections , STAT1 Transcription Factor , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764906

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the changes in the major etiologic organisms and clinical phenotypes of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTM-LD) over a recent 15-year period in Korea. The increase of number of patients with NTM-LD was primarily due to an increase of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease (LD). Among MAC cases, the proportion of M. avium increased compared with M. intracellulare, whereas the incidence of M. abscessus complex and M. kansasii LD remained relatively stable. The proportion of cases of the nodular bronchiectatic form increased compared with the fibrocavitary form of NTM-LD.


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lung Diseases , Lung , Mycobacterium avium Complex , Mycobacterium kansasii , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Phenotype , Republic of Korea , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127909

ABSTRACT

A febrile respiratory infectious disease unit (FRIDU) with a negative pressure ventilation system was constructed outside the emergency department (ED) of the Samsung Medical Center in 2015, to screen for patients with contagious diseases requiring isolation. We evaluated the utility of the FRIDU during 1 year of operation. We analyzed 1,562 patients who were hospitalized after FRIDU screening between August 2015 and July 2016. The level of isolation recommended during their screening at the FRIDU was compared with the level deemed appropriate given their final diagnosis. Of the 1,562 patients screened at the FRIDU, 198 (13%) were isolated, 194 (12%) were reverse isolated, and 1,170 (75%) were not isolated. While hospitalized, 97 patients (6%) were confirmed to have a contagious disease requiring isolation, such as tuberculosis; 207 patients (13%) were confirmed to be immunocompromised and to require reverse isolation, mainly due to neutropenia; and the remaining 1,258 patients (81%) did not require isolation. The correlation coefficient for isolation consistency was 0.565 (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and negative predictive value of FRIDU screening for diagnosing contagious disease requiring isolation are 76% and 98%, respectively. No serious nosocomial outbreaks of contagious diseases occurred. During FRIDU screening, 114 patients were admitted to the resuscitation zone due to clinical instability, and three of these patients died. The initial isolation levels resulting from FRIDU screening were moderately well correlated with the isolation levels required by the final diagnosis, demonstrating the utility of pre-hospitalization screening units. However, the risks of deterioration during the screening process remain challenges.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Mass Screening , Neutropenia , Resuscitation , Tuberculosis , Ventilation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115127

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus (AdV) can cause severe pneumonia in non-immunocompromised host, but limited data exist on the distinctive characteristics of AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients. We evaluated distinctive clinico-laboratory and radiological characteristics and outcomes of AdV pneumonia (n = 179), compared with non-AdV pneumonia (n = 188) in Korean military personnel between 2012 and 2016. AdV pneumonia patients had a higher rate of consolidation with ground-glass opacity (101/152) in lobar distribution (89/152) on computed tomography (CT) (P < 0.001). Laboratory findings showed a higher incidence of unusual blood profiles such as leukopenia (55/179, P < 0.001) or thrombocytopenia (100/179, P < 0.001). The patients had more systemic symptoms such as myalgia (82/179, P = 0.001) or diarrhea (23/179, P < 0.001), compared with non-AdV pneumonia patients. Bacterial co-infection was identified in 28.5% of AdV pneumonia. Most of the AdV isolates typed (69/72, 95.8%) were AdV-55. Patients with a pneumonia severity index ≥ class III were more commonly observed in AdV pneumonia patients compared with non-AdV pneumonia patients (11.2% vs. 2.1%, P < 0.001), and time to clinical stabilization from admission was longer in the AdV pneumonia patients compared with the non-AdV pneumonia patients (3.8 vs. 2.6 days, P < 0.001). Mechanical ventilation (n = 6) was only required in AdV pneumonia patients, one of whom died due to AdV-55. Our data showed that AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients had distinct characteristics and most of the isolates typed in our study were AdV-55. It is suggested that AdV-55 is an important pathogen of pneumonia in Korean military personnel.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Coinfection , Diarrhea , Humans , Incidence , Leukopenia , Military Personnel , Myalgia , Pneumonia , Respiration, Artificial , Thrombocytopenia
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