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1.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2022010-2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#In an era when the average life expectancy and overall mortality rate have improved, Korea remains at risk for infectious disease outbreaks that place substantial burdens on the healthcare system. This study investigated trends in mortality and the economic burden of infectious diseases. @*METHODS@#Healthcare data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (2009-2019) and the Korean Statistics Information Service (1997-2019) were used. We selected 10 infectious disease groups (intestinal infections, tuberculosis, vaccine- preventable diseases, sepsis, viral hepatitis, HIV-related diseases, central nervous system infections, rheumatic heart diseases, respiratory tract infections, and arthropod-borne viral diseases). @*RESULTS@#The age-standardized mortality rate for infectious diseases increased from 27.2 per 100,000 population in 1997 to 37.1 per 100,000 population in 2019 and has had an upward trend since 2004. During this same period, significant increases were seen in respiratory tract infections and among elderly persons, especially those aged ≥85 years. The costs for infectious diseases increased from 4.126 billion US dollar (USD) in 2009 to 6.612 billion USD in 2019, with respiratory tract infections accounting for 3.699 billion USD (69%). The annual cost per patient for visits for medical care due to infectious diseases increased from 131 USD in 2009 to 204 USD in 2019. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Mortality among elderly persons and those with respiratory tract infections increased during the study period. The economic burden of infectious diseases has consistently increased, especially for respiratory tract infections. It is therefore essential to establish effective management policies that considers specific infectious diseases and patient groups.

2.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 221-228, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967074

ABSTRACT

Cedrol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, isolated from Juniperus chinensis has been reported to inhibit minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins as cancer biomarkers in human lung cancer in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of cedrol in vitro and in vivo using human colorectal cancer HT29 cells and a human colorectal tumor xenograft model. Cedrol inhibited MCM protein expression and cell growth in HT29 cells, which are associated with G1 arrest and the induction of apoptosis. We demonstrated that cedrol effectively reduced HT29 tumor growth without apparent weight loss in a human tumor xenograft model.Compared with vehicle- and adriamycin-treated tumor tissues, cedrol induced changes in the tumor tissue structure, resulting in a reduced cell density within the tumor parenchyma and reduced vascularization. Moreover, the expression of MCM7, an important subunit of MCM helicase, was significantly suppressed by cedrol in tumor tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that cedrol may act as a potential anti-cancer agent for colorectal cancer by inhibiting MCM protein expression and tumor growth.

3.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 35-40, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830386

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Anal cancer is a rare disease in Korea, and thus survival analyses are limited by small sample sizes. This study used the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) for a survival analysis and for assessing characteristics of anal cancer in a large sample of Koreans. @*Methods@#From the KCCR, data on 3,615 patients who were diagnosed and treated for anal cancer from 1993 to 2015 were retrieved. Clinicopathologic variables including age, sex, histological type, and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) stage were reviewed, and a survival analysis was performed according to these variables. @*Results@#The 5-year relative survival rate improved from 39.7% in 1993–1995 to 66.5% in 2011–2015. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common and showed the highest survival rate. Males and older patients (≥40 years and ≥70 years) showed poor prognoses. @*Conclusion@#The survival rate for anal cancer in Korea has improved steadily over time. The characteristics related to survival were the histological type, sex, and age. These statistics will be fundamental for future Korean anal cancer research.

4.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020075-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Cervical cancer is a major disease burden in Vietnam. This study aimed to estimate the incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer in Vietnam (1999-2017) in comparison to those in Korea, where a population-based cancer registry and national cervical cancer screening program have been implemented. @*METHODS@#The estimated incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Vietnam and Korea (1999-2017) were collected from Global Burden of Disease 2017 study. Estimated age-standardized rates (ASRs) in both countries were calculated utilizing the 1999-2017 population of each country and the World Health Organization standard population. The reported ASRs in Korea were also computed using data on incidence and mortality (1999-2017) and the Korean population from the Korea Statistical Information Service. @*RESULTS@#In Vietnam, the estimated incidence and mortality of cervical cancer decreased annually by 0.84% and 1.01%. In Korea, the trend of reported incidence showed a dramatic drop (1999-2007 annual percent change [APC], -4.53%) before stably declining (2007-2017 APC, -2.71%). Reported mortality also significantly decreased (2003-2008 APC, -6.63%), and then maintained a stable decline (2008-2017 APC, -3.78%). The incidence and mortality rates were higher in Vietnam than in Korea. The declining trend of incidence and mortality in Vietnam was slower than the corresponding trends in Korea. @*CONCLUSIONS@#A national screening program should be implemented for Vietnamese women aged over 30 to maintain, or even hasten, the decline in cervical cancer incidence and mortality. A population-based cancer registry may help monitor the effectiveness of a cervical cancer screening program.

5.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020075-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Cervical cancer is a major disease burden in Vietnam. This study aimed to estimate the incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer in Vietnam (1999-2017) in comparison to those in Korea, where a population-based cancer registry and national cervical cancer screening program have been implemented. @*METHODS@#The estimated incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Vietnam and Korea (1999-2017) were collected from Global Burden of Disease 2017 study. Estimated age-standardized rates (ASRs) in both countries were calculated utilizing the 1999-2017 population of each country and the World Health Organization standard population. The reported ASRs in Korea were also computed using data on incidence and mortality (1999-2017) and the Korean population from the Korea Statistical Information Service. @*RESULTS@#In Vietnam, the estimated incidence and mortality of cervical cancer decreased annually by 0.84% and 1.01%. In Korea, the trend of reported incidence showed a dramatic drop (1999-2007 annual percent change [APC], -4.53%) before stably declining (2007-2017 APC, -2.71%). Reported mortality also significantly decreased (2003-2008 APC, -6.63%), and then maintained a stable decline (2008-2017 APC, -3.78%). The incidence and mortality rates were higher in Vietnam than in Korea. The declining trend of incidence and mortality in Vietnam was slower than the corresponding trends in Korea. @*CONCLUSIONS@#A national screening program should be implemented for Vietnamese women aged over 30 to maintain, or even hasten, the decline in cervical cancer incidence and mortality. A population-based cancer registry may help monitor the effectiveness of a cervical cancer screening program.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 104-113, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There have been no nationwide studies to investigate the trends in incidence and 5-year survival rates of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct cancers and gall-bladder cancer. Therefore, our study aimed to describe the incidence and 5-year survival rates of biliary tract cancers by subsites in South Korea. METHODS: A total of 86,134 patients with biliary tract cancers were selected from the National Health Information Database. Age-standardized incidence rates and annual percentage changes were calculated. Life-table methods and log-rank tests were used to determine the differences in survival rates. Cox-proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio of the patients with biliary tract cancers. RESULTS: The incidence rate of intra-hepatic bile duct cancer decreased by 1.3% annually from 8.8 per 100,000 in 2006 to 7.8 per 100,000 in 2015. Extrahepatic bile duct cancer also showed a decreasing trend by 2.2% per year from 8.7 per 100,000 in 2006 to 6.7 per 100,000 in 2015. Gallbladder cancer showed the greatest decline, with an annual percentage change of 2.8% from 6.3 per 100,000 to 5.2 per 100,000 during the same period. The 5-year survival rates were 30.0% in gallbladder cancer, 27.8% in extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and 15.9% in intra-hepatic bile duct cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence rates of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct cancer and gallbladder cancer decreased from 2006 to 2015. Among biliary tract cancers, intrahepatic bile duct cancers exhibited the highest incidence rate and the worst survival rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bile Duct Neoplasms , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Biliary Tract , Cholangiocarcinoma , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Incidence , Korea , Proportional Hazards Models , Survival Rate
7.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 134-140, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a garlic-derived organosulfuric compound, has been documented for potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanism in microglia remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of DATS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. METHODS: The effects of DATS on LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were assessed under conditions not in the cytotoxicity of DATS. The protein expression of inflammation regulatory genes was measured by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: DATS significantly inhibited the LPS-induced secretion of NO and PGE2, which was associated with the suppression of their regulatory genes, inducible NO synthase and COX-2. DATS had been shown to inhibit nuclear translocation of NF-κB by destroying the degradation and phosphorylation of IκB-α inhibitors in the cytoplasm. In addition, DATS effectively inhibited the expression of LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88. Furthermore, DATS markedly reduced the LPS-induced expression of chemokine (CXC motif) ligand (CXCL) 12 and CXC receptor (CXCR) 4, demonstrating its capacity to block chemo-attractive activity. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that DATS inhibits the activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis associated with antagonizing effect on TLR4 and blocks NF-κB signaling, thus demonstrating anti-inflammatory effects against LPS stimulation.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cytoplasm , Dinoprostone , Genes, Regulator , Inflammation , Microglia , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Phosphorylation , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Toll-Like Receptors
8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 616-626, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167306

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The current study was undertaken to examine the trends in the lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survival after a diagnosis in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lung cancer incidence data according to the histologic type and mortality data were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Statistics Korea, respectively. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and the Joinpoint model and age-period-cohort analyses were used to describe the trends in the rates. The 5-year relative survival rates of lung cancer were also calculated. RESULTS: Although the number of new lung cancer cases increased between 1999 and 2012, the age-standardized incidence rate decreased by 0.9% per year in men, whereas the incidence in women increased by 1.7% per year over the same time. Until 2010, the most common histologic type in men was squamous cell carcinoma, then adenocarcinoma prevailed thereafter. Since 1999, the most frequent histological type in women was adenocarcinoma. The lung cancer mortality started to decrease in 2002, with a more apparent decline for the younger age groups in both men and women. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rates have improved significantly from 11.2% for men and 14.7% for women among patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1997 to 19.3% for men and 28.2% for women among patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2012, respectively. An improvement in survival rate was observed for all major histology groups. CONCLUSION: The epidemiology of lung cancer in Korea has changed over a short time span, with decreasing mortality and improving survival rates. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of these changes.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Incidence , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Mortality , Survival Rate
9.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 249-256, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sorbus rufopilosa, a tsema rowan, is a species of the small ornamental trees in the genus Sorbus and the family Rosaceae found in East Asia. The bioactivities of S. rufopilosa have not yet been fully determined. The objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer effects of ethanol extract of S. rufopilosa (EESR) and to determine the molecular mechanism of its anticancer activity in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells. METHODS: To examine the antioxidant activity of EESR, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay was performed. Inhibitory effect of EESR on cancer cell growth and proliferation was determined by water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. To investigate the mechanism of EESR-mediated cytotoxicity, HT29 cells were treated with various concentrations of EESR and the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: EESR showed significant antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on HT29 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. EESR induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner by modulating cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), and CDK inhibitor p21 expression. EESR-induced apoptosis was associated with the upregulation of p53, a death receptor Fas, and a pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the activation of caspase 3, 8, and 9, resulting in the degradation of PARP. CONCLUSIONS: EESR possessing antioxidant activity efficiently inhibits proliferation of HT29 cells by inducing both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. EESR may be a possible candidate for the anticancer drug development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , CDC2 Protein Kinase , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Cycle , Colon , Cyclin B , Ethanol , Asia, Eastern , Flow Cytometry , HT29 Cells , Rosacea , Rosaceae , Sorbus , Trees , Up-Regulation
10.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 241-249, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osmanthus matsumuranus, a species of Oleaceae, is found in East Asia and Southeast Asia. The bioactivities of O. matsumuranus have not yet been fully understood. Here, we studied on the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-cancer effect of ethanol extract of O. matsumuranus (EEOM). METHODS: Inhibitory effect of EEOM on cell growth and proliferation was determined by WST assay in various cancer cells. To investigate the mechanisms of EEOM-mediated cytotoxicity, HepG2 cells were treated with various concentration of EEOM and analyzed the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction by flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and DNA fragmentation. RESULTS: EEOM showed the cytotoxic activities in a dose-dependent manner in various cancer cell lines but not in normal cells, and HepG2 cells were most susceptible to EEOM-induced cytotoxicity. EEOM induced G2/M arrest in HepG2 cells associated with decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), cyclin A and cylcin B, and increased expression of phospho-checkpoint kinase 2, p53 and CDK inhibitor p21. Immunofluorescence staining showed that EEOM-treated HepG2 increased doublet nuclei and condensed actin, resulting in cell rounding. Furthermore, EEOM-mediated apoptosis was determined by Annexin V staining, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. EEOM caused upregulation of FAS and Bax, activation of caspase-3, -8, -9, and fragmentation of poly ADP ribose polymerase. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that EEOM efficiently inhibits proliferation of HepG2 cells by inducing both G2/M arrest and apoptosis via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, and EEOM may be used as a cancer chemopreventive agent in the food or nutraceutical industry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Actins , Annexin A5 , Apoptosis , Asia, Southeastern , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Caspase 3 , CDC2 Protein Kinase , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line , Chromatin , Cyclin A , Dietary Supplements , DNA Fragmentation , Ethanol , Asia, Eastern , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hep G2 Cells , Oleaceae , Phosphotransferases , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Up-Regulation
11.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 132-137, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In this study, the apoptogenic activity and mechanisms of cell death induced by hexane extract of aged black garlic (HEABG) were investigated in human leukemic U937 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide) assay. Apoptosis was detected using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindile (DAPI) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. RESULTS: Exposure to HEABG was found to result in a concentration- and time-dependent growth inhibition by induction of apoptosis, which was associated with an up-regulation of death receptor 4 and Fas legend, and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. Apoptosis-inducing concentrations of HEABG induced the activation of caspase-9, an initiator caspase of the mitochodrial mediated intrinsic pathway, and caspase-3, accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. HEABG also induced apoptosis via a death receptor mediated extrinsic pathway by caspase-8 activation, resulting in the truncation of Bid, and suggesting the existence of cross-talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, pre-treatment of U937 cells with the caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DEVD-fmk, significantly blocked the HEABG-induced apoptosis of these cells, and increased the survival rate of HEABG-treated cells, confirming that HEABG-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase cascade. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the overall results, we suggest that HEABG reduces leukemic cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, implying its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of leukemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Flow Cytometry , Garlic , Leukemia , Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand , Survival Rate , U937 Cells , Up-Regulation
12.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 509-515, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The root of Vitis amurensis Ruprecht, a sort of wild-growing grape, has been used in oriental medicine for treatment of skin ailments; however, its dermatological activity is not sufficiently understood. The aim of this study was to investigate tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-melanogenic activities of V. amurensis Ruprecht root methanol extract (VARM) in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and to attempt to isolate and identify the active compound issued from VARM. MATERIALS/METHODS: Anti-melanogenic activity of VARM was analyzed in alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)-stimulated B16F10 cells through evaluation of antioxidative activity as well as inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanin contents compared with those of kojic acid and arbutin. After anti-melanogenic analysis of VARM, serial fractionation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and thin layer chromatorgraphy (TLC) were applied for identification of active compounds contained in VARM. RESULTS: VARM significantly inhibited oxidative stress and tyrosinase activity and attenuated alpha-MSH-induced melanin production in B16F10 cells. For isolation of active compounds, VARM was fractionated using a series of organic solvents, including dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol (n-BuOH). Among fractions showing anti-melanogenic activity, the CH2Cl2 fraction induced the most potent attenuation of melanogenesis without cytotoxicity and the major compound in the CH2Cl2 fraction was identified as betulinic acid. Betulinic acid isolated from the CH2Cl2 fraction of VARM significantly attenuated alpha-MSH-induced melanogenesis in a dose dependent manner, which was stronger than that of arbutin used as a positive control. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that VARM inhibits oxidative stress, tyrosinase activity, and alpha-MSH-induced melanogenesis in B16F10 cells, due primarily to the active compound, betulinic acid, in the CH2Cl2 fraction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , 1-Butanol , Arbutin , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Melanins , Melanoma , Methanol , Methylene Chloride , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Oxidative Stress , Skin , Solvents , Vitis
13.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 182-185, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135309

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In Korea, anal cancer is rare disease entity with specific clinical characteristics. Therefore, no survival analysis with a sufficient patient population has been performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of Korean anal cancer, focusing on the survival according to tumor histologies, sex, and a specific age group, using the nationwide cancer registry. METHODS: Using the Korea Central Cancer Registry, we analyzed a total of 2,552 cases from 1993 to 2010. We assessed the 5-year relative survival by using tumor histology. In addition, survival differences of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) stage were analyzed for both sexes and for young-age cancer (younger than 40 years) and advanced-age cancer (older than 70 years). RESULTS: The 5-year relative survival among anal cancer patients increased from 38.9% for the period 1993-1995 to 65.6% for the period 2006-2010. The anal squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histology and showed better survival than other types of cancer. Females demonstrated better survival than males in all SEER stages. The 5-year survivals for patients in whom anal cancer developed before the age of 40 and at or after the age of 40 were 62.4% and 51.6%, respectively. The 5-year survival for patients in whom cancer developed at or after the age of 70 was much worse than that for patients in whom the cancer had developed prior to that age. CONCLUSION: Korean anal cancer has certain distinctive characteristics of survival according to tumor histology, sex, and age. Despite limitations on available data, this study used the nationwide database to provide important information on the survival of Korean patients with anal cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Anus Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Korea , Rare Diseases
14.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 182-185, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135308

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In Korea, anal cancer is rare disease entity with specific clinical characteristics. Therefore, no survival analysis with a sufficient patient population has been performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of Korean anal cancer, focusing on the survival according to tumor histologies, sex, and a specific age group, using the nationwide cancer registry. METHODS: Using the Korea Central Cancer Registry, we analyzed a total of 2,552 cases from 1993 to 2010. We assessed the 5-year relative survival by using tumor histology. In addition, survival differences of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) stage were analyzed for both sexes and for young-age cancer (younger than 40 years) and advanced-age cancer (older than 70 years). RESULTS: The 5-year relative survival among anal cancer patients increased from 38.9% for the period 1993-1995 to 65.6% for the period 2006-2010. The anal squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histology and showed better survival than other types of cancer. Females demonstrated better survival than males in all SEER stages. The 5-year survivals for patients in whom anal cancer developed before the age of 40 and at or after the age of 40 were 62.4% and 51.6%, respectively. The 5-year survival for patients in whom cancer developed at or after the age of 70 was much worse than that for patients in whom the cancer had developed prior to that age. CONCLUSION: Korean anal cancer has certain distinctive characteristics of survival according to tumor histology, sex, and age. Despite limitations on available data, this study used the nationwide database to provide important information on the survival of Korean patients with anal cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Anus Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Korea , Rare Diseases
15.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 144-149, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106511

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The incidence rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Korea have been increasing during the past decade. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics, including survival, of Korean CRC patients. The aim of this study was to use the nationwide cancer registry to evaluate the characteristics of Korean CRC, focusing on the survival, according to tumor location, sex, and specific age groups. METHODS: Using the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR), we analyzed a total of 226,352 CRC cases diagnosed from 1993 to 2010. The five-year relative survivals were compared for the proximal colon, the distal colon, and the rectum. Survival rates were compared between men and women and between patients of young age (less than 40 years old) and patients of advanced age (70 years old or older). RESULTS: The 5-year survival rates were improved in all subsites between 1993 and 2010. Distal colon cancer showed favorable survival compared to proximal colon or rectal cancer. Females demonstrated worse survival for local or regional cancers, and this difference was significant in for patients in their seventies. Young patients ( or =40 years old), but advanced age patients (> or =70 years old) had worse survivals for all tumor subsites compared to their younger counterparts (<70 years old). These trends were similar in distant CRC. CONCLUSION: Korean CRC has certain distinct characteristics of survival according to tumor location, sex, and age. Despite the limitations of available data, this study contributes to a better understanding of survival differences in Korean CRC.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Incidence , Korea , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectum , Survival Rate
16.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 732-738, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106411

ABSTRACT

It has been shown that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-induced neuronal differentiation is extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent. However, an involvement of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK), an upstream kinase of ERK, has not been directly demonstrated in this process. Therefore, we investigated whether the MEK1 plays a critical role in the NCAM-induced neuronal differentiation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells (NPCs). NPCs were transiently transfected with expression plasmids encoding activated or dominant negative (DN) forms of MEK1. The expression of DN MEK1 inhibited neuronal phenotype acquisition and soluble NCAM rescued the defect in the neuronal phenotype acquisition in DN-MEK1-transfected cells, suggesting that NCAM might contribute to the neuronal differentiation via distinct, parallel pathways including the MEK pathway. In cells expressing wild type MEK1 or constitutively active MEK1 on the other hand, the percentage of cells positive for beta-tubulin type III (Tuj1), a marker for early postmitotic neurons, was higher than seen in vector-transfected cells. These results suggest that the activation of MEK1 is required for obtaining neuronal phenotype in NPCs.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Transfection , Stem Cells/cytology , Solubility , Phenotype , Neurons/cytology , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/pharmacology , Mutation/genetics , MAP Kinase Kinase 1/genetics , Hippocampus/cytology , Gene Expression Regulation , Cells, Cultured , Cell Differentiation
17.
Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery ; : 47-52, 1998.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222812

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Surgically treated thirty-five Denis type B thoracolumbar and lumbar burst fractures were assessed to compare the differences of fracture patterns by the level of fracture. OBJECTIVE: To know the major surgical indications according to the level of fracture. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: General operative indications of thoracolumbar and lumbar burst fractures were collapse of anterior body height more than 40-50%, kyphotic deformity more than 30 degrees, canal encroachment more than 50% and neurologic deficit. But we could not apply the same surgical indications to the whole thoraco]embar and lumbar burst fractures because their fracture patterns are different. METHODS: We compared the collapse of anterior body height, collapse of posterior body height, Cobb angle, wedge angle, canal encroachment and incidence of posterior injury according to the level of fracture. RESULTS: The higher the level of fracture, the more the collapse of anterior body height, Cobb angle, wedge angle and incidence of posterior injury But the lower the level of fracture, the more the canal encroachment. CONCLUSIONS: These results mean that the primary surgical indications for thoracolumbar junction are collapse of anterior body height, possibility of posterior injury and increased kyphosis, while for the lower lumbar fractures, amount of canal encroachment is an important factor to make decision for surgery.


Subject(s)
Body Height , Congenital Abnormalities , Incidence , Kyphosis , Neurologic Manifestations
18.
Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery ; : 223-231, 1997.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201505

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-fiye thoracolumbar and lumbar burst fractures treated with pedicle screw instrumentation were assessed on loss reduction. OBJECTIVE: To compare the mechanical results of simple posterior fixation and posterior fixation with anterior augmentation by anterior interbody fusion, disc space fusion or longer construct. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Althrough the pedicle screw instrumentation provides good mechanical stability, two segment fixation without anterior column augmentation may not be adequate to withstand the repeated axial load. METHODS: Fifteen patients were treated with two segment fixation alone(Group 1), seven with anterior interbody fusion(Group 2), another seven with disc space fusion(Group 3) and remaining six with longer construct involving two segments abode the fracture(Croup 4). Change of anterior body height, upper disc height, lower disc height, kyphotic angle, inter-screw angle and gross screw bend- ing were measured using post-operative and follow-up lateral radiographs. RESULTS: Comparing the two groups(Croup 1 Ys. Group 2, 3, 4), the Group 1 showed definitely more loss of reduction than those groups which had anterior augmentation. But, loss of anterior body height was not significantly different. Comparing the four groups, loss at upper and lower disc height was significantly greater in the Group 1 than the Group 2. Change of kyphotic angle was significantly higher in the Group 1 than the Group 4 and change of inter-screw angle was also higher in the group 1 than every other group. Seyen patients in the Group 1 showed gross screw bending, but none in the Group 2, 3 and 4. All the seven patients with screw bending showed loss of inter-screw angle more than 5 . CONCLUSIONS: These results mean that anterior column augmentation is necessary for the treatment of thoraco-lumbar burst fracture. All the three methods(Group 2,3,4) are effective to prevent excessive loss of correction and screw bending. The best method should be selected considering the characters of each fracture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Height , Follow-Up Studies
19.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 932-936, 1993.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-656305

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cadmium Poisoning , Cadmium , Olfactory Bulb
20.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 937-942, 1993.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-654047

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Neck
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