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1.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 26(4): 483-486, jul. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129076

ABSTRACT

Los Errores Innatos del Metabolismo (EIM) son un grupo de condiciones caracterizadas por el acúmulo de sustancias tóxicas producido habitualmente por un defecto enzimático. Su relevancia dentro del grupo de las Enfermedades Raras, es que son consideradas hoy un conjunto de patologías tratables, ya que han sido particularmente beneficiadas por leyes de drogas huérfanas, permitiendo el acceso a terapias seguras y eficaces en tratar sus síntomas y la causa que las produce. Su diagnóstico se debe sospechar clínicamente ante ciertos patrones de síntomas y signos, y con un laboratorio sencillo disponible en todos los hospitales y clínicas de Chile, se puede acceder fácilmente a una aproximación inicial, confirmada por estudios realizados en centros de referencia. Su tratamiento debe ser instaurado oportunamente para evitar el desarrollo de secuelas irreparables. La existencia de Programas de Pesquisa Neonatal es la aproximación diagnóstica ideal para llegar precozmente al diagnóstico de estas condiciones.


Inborn Errors of Metabolism are a group of conditions characterized by the accumulation of toxic substances commonly produced by an enzymatic defect. Its relevance within the group of rare diseases is that they are considered today a set of treatable pathologies, as they have been particularly benefit from orphan drug laws, allowing access to safe and effective therapies to treat their symptoms. Its diagnosis should be suspected clinically to certain patterns of symptoms and signs, and with a simple laboratory available in all Hospitals and Clinics Chile can easily earn an initial approximation, to be confirmed by studies in reference centers. The treatment should be started promptly to prevent the development of irreversible sequelae. The existence of Newborn Screening Programs is ideal for reaching early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnosis , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential
2.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 26(4): 527-532, jul. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129094

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades raras se definen por su reducida frecuencia en la población, lo que supone numerosas consecuencias adversas, tanto a nivel médico como social. Estas patologías, al ser poco conocidas, tienen un diagnóstico tardío y no cuentan con tratamientos específicos para muchas de ellas. Se caracterizan por ser enfermedades crónicas, degenerativas, invalidantes con calidad de vida disminuida, pérdida de autonomía, alto nivel de dolor y sufrimiento de la persona y su familia, y generalmente ponen en riesgo la vida. Aquellas que tienen un tratamiento específico son de tan alto costo que no pueden ser financiadas por el paciente sin el aporte estatal. Esta situación implica desde el punto de vista ético la necesidad de considerar el principio de Beneficencia y de Justicia Social en las decisiones que se adopten.


Rare diseases are defined by the reduced frequency in the population, leading to numerous adverse consequences, both at medical and social level. These pathologies, being little known, the diagnose is late or non-existent and there are no specific treatments for many of them. They are characterized by debilitating, degenerative, chronic diseases with decreased quality of life, loss of autonomy, high level of pain and suffering of the person and his family, and usually life threatening. Those with specific treatment are so costly that they can not be financed by the patient without the state contribution. This situation results from the ethical point of view the need to consider the principle of Beneficence and Social Justice in the decisions taken.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cost of Illness , Health Equity , Rare Diseases/economics , Quality of Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Quality of Health Care/ethics , Social Justice , Bioethics , Health Care Rationing/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Conflict of Interest , Beneficence , Biomedical Research/ethics , Health Services Accessibility
3.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 41(3): 304-311, set. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-728339

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is caused by a defect of the ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex of the branched amino acids Valine, Isoleucine and Leucine (VIL). The treatment consists of a leucine-restricted diet. Objective: To evaluate the long-term follow-up in children with MSUD. Methodology: 29 records were reviewed of patients with MSUD, of which 24 were clinically identified (> 5th day of life), 4 cases by MSUD family history and one by neonatal screening (< 5th day of life). Leucine (Leu) levels were measured at diagnosis (Biotronic 2000) and during follow-up (mass spectrometry). The number of decompensation events, Total Intellectual Quotient (TIQ, Bayley and Wechsler scale) and nutritional status were also measured. STATA statistical software version 9.2 was applied (p≤0.05). Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 14 days old. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of Leu and alloisoleucin. When comparing the TIQ of 19 cases over 3 years old with their age at diagnosis, it was observed that those cases screened by the 5th day of life had a TIQ 84.6 ± 13, while those diagnosed later had a TIQ 73 ± 17 (p≤0.05). In assessing the number of hospitalizations that occurred during follow-up, we determined that the 5 cases screened early never had a metabolic crisis and had a higher TIQ than those who had had one or more decompensation (92 and 74, respectively, p≤0.05). An inverse correlation was observed between the Leu+Isoleucine value and TIQ. Conclusion: The diagnosis before the 5th day of life and a good metabolic control during follow-up, enables children with MSUD to have normal cognitive development.


La enfermedad de la orina olor a jarabe de arce (EOJA) se produce por un defecto del complejo enzimático deshidrogenasa de los cetoácidos de los aminoácidos ramificados: Valina, Isoleucina, Leucina (VIL). El tratamiento es una dieta restringida en leucina (Leu). Objetivo: evaluar el seguimiento a largo plazo en niños con EOJA. Metodología: Se revisaron 29 fichas de pacientes EOJA, 24 fueron pesquisados por clínica (> 5to día de vida) y 4 casos por antecedentes familiares con EOJA y 1 por pesquisa neonatal (< 5to día de vida). Se midió nivel de Leu al diagnóstico (Biotronic 2000) y durante el seguimiento (Espectrometría de masa), número de descompensaciones, Coeficiente Intelectual Total (CIT) (Escalas de Bayley y Wechsler) y estado nutricional. Se aplicó programa estadístico STATA versión 9.2 (p≤0.05). Resultados: La edad de diagnóstico fue a los 14 días de edad. En todos se confirmó el diagnóstico por los niveles elevados de Leu y presencia de alloisoleucina. Al comparar el CIT de los 19 casos mayores de 3 años con la edad de diagnóstico, se observó que aquellos casos pesquisados antes del 5to día tenían un CIT de 84,6±13, a diferencia de los diagnosticados posteriormente que tenían un CIT=73±17 (p≤0.05). Al evaluar el número de descompensaciones ocurridas durante el seguimiento, se determinó que los 5 casos nunca habían tenido una crisis metabólica, tuvieron un CI mayor que aquellos que habían tenido una o más descompensaciones (92 y 74 respectivamente) (p≤0.05). Cuando se correlacionó el valor de Leu+Iso de seguimiento con el CIT, se observó una correlación inversamente proporcional. Conclusión: el diagnóstico antes de los 5to día de vida y un buen control metabólico durante el seguimiento, permite que los niños con EOJA tengan un desarrollo cognitivo normal.


Subject(s)
Child , Child , Intelligence , Leucine , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Child Development
4.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 50(3): 191-201, set. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-656336

ABSTRACT

Fabry's disease is an X-linked recessive inborn error of metabolism of glycosphingolipids, caused by the deficiency of the lisosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase. It is a rare disease with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 1:80.000 to 1:117,000 births in the general population. Recently, the growing knowledge about this disease has permitted the development of enzyme replacement therapy, which has modified the prognosis and quality of life of these patients. In Chile, the real incidence is unknown, but the increase in the number of patients diagnosed during the last five years, mainly in the north of the country. This guide was prepared with the intention of establishing a consensus for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of the patients with Fabry disease based on the present available scientific evidence.


La enfermedad de Fabry es un error innato del catabolismo de los glucoesfingolipidos, de herencia recesiva ligada al cromosoma X, causado por la deficiencia de la enzima lisosomal alfa-galactosidasa A (alfa-gal A). Es un defecto poco frecuente, con una incidencia estimada de 1:80.000 a 1:117.000, entre la población general. Recientemente, el creciente conocimiento acerca de esta enfermedad, ha permitido el desarrollo de la terapia de reemplazo enzimático, la cual ha modificado el pronóstico y calidad de vida de los pacientes. En Chile, se desconoce la incidencia real, pero el aumento del número de pacientes diagnosticados durante los últimos cinco años, principalmente en la zona norte del país, ha generado un mayor interés por esta enfermedad. Esta guía fue elaborada con la intención de establecer un consenso para el diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento de los pacientes con enfermedad de Fabry, basado en la evidencia científica, actualmente disponible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fabry Disease/diagnosis , Fabry Disease/therapy , Chile , Consensus , Diagnosis, Differential , Enzyme Replacement Therapy , Fabry Disease/complications , Genetic Counseling , Isoenzymes/administration & dosage , alpha-Galactosidase/administration & dosage
5.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 34(3): 220-227, sept. 2007. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-515293

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Academia Americana de Pediatría (AAP) ha clasificado la Fenilquetonuria (PKU) e Hiperfenilalaninemia (HFA) según la tolerancia de la ingesta de fenilalanina (FA) en: PKU clásica: 20 mg FA/kg/día, PKU moderada: 21 y 25 mg FA/kg/día y PKU leve: 25 y 50 mg FA/kg/día, e HFA benigna con dieta normal, manteniendo un nivel plasmático de FA entre 2,0 y 10,0 mg/dl. Objetivo: Evaluar la evolución clínica de 67 niños con valores de FA plasmática entre 2.1 y 6.0 mg/dL en el período neonatal. Resultados: Del total, 29 niños tenía entre 0 y 2 años, 23 entre 2 y 4 años y 15 niños eran mayores de 4 años de edad. El estado nutricional de 45 niños era normal, 14 niños estaban con sobrepeso u obesidad, y 8 casos tenían riesgo nutricional. Se determinó que 4 niños tenían una ingesta menor de 20 mg FA/kg/día, dos niños entre 21 y 25 mg FA/kg/día, 15 casos entre los 26 a 50 mg FA/kg/día y 46 niños estaban con dieta normal. Conclusión: Los recién nacidos con niveles de FA entre 2.1 y 6.0 mg/dl durante el período neonatal, tienen una evolución clínica y nutricional diferente, que puede ir desde una PKU clásica a una HFA benigna, por lo cual se recomienda mantener un control frecuente de FA sanguínea y una vigilancia nutricional, con un mínimo de 2 años de seguimiento.


Introduction: The American Academy of Pediatric (AAP) has classified Phenylketonuria (PKU) and Hyperphenylalaninaemias (HPhe) according to tolerance of phenylalanine (Phe) intake in: Classic PKU (20 mg Phe/kg/day), moderate PKU (between 21 and 25 mg Phe/kg/day) and mild PKU (between 25 and 50 mg Phe/kg/day), and benign HPhe with normal diet, maintaining blood Phe levels between 2,0 and 10,0 mg/dL. Objective: To evaluate the clinical evolution of 67 children with blood Phe values between 2,1 and 6.0 mg/dl in the neonatal period. Results: Of the total, 29 children were aged between 0 and 2 years, 23 between 2 and 4 years and 15 children were older than 4 years of age. The nutritional state of 45 children was normal, 14 children were overweight or obese, and 8 were at nutritional risk. Four children had Phe intake below 20 mg/kg/day, two children between 21 and 25 mg/kg/day; 15 cases between 26 to 50 mg/kg/day and 46 children were on normal diet. Conclusion: Newborns with blood Phe levels between 2,1 and 6,0 mg/dl in the neonatal period, had a different clinical and nutritional evolution, which could go from the classic PKU to a benign HPhe. Thus, it is recommended to keep a frequent control of plasmatic Phe levels and nutritional monitoring for a minimum of 2 years of follow up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Phenylalanine/blood , Phenylketonurias/metabolism , Phenylketonurias/blood , Body Mass Index , Chile , Clinical Evolution , Follow-Up Studies , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/deficiency , Phenylalanine/administration & dosage , Phenylketonurias/diet therapy , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 135(5): 631-635, mayo 2007. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-456680

ABSTRACT

The glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1 SD) (OMIM 606777) is an inborn error of metabolism of brain glucose transport. The characteristic clinical manifestations are seizures, hypotonia, developmental delay, microcephaly and hypoglycorrhachia. We report a girl with normal weight and height at birth. At 6 weeks of age she started with convulsions reaching up to 20 myoclonic seizures a day. She was treated with valproate, phenobarbital and carbamazepine without response. Blood analysis including aminoacids and acylcarnitines were all normal. The brain MRI showed frontal atrophy with an increased subarachnoidal space and Electroencephalography was abnormal. Blood glucose was 84 mg/dl and spinal fluid glucose 26 mg/dl with a ratio of 0.31 (Normal Ratio >0.65+00.1). These results suggested the diagnosis of GLUT-1 SD, and was confirmed with erythrocyte glucose uptake of 44 percent (Normal range 80-100 percent). A molecular study found the mutation 969del, C971T in exon 6 of the gene Glut-1. Treatment with a ketogenic diet was started immediately and after 7 days with this diet seizures ceased. Anticonvulsants were progressively suspended. At present, the patient is 6 years old, she continues on a ketogenic diet and supplements with L-carnitine, lipoic acid, vitamins and minerals. Growth and development are normal with an intelligence quotient of 103. It is concluded that it is necessary to include GLUT-1 SD in the differential diagnosis of children with early seizures that are non responsive to pharmacological treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diet therapy , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Glucose Transporter Type 1/deficiency , Ketones/metabolism , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors/blood , Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Carnitine/therapeutic use , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Syndrome , Seizures/diet therapy , Seizures/drug therapy
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