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1.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(2): 168-174, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375773

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To analyze late-onset sepsis and to describe the etiological agents in newborns with gastroschisis. Methods: A retrospective cohort, including newborns with gastroschisis whose admissions occurred in the period between January 2012 to December 2018 in a tertiary referral center. Maternal and newborn characteristics, surgical procedures and evolution in hospitalization were verified. A bivariate analysis was performed with patients with proven late-onset neonatal sepsis and according to the simple or complex gastroschisis category, the prevalent microorganisms in positive cultures were identified, statistical tests were carried out and the significance level adopted was p < 0,05. Results are presented in proportions, averages and standard deviation or medians. The level of significance adopted was p < 0.05. Results: 101 newborns were analyzed, 45 (44.5%) were confirmed late-onset sepsis. The median birth weight was 2285+498 grams, and the gestational age was 35.9 +1.74weeks. The incidence of complex gastroschisis was 17.8%, the hospitalization time was 48.2+29.67 days and mortality was 9.9%. The newborns were divided into 2 groups: Group 1: late-onset sepsis (44.6%), and Group 2: no late-onset sepsis. The presence of complex gastroschisis was a factor associated with infection (p < 0.009). Fasting time (p < 0.001), parenteral nutrition time (p < 0.001), time to achieve full diet (p < 0.001), and hospitalization stay (p < 0.001) were higher in group 2. Gram-positive were the most frequent (51.1%), followed by Gram-negative (20%), and fungi (4.4%). Conclusions: Newborns with gastroschisis have a higher risk of evolving with late-onset sepsis, despite this study did not calculate the risk of sepsis statistically, and the main germs detected by cultures were gram-positive bacteria, specifically Staphylococcus epidermidis.

2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 954-964, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350020

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A pandemia da COVID-19 representa uma enorme carga para o sistema de saúde do mundo. Apesar de pacientes pediátricos terem sido relativamente poupados em comparação a adultos, estudos recentes mostraram um número crescente de pacientes críticos com Síndrome Inflamatória Multisistêmica Pediátrica (SIM-P) com disfunção cardiovascular importante. No entanto, pouco se conhece a respeito da relação entre anormalidades cardíacas e biomarcadores inflamatórios e de coagulação. Objetivos Investigar anormalidades ecocardiográficas em pacientes pediátricos com COVID-19 admitidos em um hospital terciário. Métodos Este foi um estudo longitudinal retrospectivo, baseado na revisão de prontuários médicos e ecocardiogramas de pacientes (0-19 anos) admitidos em um hospital terciário entre 30 de março e 30 de junho de 2020. Para a análise estatística, o nível de significância foi estabelecido em 5% (p<0,05). Resultados Foram incluídos 48 pacientes, 73% com doenças pré-existentes, 20 (41,7%) com SIM-P. A idade mediana foi 7,5 (0-18,6) anos; 27 (56,2%) eram do sexo masculino. A duração mediana de internação foi 15,4 (2-92) dias e sete (14,6%) pacientes morreram. Um total de 70 ecocardiografias foram realizadas, 66,7% submeteram-se ao exame somente uma vez, e 33,3% várias vezes. Vinte e três (48%) pacientes apresentaram anormalidades no ecocardiograma: oito (16.6%) disfunção sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo, seis (12.5%) disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direito, e 12 (25%) dilatação da artéria coronária (Z-score>+2,5). Anormalidades ecocardiográficas foram significativamente associadas com SIM-P, admissão na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica, suporte ventilatório/vasoativo, e morte ( p <0,05). Níveis significativamente mais altos de d-dímero (ng/mL) foram detectados em pacientes com disfunção ventricular esquerda [16733(4157-115668) vs. 2406.5(190-95040)], disfunção ventricular direita [25769(3422-115668) vs. 2803.5(190-95040)] e dilatação da artéria coronária [9652.5(921-115668) vs. 2724(190- 95040)] (p<0,05). Conclusão Anormalidades ecocardiográficas eram frequentes nos pacientes pediátricos com COVID-19 e associadas com piores desfechos clínicos. Exacerbação das vias de inflamação e coagulação pode exercer um importante papel na lesão cardiovascular nesses pacientes.


Abstract Background COVID-19 pandemic represents a huge burden to the health system in the world. Although pediatric COVID-19 patients have been relatively spared compared with adults, recent reports showed an increasing number of critically ill patients with multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-c), with marked cardiovascular impairment. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between cardiac abnormalities and inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers. Objectives to investigate echocardiographic abnormalities in pediatric patients with COVID-19 admitted to tertiary hospital. Methods this was a retrospective longitudinal study, based on the review of medical records and echocardiograms of patients (0-19 years) admitted to a tertiary hospital between March 30 and June 30, 2020. For statistical analysis, the significance level was set at 5% (p < 0.05). Results Forty-eight patients were enrolled, 73% with preexisting diseases, 20 (41.7%) with MIS-c. Median age was 7.5 (0-18.6) years; 27 (56.2%) were male. Median duration of hospitalization was 15.4 (2-92) days and seven (14.6%) patients died. A total of 70 echocardiograms were performed; 66.7% patients were scanned only once and 33.3% multiple times. Twenty-three (48%) patients showed echocardiographic abnormalities: eight (16.6%) left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction, six (12.5%) right ventricle (RV) systolic dysfunction and 12 (25%) coronary dilatation (Z-score>+2.5). Echocardiographic abnormalities were significantly associated with MIS-c, admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, multiple organ dysfunction, ventilatory/vasoactive support, and death (p<0.05). Significantly higher d-dimer (ng/mL) levels were detected in patients with LV dysfunction [16733(4157-115668) vs. 2406.5(190-95040)], RV dysfunction [25769(3422-115668) vs. 2803.5(190-95040)] and coronary artery dilation [9652.5(921-115668) vs. 2724(190- 95040)] (p<0.05). Conclusion Echocardiographic abnormalities in COVID-19 pediatric patients were frequent and associated with worse clinical outcomes. Exacerbation of the inflammation and coagulation pathways may play an important role in cardiovascular injury in those patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Echocardiography , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 544-548, out.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357198

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto no número de casos de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea e as taxas de sobrevivência nos anos seguintes à pandemia de H1N1 de 2009. Métodos: Avaliaram-se dois períodos distintos de utilização de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea como suporte para insuficiência respiratória em crianças, por meio da análise de conjuntos de dados da Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. Foram construídos modelos autorregressivos integrados de médias móveis para estimar os efeitos da pandemia. O ano de 2009 foi o ano de intervenção (epidemia de H1N1) em um modelo de séries temporais interrompidas. Os dados colhidos entre 2001 e 2010 foram considerados pré-intervenção e os obtidos entre 2010 e 2017 como pós-intervenção. Resultados: Em comparação com o período entre 2001 e 2010, o período entre 2010 e 2017 mostrou aumento das taxas de sobrevivência (p < 0,0001), com melhora significante da sobrevivência quando se realizou oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea nos casos de insuficiência aguda por pneumonia viral. Antes do ponto de nível de efeito (2009), o modelo autorregressivo integrado de médias móveis mostrou aumento de 23 casos de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea ao ano. Em termos de sobrevivência, a curva mostra que não houve aumento significante das taxas de sobrevivência antes de 2009 (p = 0,41), porém o nível de efeito foi próximo à significância após 2 anos (p = 0,05), com aumento de 6% na sobrevivência. Em 4 anos, ocorreu aumento de 8% (p = 0,03) na sobrevivência, e, 6 anos após 2009, a sobrevivência mostrou aumento de até 10% (p = 0,026). Conclusão: Nos anos após 2009, ocorreu significante e progressivo aumento global das taxas de sobrevivência com oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea para todos os casos, principalmente em razão de melhoras tecnológicas e dos protocolos de tratamento para insuficiência respiratória aguda relacionada à pneumonia viral e a outras condições respiratórias.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate whether there was any impact on the number of pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs and survival rates in the years subsequent to the 2009 pandemic. Methods: We studied two different periods of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for respiratory failure in children by analyzing datasets from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. Autoregressive integrated moving average models were constructed to estimate the effect of the pandemic. The year 2009 was the year of intervention (the H1N1 epidemic) in an interrupted time series model. Data collected from 2001 - 2010 were considered preintervention, and data collected from 2010 - 2017 were considered postintervention. Results: There was an increase in survival rates in the period 2010 - 2017 compared to 2001 - 2010 (p < 0.0001), with a significant improvement in survival when extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was performed for acute respiratory failure due to viral pneumonia. The autoregressive integrated moving average model shows an increase of 23 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs per year, prior to the point of the level effect (2009). In terms of survival, the preslope shows that there was no significant increase in survival rates before 2009 (p = 0.41), but the level effect was nearly significant after two years (p = 0.05), with a 6% increase in survival. In four years, there was an 8% (p = 0.03) increase in survival, and six years after 2009, there was up to a 10% (p = 0.026) increase in survival. Conclusion: In the years following 2009, there was a significant, global incremental increase in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survival rates for all runs, mainly due to improvements in the technology and treatment protocols for acute respiratory failure related to viral pneumonia and other respiratory conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics
7.
Radiol. bras ; 53(6): 401-404, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136113

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the current pandemic, caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, ultrasound has played a fundamental role in patients who develop the resulting disease, designated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study we present ultrasound images of the lungs of neonates with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, distinguishing between the changes related to COVID-19 and those unrelated to the disease. Ultrasound examinations were performed by a pediatric sonographer. A total of 27 neonates were evaluated. Among those who presented no respiratory symptoms, some tested negative for COVID-19 and others tested positive. All of those who were pulmonary symptomatic, negative for COVID-19 presented transient tachypnea of the newborn and respiratory distress syndrome. Lung ultrasound images obtained in COVID-19-negative neonates showed, in some cases, a normal pattern (with A lines, few B lines, a thin, linear pleural line, and no pleural effusion), whereas in others showed coalescent B lines and areas of opacity. In two of the COVID-19-positive neonates, lung ultrasound examination showed several coalescent B lines, pleural thickening, and areas of opacity. Lung ultrasound in the neonatal period appears to be applicable within the context of the current pandemic, allowing efficient evaluation of COVID-19-related changes in neonates, as well as of pathologies inherent to the neonatal period.


Resumo Na pandemia atual causada pelo SARS-CoV-19, a ultrassonografia (US) tem apresentado papel fundamental nos pacientes com COVID-19. Neste trabalho são mostradas imagens ultrassonográficas de recém-nascidos (RNs) suspeitos ou positivos para COVID-19 e alterações pulmonares não relacionadas a essa doença. As imagens ultrassonográficas foram obtidas por médico especialista em US pediátrica. Foram avaliados 27 RNs, sendo incluídos RNs assintomáticos da parte respiratória, COVID negativos e positivos, e RNs sintomáticos para a parte respiratória, COVID-negativos, observados na taquipneia transitória do recém-nascido ou na síndrome do desconforto respiratório. As imagens ultrassonográficas dos RNs negativos para COVID-19 mostraram tanto o padrão normal (presença de linhas A, poucas linhas B, linha pleural fina e linear, ausência de efusão pleural) quanto a presença de linhas B coalescentes e áreas de condensação pulmonar. Destaca-se a presença de dois RNs COVID-19 positivos apresentando múltiplas linhas B coalescentes, espessamento pleural e com áreas de condensação. Com este trabalho, os autores procuram demonstrar a aplicabilidade da US pulmonar dentro do contexto da pandemia da COVID-19, incluindo as doenças inerentes ao período neonatal.

9.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 391-397, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138519

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a efetividade da vancomicina contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L em pacientes pediátricos com base na razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima > 400. Métodos: População de 22 pacientes pediátricos (13 meninos) internados no centro de terapia intensiva pediátrica, com função renal preservada, que foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G1 < 7 anos e G2 ≥ 7 anos). Após a quarta dose de vancomicina (10 - 15mg/kg a cada 6 horas), duas amostras de sangue foram colhidas (terceira e quinta horas), seguidas da dosagem sérica por imunoensaios para investigação da farmacocinética e da cobertura do antimicrobiano. Resultados: Não se registrou diferença entre os grupos com relação à dose, ao nível de vale ou ainda na área sob a curva. A cobertura contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L ocorreu em apenas 46% dos pacientes em ambos os grupos. A farmacocinética se mostrou alterada nos dois grupos diante dos valores de referência, mas a diferença entre grupos foi registrada pelo aumento da depuração total corporal e pelo encurtamento da meia-vida biológica, mais pronunciados nos pacientes mais novos. Conclusão: A dose empírica mínima de 60mg/kg ao dia deve ser prescrita ao paciente pediátrico de unidade de terapia intensiva com função renal preservada. A utilização da razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima na avaliação da cobertura da vancomicina é recomendada para se atingir o desfecho desejado, uma vez que a farmacocinética está alterada nesses pacientes, podendo impactar na efetividade do antimicrobiano.


Abstract Objective: To investigate the vancomycin effectiveness against gram-positive pathogens with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L in pediatric patients based on the area under the curve and the minimum inhibitory concentration ratio > 400. Methods: A population of 22 pediatric patients (13 boys) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with preserved renal function was stratified in two groups (G1 < 7 years and G2 ≥ 7 years). After the fourth dose administered of vancomycin (10 - 15mg/kg every 6 hours) was administered, two blood samples were collected (third and fifth hours), followed by serum measurement by immunoassays to investigate the pharmacokinetics and antimicrobial coverage. Results: There was no difference between the groups regarding dose, trough level or area under the curve. Coverage against gram-positive pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L occurred in only 46% of patients in both groups. The pharmacokinetics in both groups were altered relative to the reference values, and the groups differed in regard to increased total body clearance and shortening of the biological half-life, which were more pronounced in younger patients. Conclusion: A minimum empirical dose of 60mg/kg per day should be prescribed for pediatric patients in intensive care units with preserved renal function. The use of the ratio between the area under the curve and minimum inhibitory concentration in the evaluation of vancomycin coverage is recommended to achieve the desired outcome, since the pharmacokinetics are altered in these patients, which may impact the effectiveness of the antimicrobial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pilot Projects , Age Factors , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Half-Life
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(4): 422-431, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135054

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness and complications caused by the use of the high-flow nasal cannula in relation to the post-extubation continuous positive airway pressure system in preterm newborns. Data Sources: The searches were performed from January 2013 to December 2018 in the PubMed and Embase databases, as well as a manual search on the internet. Data Synthesis: Two reviewers independently conducted the search, and a third reviewer resolved questions that arose. Ninety-eight articles from the chosen sources were evaluated, and 66 were discarded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria (inadequate topic, age range, or design, in addition to the duplicates). Fifteen articles were read in full, and five more were discarded due to inadequacy to the topic or design. There were ten articles left for systematic review and four for meta-analysis. The study showed non-inferiority in terms of therapeutic failure of the high-flow nasal cannula in relation to continuous positive airway pressure after extubation of preterm newborns. In the meta-analysis, nasal trauma was significantly lower in patients submitted to the high-flow nasal cannula compared to those using continuous positive airway pressure (p < 0.00001). Conclusion: The high-flow nasal cannula is not inferior to continuous positive airway pressure for post-extubation respiratory support in preterm newborns with a gestational age of 32 weeks or less and greater than 28 weeks, in addition to resulting in less nasal trauma.


Resumo Objetivo: Realizar revisão sistemática e metanálise para avaliar efetividade e complicações decorrentes do uso da cânula nasal de alto fluxo em relação ao sistema de pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas no período pós-extubação em recém-nascidos prematuros. Fontes dos dados: As buscas foram feitas de janeiro de 2013 a dezembro de 2018 nas bases de dados PubMed, Embase e busca manual em arquivos da internet. Resumo dos dados: Dois revisores fizeram a busca de forma independente, um terceiro revisor ficou para dirimir dúvidas. Foram avaliados 98 artigos das fontes escolhidas, 66 descartados por não se enquadrar nos critérios de inclusão (tema, faixa etária ou desenho inadequados, além dos duplicados). Foram lidos 15 artigos na íntegra, foram descartados mais 5 por inadequação ao tema ou desenho. Restaram 10 artigos para revisão sistemática e 4 para metanálise. O estudo evidenciou não inferioridade em termos de falha terapêutica da cânula nasal de alto fluxo em relação ao sistema de pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas na pós-extubação de recém-nascidos prematuros. Na metanálise, foi significativamente menor o trauma nasal nos pacientes em cânula nasal de alto fluxo em relação ao que usaram sistema de pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas (p < 0,00001). Conclusão: A cânula nasal de alto fluxo não é inferior ao sistema de pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas para o suporte respiratório pós-extubação de recém-nascidos prematuros com idade gestacional igual a ou menor do que 32 semanas e maior do que 28 semanas, além de provocar menos trauma nasal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Airway Extubation , Cannula , Infant, Premature , Gestational Age , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(6): 824-829, June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136280

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To describe the concentration of total and specific IgG antibodies anti-Streptococcus B, anti-lipopolysaccharide of Klebsiella spp, and anti-lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas spp in the umbilical cord of newborn(NB) twins and to analyze the association between neonatal infection and antibody concentration in the umbilical cord blood. METHODS A prospective cross-sectional study of a cohort of NB twins admitted during the period of 20 months. Patients with malformations and mothers with infection were excluded. Variables analyzed: gestational age(GA); birth weight(BW); antibody concentrations in umbilical cord blood; infection episodes. We used the paired Student t-test, Spearman correlation, and generalized estimation equation. RESULTS 57 pairs of twins were included, 4 excluded, making the sample of 110 newborns. GA=36±1.65weeks and BW=2304.8±460g(mean±SD). Antibody concentrations in twins(mean±SD): total IgG=835.71±190.73mg/dL, anti-StreptococcusB IgG=250.66±295.1 AU/mL, anti-lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas spp IgG=280.04±498.66 AU/mL and anti-lipopolysaccharide of Klebsiella spp IgG=504.75±933.93 AU/mL. There was a positive correlation between maternal antibody levels and those observed in newborns(p <0.005). The transplacental transfer of maternal total IgG and anti-LPS Pseudomonas IgG antibodies was significantly lower at NB GA <34 weeks(p <0.05). Five newborns were diagnosed with an infection. Infants with infection had significantly lower total IgG concentration(p <0.05). CONCLUSION This study showed a positive correlation between maternal and newborn antibodies levels. In infants younger than 34 weeks there is less transfer of total IgG and anti-LPS Pseudomonas IgG. The highest incidence of infection in the newborn group who had significantly lower total IgG serum antibodies reinforces the importance of anti-infectious protection afforded by passive immunity transferred from the mother.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Descrever o título de anticorpos IgG total e específico anti-Streptococcus B, anti-lipopolissacarídeos(LPS) de Klebsiella e Pseudomonas no cordão umbilical em gêmeos e analisar a possível associação entre os títulos desses anticorpos e a ocorrência de infecção. MÉTODOS Estudo prospectivo transversal de uma coorte de recém-nascidos (RN) gemelares em 20 meses. Excluídos: malformação, infecção congênita ou materna. Variáveis estudadas: idade gestacional(IG); peso de nascimento(PN); título de anticorpos e episódios de infecção. Foram utilizados testes t-Student pareado, correlação de Spearman e equações de estimação generalizadas. RESULTADOS Elegíveis 59 pares de gêmeos, excluídos 4 e incluídos 55 pares (n=110RN). A IG foi 36±1,65semanas e o PN foi 2304,8±460g (média±DP). Concentrações de anticorpos dos RN(média±DP): IgG total=835,71±190,73 mg/dL, IgG anti-Streptococcus B=295,1±250,66 UA/mL, IgG anti-LPS Pseudomonas=280,04±498,66 UA/mL e IgG anti-LPS Klebsiella=504,75± 933,93UA/mL. Houve correlação positiva entre níveis de anticorpos maternos e aqueles observados nos RN (p<0,005). A transferência transplacentária de anticorpos maternos IgG total e IgG anti-LPS Pseudomonas foi significativamente menor em RN IG < 34semanas (p<0,05). Foram diagnosticados 5 RN com infecção. Os RN que apresentaram infecção tinham concentração de IgG total significativamente menor (p<0,05). CONCLUSÕES Na população estudada existe correlação entre os anticorpos maternos e os níveis de anticorpos no RN. Nos gêmeos menores que 34 semanas há menor transferência de IgG total e IgG anti-LPS Pseudomonas. Nos RN com infecção a concentração de IgG total é significativamente menor, o que demonstra a maior vulnerabilidade e risco de infecção dessa população e a importância da imunidade passiva transferida pela placenta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Pseudomonas Infections/blood , Streptococcal Infections/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Klebsiella , Pseudomonas , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Infections
15.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 521-527, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136236

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2 infection) is a new challenge for all countries, and children are predisposed to acquire this disease. Some studies have demonstrated more severe diseases in adults, but critically ill pediatric patients have been described in all ages. Pulmonary involvement is the major feature, and ventilatory support is common in critical cases. Nevertheless, other very important therapeutic approaches must be considered. In this article, we reviewed extensively all recent medical literature to point out the main clinical attitudes to support these pediatric patients during their period in respiratory support. Radiologic findings, fluid therapy, hemodynamic support, use of inotropic/vasopressors, nutritional therapy, antiviral therapy, corticosteroids, antithrombotic therapy, and immunoglobulins are analyzed to guide all professionals during hospitalization. We emphasize the importance of a multi-professional approach for adequate recovery.


RESUMO A síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SRAG) pelo novo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) é um novo desafio para todos os países e crianças estão predispostas a adquirir a doença. Alguns estudos demonstraram quadros mais graves em adultos, mas crianças criticamente doentes foram descritas em todas as idades. O envolvimento pulmonar é a principal característica e a necessidade de suporte ventilatório é comum nos casos mais graves. Entretanto, outras abordagens terapêuticas importantes devem ser consideradas. Nesse artigo revisamos extensamente a literature médica até o momento a fim de citar os principais recursos terapêuticos para o manejo dos pacientes pediátricos durante o período de suporte ventilatório. Achados radiológicos, terapia fluídica, terapia antiviral, o uso de corticosteroides, terapia antitrombótica e o uso de imunoglobulinas foram analisados a fim de guiar os profissionais durante o período de hospitalização desses pacientes. Nós reforçamos a importância de uma abordagem multiprofissional para recuperação adequada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , General Practice/methods , Physical Therapy Modalities , Critical Illness , Coronavirus Infections , Nutrition Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Fluid Therapy/methods , Betacoronavirus , Hemodynamic Monitoring/methods
16.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 541-546, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136228

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE These recommendations aim to provide guidance on breastfeeding for mothers with suspected or confirmed Covid-19. METHODS We performed a review of the recent medical literature on breastfeeding mothers with suspected or confirmed Covid-19, focusing on the neonatal period. RESULTS We analyzed 20 recent publications on breastfeeding, Covid-19, and its transmission through breastmilk. We presented possible options for breastfeeding and their consequences for the mother and the child. CONCLUSION All maternal decisions in relation to breastfeeding are justifiable since the infection by Covid-19 is still poorly known. However, puerperal women and their families must be very well informed to make a conscious choice based on the information available in the literature so far.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Estas recomendações têm como objetivo orientar o aleitamento materno de mães com Covid-19 suspeita ou confirmada. MÉTODO Foi realizada revisão da literatura médica recente sobre aleitamento materno de mães com Covid-19 suspeita ou confirmada, focando o período neonatal. RESULTADOS Foram analisadas 20 publicações recentes sobre aleitamento materno, Covid-19 e sua transmissão pelo leite. Foram apresentadas as possíveis opções maternas em relação ao aleitamento e suas consequências para o binômio mãe-filho. CONCLUSÃO Todas as opções maternas em relação à amamentação são justificáveis, porque a infecção por Covid-19 ainda é pouco conhecida. Porém, as puérperas e seus familiares devem ser muito bem orientados, realizando uma opção consciente e baseada nas informações disponíveis na literatura até o momento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Breast Feeding/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Breast Milk Expression , Betacoronavirus , Mothers/psychology
17.
Clinics ; 75: e1932, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133356

ABSTRACT

This article presents expert recommendations for assisting newborn children of mothers with suspected or diagnosed coronavirus disease 2019 </mac_aq>(COVID-19). The consensus was developed by five experts with an average of 20 years of experience in neonatal intensive care working at a reference university hospital in Brazil for the care of pregnant women and newborns with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Despite the lack of scientific evidence regarding the potential for viral transmission to their fetus in pregnant mothers diagnosed with or suspected of COVID-19, it is important to elaborate the lines of care by specialists from hospitals caring for suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases to guide multidisciplinary teams and families diagnosed with the disease or involved in the care of pregnant women and newborns in this context. Multidisciplinary teams must be attentive to the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 so that decision-making is oriented and assertive for the management of the mother and newborn in both the hospital setting and at hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Patient Isolation , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Expert Testimony , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
18.
Clinics ; 75: e1894, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101090

ABSTRACT

This review aims to verify the main epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory-related, and therapeutic aspects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in critically ill pediatric patients. An extensive review of the medical literature on COVID-19 was performed, mainly focusing on the critical care of pediatric patients, considering expert opinions and recent reports related to this new disease. Experts from a large Brazilian public university analyzed all recently published material to produce a report aiming to standardize the care of critically ill children and adolescents. The report emphasizes on the clinical presentations of the disease and ventilatory support in pediatric patients with COVID-19. It establishes a flowchart to guide health practitioners on triaging critical cases. COVID-19 is essentially an unknown clinical condition for the majority of pediatric intensive care professionals. Guidelines developed by experts can help all practitioners standardize their attitudes and improve the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Critical Illness , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
19.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092153

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To report the case of a child who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from a pulmonary infection by adenovirus. Case description: A female patient aged 2 years and 6 months, weighting 10,295 grams developed fever, productive cough and vomiting, later on progressing to ARDS despite initial therapy in accordance with the institutional protocol for ARDS treatment. The child evolved to refractory hypoxemia and hypercapnia, requiring high parameters of mechanical pulmonary ventilation and use of vasoactive agents. In the treatment escalation, the patient received steroids, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), was submitted to the prone position, started oscillatory high-frequency ventilation (HFOV) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was indicated due to severe refractory hypoxemia. During this time, the patient's clinical response was favorable to HFOV, improving oxygenation index and hypercapnia, allowing the reduction of vasoactive medications and mechanical ventilation parameters, and then the indication of ECMO was suspended. The patient was discharged after 26 days of hospital stay without respiratory or neurological sequelae. Comments: Adenovirus infections occur mainly in infants and children under 5 years of age and represent 2 to 5% of respiratory diseases among pediatric patients. Although most children with adenovirus develop a mild upper respiratory tract disease, more severe cases can occur. ARDS is a serious pulmonary inflammatory process with alveolar damage and hypoxemic respiratory failure; Adenovirus pneumonia in children may manifest as severe pulmonary morbidity and respiratory failure that may require prolonged mechanical ventilation. Exclusive pulmonary recruitment and HFOV are advantageous therapeutic options.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever paciente que evoluiu com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo (SDRA) a partir de infecção pulmonar por adenovírus. Descrição do caso: Paciente de dois anos e seis meses, sexo feminino, peso de 10295 g, que apresentou com quadro de febre, tosse produtiva e vômitos, evoluindo para SDRA. Apesar da terapêutica inicial em conformidade com o protocolo institucional de tratamento da SDRA, a criança evoluiu para hipoxemia e hipercapnia refratárias, necessitando de elevados parâmetros de ventilação pulmonar mecânica e utilização de agentes vasoativos. No escalonamento da terapêutica, a paciente recebeu terapias adjuvantes, foi iniciada ventilação oscilatória de alta frequência (VOAF) e indicada oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea (OMEC) pela hipoxemia grave refratária. Nesse ínterim, a paciente apresentou resposta clínica favorável à VOAF, melhorando do quadro ventilatório e possibilitando a redução das medicações vasoativas e dos parâmetros de ventilação mecânica. A paciente recebeu alta hospitalar após 26 dias de internação, sem sequelas respiratórias ou neurológicas. Comentários: As infecções por adenovírus ocorrem principalmente em lactentes e crianças com menos de cinco anos de idade e representam de 2 a 5% das doenças respiratórias entre os pacientes pediátricos. Embora a maioria das crianças com infecção por adenovírus desenvolva doença leve do trato respiratório superior, casos mais graves podem ocorrer com comprometimento do trato respiratório inferior. A pneumonia por adenovírus em crianças pode se manifestar com morbidade pulmonar grave e insuficiência respiratória com risco de vida, o que resulta na necessidade de suporte mecânico prolongado. O recrutamento pulmonar exclusivo pela VOAF pode ser uma opção terapêutica útil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , High-Frequency Ventilation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Adenovirus Infections, Human/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Adenoviridae/isolation & purification , Prone Position , Intubation, Intratracheal , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Clinics ; 75: e2209, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133484

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 471 samples collected from 371 patients (age<18 years) suspected of having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The study group comprised 66/371 (18%) laboratory-confirmed pediatric COVID-19 patients: 61 (92.5%) patients tested positive on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2, and 5 (7.5%) patients tested positive on serological tests. MIS-C was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control. RESULTS: MIS-C was diagnosed in 6/66 (9%) patients. The frequencies of diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain (67% vs. 22%, p=0.034); pediatric SARS (67% vs. 13%, p=0.008); hypoxemia (83% vs. 23%, p=0.006); and arterial hypotension (50% vs. 3%, p=0.004) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C than in those without MIS-C. The frequencies of C-reactive protein levels >50 mg/L (83% vs. 25%, p=0.008) and D-dimer levels >1000 ng/mL (100% vs. 40%, p=0.007) and the median D-dimer, troponin T, and ferritin levels (p<0.05) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. The frequencies of pediatric intensive care unit admission (100% vs. 60%, p=0.003), mechanical ventilation (83% vs. 7%, p<0.001), vasoactive agent use (83% vs. 3%, p<0.001), shock (83% vs. 5%, p<0.001), cardiac abnormalities (100% vs. 2%, p<0.001), and death (67% vs. 3%, p<0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Similarly, the frequencies of oxygen therapy (100% vs. 33%, p=0.003), intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (67% vs. 2%, p<0.001), aspirin therapy (50% vs. 0%, p<0.001), and current acute renal replacement therapy (50% vs. 2%, p=0.002) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of MIS-C was significantly associated with gastrointestinal manifestations [odds ratio (OR)=10.98; 95%CI (95% confidence interval)=1.20-100.86; p=0.034] and hypoxemia [OR=16.85; 95%CI=1.34-211.80; p=0.029]. Further univariate analysis showed a positive association between MIS-C and death [OR=58.00; 95%CI=6.39-526.79; p<0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with MIS-C had a severe clinical spectrum with a high mortality rate. Our study emphasizes the importance of investigating MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal involvement and hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Vomiting/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology
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