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J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 99(2): 105-111, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430709


Abstract Objective: Among the mechanisms proposed for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the increase in the pulmonary inflammatory process and oxidative stress. Thus, the control of this process may result in improvements in bronchopulmonary dysplasia-related outcomes. This study aims to analyze the current scientific evidence regarding the use of budesonide, a potent anti-inflammatory drug, associated with a pulmonary surfactant to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed on the Embase and MEDLINE platforms, and studies that compared budesonide with pulmonary surfactant versus pulmonary surfactant for treating respiratory distress syndrome were included. The primary outcome was a reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death. Results: Four randomized clinical trials and two observational studies were included in this systematic review. Three of the randomized clinical trials found a reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death in the use of budesonide with the surfactant, all the other studies (1 clinical trial and 2 observational studies) found no statistical differences between the groups for the primary outcomes. The three main studies showed a reduction in the primary outcome; however, all studies showed great heterogeneity regarding the type of surfactant (poractant or beractant) and the method of administration. Conclusion: Robust clinical studies, in a heterogeneous population, using porcine surfactant associated with budesonide, with administration by a minimally invasive technique are necessary for there to be a recommendation based on scientific evidence for its widespread use.

Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 21: eRC0256, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440066


ABSTRACT A male infant presented with progressive jaundice immediately after birth. Fecal acholia and choluria associated with extensive bullous skin lesions in his trunk, abdomen, and upper and lower limbs developed during phototherapy. Several diagnostic hypotheses were presented, including neonatal porphyria, hemochromatosis, Alagille syndrome, and neonatal lupus. A 24-hour urine sample for the dosage of urinary porphyrins was collected, showing high results (1823.6µg in 100mL). At 50 days of life, fluorescence spectroscopy using a Wood's lamp revealed simultaneous bright red fluorescence of urine-stained diapers and sample blood. A definitive diagnosis of congenital erythropoietic porphyria was made following identification of a mutation of the uroporphyrinogen synthetases III gene on genetic testing. The patient was subsequently maintained in a low light environment since then, resulting in improvement of the lesions. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria is a disease of the group of porphyrias that presents shortly after birth with blistering occurring in regions exposed to the sun or other ultraviolet light. Atrophic scars, mutilated fingers, and bright red fluorescence of the urine and teeth may also be observed. There is no specific treatment, and prophylaxis comprising a total avoidance of sunlight is generally recommended. A high degree of suspicion is required for diagnosis. An early diagnosis can lead to less damage. Here, we present the case of a newborn with congenital erythropoietic porphyria diagnosed after presenting with bullous lesions secondary to phototherapy.

Clinics ; 78: 100217, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447981


Abstract Objective To describe post-natal risk factors associated with death in Newborns (NB) with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) in a Brazilian reference center. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, post-natal clinical factors of all NB diagnosed with CDH were reviewed in an 11-year period (2007‒2018). The primary outcome was death. Secondary outcomes included clinical features, prognostic indexes, type of mechanical ventilation, complications during hospitalization and surgical repair. Results After applying the exclusion criteria, the authors analyzed 137 charts. Overall mortality was 59% (81/137), and the highest rates were observed for low-birth-weight NB (87%), syndromic phenotype (92%), and those with major malformations (100%). Prognostic indexes such as Apgar, SNAPPE-II and 24hOI (best oxygenation index in 24 hours) were all associated with poor evolution. In a multivariate analysis, only birth weight and 24hOI were statistically significant risk factors for mortality, with a reduction in mortality risk of 17.1% (OR = 0.829, 95% IC 0.72‒0.955, p = 0.009) for each additional 100g at birth and an increase by 26.5% (OR = 1.265, 95% IC 1.113‒1.436, p = 0.0003) for each unitary increase at the 24hOI. Conclusion Prognostic indexes are an important tool for predicting outcomes and improving resource allocation. Post-natal risk factors may be more suitable for settings where antenatal diagnosis is not universal. Classical risk factors, such as prematurity, low birth weight, higher need for supportive care, and poorer prognostic indexes were associated with mortality in our CDH population.

Dement. neuropsychol ; 17: e20220046, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430257


ABSTRACT Delirium is a common disorder in intensive care units, being associated with greater morbidity and mortality. However, in neonatal intensive care units, delirium is rarely diagnosed, due to the low familiarity of the neonatologist with the subject and the difficulties in the applicability of diagnostic questionnaires. This case report aimed to assess the presence of this disorder in this group of patients and identify the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a premature newborn with necrotizing enterocolitis during hospitalization and underwent three surgical approaches. The newborn exhibited intense irritability, having received high doses of fentanyl, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, ketamine, phenytoin, and methadone, without the control of the symptoms. A diagnosis of delirium was then made and treatment with quetiapine was started, with a complete reversal of the symptoms. This is the first case reported in Brazil and the first describing the withdrawal of the quetiapine.

RESUMO Delirium é uma síndrome comum em unidades de terapia intensiva, associando-se a maiores morbidade e mortalidade. No entanto, nas unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal, ele raramente é diagnosticado em razão da baixa familiaridade do neonatologista com a suspeita diagnóstica e das dificuldades na aplicabilidade dos questionários diagnósticos. Este relato de caso tem como objetivos mostrar que delirium está presente nesse grupo de pacientes e apontar as dificuldades encontradas no seu diagnóstico e tratamento. Relatamos o caso de um recém-nascido prematuro com enterocolite necrosante, submetido a três abordagens cirúrgicas. O recém-nascido apresentou intensa irritabilidade, tendo recebido altas doses de fentanil, dexmedetomidina, clonidina, cetamina, fenitoína e metadona, sem controle dos sintomas. Em seguida, foi feita a hipótese diagnóstica de delirium e iniciado tratamento com quetiapina, com reversão completa dos sintomas. Este é o primeiro caso notificado no Brasil e o primeiro que descreve a suspensão da quetiapina.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422842


Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the status of thyroid function in infants with severe intestinal dysfunction. Case description: A retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary neonatal intensive care center, including newborns and infants with severe intestinal dysfunction, hospitalized between 2015 and 2020. From the medical records, the following data were collected: gestational age, birth weight, underlying pathology that led to intestinal dysfunction, hospital stay, presence of thyroid dysfunction, age from the onset of thyroid dysfunction, initial and maximum dose of levothyroxine replacement, and levothyroxine administration route and outcome. Seven children (0.76% of 914 hospitalizations) developed severe intestinal insufficiency: vanishing gastroschisis (42.9%), Berdon syndrome (28.5%), apple peel (14.3%), and OIES syndrome (14.3%) - omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus, and spina bifida. The mean gestational age was 33.3±1.6 weeks, the mean birth weight was 2,113.9±370.9 g, the median hospitalization was 420 days, and mortality was 42.9%. Of these seven cases, four (57.1%) presented thyroid dysfunction, evaluated by blood hormone dosages and the dose of levothyroxine replacement ranged from 25 to 100 μg/day, administered by gastric or rectal route. Comments: This series of cases draws attention to thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism) in children with severe intestinal insufficiency receiving exclusive parenteral nutrition for a prolonged period, whose etiology is iodine deficiency, because, in Brazil, micronutrient solutions added to parenteral nutrition do not contain iodine.

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever o status da função tireoidiana em lactentes com disfunção intestinal grave. Descrição do caso: Estudo retrospectivo, realizado em um centro de terapia intensiva neonatal de nível terciário, que incluiu recém-nascidos e lactentes com disfunção intestinal grave, internados entre 2015 e 2020. Dos prontuários foram obtidos: idade gestacional; peso de nascimento; patologia de base que levou à disfunção intestinal; tempo de internação; presença de disfunção tireoidiana; idade no início da disfunção tireoidiana; dose inicial e máxima da reposição de levotiroxina; via de administração da levotiroxina e desfecho. Sete crianças (0,76% do total de 914 internações) evoluíram com insuficiência intestinal grave: vanishing gastrosquise (42,9%), síndrome de Berdon (28,5), apple peel (14,3%) e síndrome onfalocele, ânus imperfurado, extrofia de cloaca e espinha bífida — OIES (14,3%). A média de idade gestacional foi de 33,3±1,6 semanas e de peso ao nascimento de 2113,9±370,9 gramas; a mediana de internação foi de 420 dias e a mortalidade foi de 42,9%. Desses sete casos, quatro (57,1%) apresentaram disfunção tireoidiana, avaliada por dosagens hormonais séricas, e a dose de reposição de levotiroxina variou de 25 a 100 mcg/dia, administrada por via gástrica ou retal. Comentários: Esta série de casos chama a atenção para a disfunção tireoidiana (hipotireoidismo) em crianças com insuficiência intestinal severa que receberam nutrição parenteral exclusiva por tempo prolongado, cuja etiologia é a deficiência de iodo, pois no Brasil as soluções de micronutrientes adicionadas à nutrição parenteral não contêm iodo.

Clinics ; 78: 100148, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421271


Abstract Purpose: The authors aimed to develop a Machine-Learning (ML) algorithm that can predict positive blood culture in the neonatal intensive care unit, using complete blood count and C-reactive protein values. Methods: The study was based on patients' electronic health records at a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in São Paulo, Brazil. All blood cultures that had paired complete blood count and C-reactive protein measurements taken at the same time were included. To evaluate the machine learning model's performance, the authors used accuracy, Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (AUROC), recall, precision, and F1-score. Results: The dataset included 1181 blood cultures with paired complete blood count plus c-reactive protein and 1911 blood cultures with paired complete blood count only. The f1-score ranged from 0.14 to 0.43, recall ranged from 0.08 to 0.59, precision ranged from 0.29 to 1.00, and accuracy ranged from 0.688 to 0.864. Conclusion: Complete blood count parameters and C-reactive protein levels cannot be used in ML models to predict bacteremia in newborns.

J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(6): 607-613, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421998


Abstract Objective: Pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) is a heterogeneous, rare, and severe condition, which outcome is survival due to liver spontaneous recovery or death. The patients who do not recover may be allocated to liver transplantation, which is the standard treatment. This study aimed to build a prognostic model to support the clinical decision to indicate liver transplantation for patients with PALF in a Brazilian center. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical variables of 120 patients in the liver transplantation program of the 'Children's Institute of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The authors conducted a univariate analysis of variables associated with survival in PALF. Logistic multivariate analysis was performed to find a prognostic model for the outcome of patients with pediatric acute liver failure. Results: Risk factors were analyzed using univariate analysis. Two prognostic models were built using multiple logistic regression, which resulted in 2 models: model 1(INR/ALT) and model 2 (INR/Total bilirubin). Both models showed a high sensitivity (97.9%/96.9%), good positive predictive value (89.5%/90.4%), and accuracy (88.4%/88.5%), respectively. The receiver operating characteristic was calculated for both models, and the area under the curve was 0.87 for model 1 and 0.88 for model 2. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed that model 1 was good. Conclusion: The authors built a prognostic model for PALF using INR and ALT that can contribute to the clinical decision to allocate patients to liver transplantation.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(4): 587-592, Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403352


Resumo Fundamento O período neonatal é marcado por muitas alterações importantes no sistema cardiovascular, principalmente na primeira semana de vida. Diferentemente da população adulta, estudos sobre dados de eletrocardiograma (ECG) no período neonatal são escassos. Este é o primeiro estudo a descrever alterações eletrocardiográficas em uma coorte de recém-nascidos com ecocardiogramas normais. Objetivos Analisar padrões eletrocardiográficos de uma população de recém-nascidos a termo, sem anomalias morfológicas ou funcionais cardíacas, e comparar os resultados com a literatura. Métodos Neste estudo observacional, ecocardiogramas e resultados de ECG de 94 neonatos divididos em três grupos etários (até 24 horas, entre 25 e 72 horas, e entre 73 e 168 horas de vida) foram avaliados e comparados com aqueles descritos por Davignon et al. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Diferenças significativas na direção da onda T foram detectadas nas derivações V1 (p= 0,04), V2 (p= 0,02), V3 (p= 0,008) e V4 (p= 0,005). Houve diferenças entre nossos resultados e a literatura atual na maioria dos parâmetros. Conclusão Recém-nascidos a termo com menos de 24 horas de vida apresentaram significativamente mais ondas T positivas que aqueles com mais horas de vida. Encontramos muitas diferenças nos parâmetros de ECG em comparação aos descritos por Davignon et al., particularmente nas amplitudes de P, Q, R, S, duração do QRS, R/S e R+S. Esses achados indicam a necessidade de mais estudos para uma interpretação definitiva do ECG em recém-nascidos.

Abstract Background The neonatal period is marked by major changes in the cardiovascular system, especially in the first week of life. Unlike the adult population, studies on electrocardiogram (ECG) data in the neonatal period are scarce. This is the first study to describe electrocardiographic changes in a cohort of newborns with normal echocardiograms. Objectives To analyze the electrocardiographic patterns of a population of full-term NB, without any cardiac morphological or functional anomalies, and compare the results with the literature. Methods In this observational study, echocardiograms and ECG results from 94 newborns divided in three age groups (up to 24 hours, between 25 and 72 hours, and between 73 and 168 hours of life) were evaluated and compared with those reported by Davignon et al. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results There were significant differences in T-wave direction in leads V1 (p= 0.04), V2 (p= 0.02), V3 (p= 0.008) and V4 (p= 0.005) between the three age groups. There were differences between our findings and the current literature in most of the parameters. Conclusion Term newborns within 24 hours of life showed significantly more positive T waves than older ones. Many differences from the Davignon's ECG parameters were found, particularly in the P, Q, R, S amplitudes, QRS duration, R/S and R+S. These findings indicate that more studies are needed for a definitive interpretation of the ECG in newborns.

Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 29(2): 162-168, maio-ago. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394356


RESUMO O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a aplicabilidade do Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) em recém-nascidos (RN) cirúrgicos como ferramenta para avaliação do desempenho motor; e avaliar o benefício da fisioterapia. RN cirúrgicos, divididos em grupo sem fisioterapia motora (n=38) e com fisioterapia motora (n=38), foram avaliados pelo TIMP e reavaliados duas semanas depois. O grupo com fisioterapia realizou exercícios para estimulação sensório-motora uma vez ao dia, enquanto o grupo sem fisioterapia recebeu os cuidados habituais da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN). O diagnóstico cirúrgico predominante nos dois grupos foi de gastrosquise, seguido de hérnia diafragmática congênita. Na avaliação, não houve diferença no desempenho motor entre os grupos, classificados como "abaixo da média" para a idade, com escore-z=−1,28 (p=0,992). Na reavaliação, o grupo com fisioterapia apresentou melhor pontuação (p<0,001) e maior diferença de escore (p<0,001), com uma porcentagem maior de RN classificados como "dentro da média" em comparação ao grupo sem fisioterapia (44% e 2,6%, respectivamente); além de maior porcentagem de ganho de peso (p=0,038). Na reavaliação, verificou-se piora do desempenho motor em 10,5% do grupo sem fisioterapia (p<0,001), enquanto a melhora do desempenho motor foi observada em 81,6% do grupo com fisioterapia e em apenas 13,2% do grupo sem fisioterapia (p<0,001). Concluiu-se que o TIMP foi aplicado de forma segura e eficaz e necessita ser realizado por profissionais experientes na abordagem dessa população. A fisioterapia motora melhorou significativamente o desempenho motor, e, se iniciada precocemente, pode ser capaz de adequar o desenvolvimento motor desses RN, antes mesmo da alta hospitalar.

RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar la aplicabilidad del Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) en recién nacidos quirúrgicos (RN) como una herramienta de evaluación del desempeño motor, y analizar el beneficio de la fisioterapia. Los RN quirúrgicos, divididos en los grupos sin fisioterapia motora (n=38) y con fisioterapia (n=38), fueron evaluados por el TIMP y reevaluados dos semanas después. El grupo con fisioterapia realizó ejercicios de estimulación sensoriomotora una vez al día, mientras que el grupo sin fisioterapia recibió la atención habitual de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal (UCIN). El diagnóstico quirúrgico predominante en ambos grupos fue el de la gastrosquisis, seguido de hernia diafragmática congénita. En la evaluación, no hubo diferencia en el desempeño motor entre los grupos, clasificados como "por debajo del promedio" para la edad, con puntaje -z=−1,28 (p=0,992). En la reevaluación, el grupo con fisioterapia tuvo mejor puntuación (p<0,001) y mayor diferencia de puntaje (p<0,001), con mayor porcentaje de RN clasificados como "dentro de la media" en comparación con el grupo sin fisioterapia (44% y 2,6%, respectivamente); además de un mayor porcentaje de ganancia de peso (p=0,038). En la reevaluación hubo un empeoramiento del desempeño motor en el 10,5% del grupo sin fisioterapia (p<0,001), mientras que se observó una mejora en el desempeño motor en el 81,6% del grupo con fisioterapia y solo en el 13,2% del grupo sin fisioterapia (p<0,001). Se concluyó que el TIMP se aplicó con seguridad y eficacia y que este debe ser realizado por profesionales con experiencia con esta población. La fisioterapia motora mejoró significativamente el rendimiento motor y, si se inicia precozmente, puede ser capaz de adaptar el desarrollo motor de estos RN, incluso antes del alta hospitalaria.

ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the applicability of the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) in surgical neonates as a tool for evaluating motor performance and to evaluate the benefit of physical therapy. Surgical neonates, divided into group without physical therapy (n=38) and group with motor physical therapy (n=38), were evaluated by TIMP and reasssment two weeks later. The physical therapy group performed standardized exercises for motor sensory stimulation once a day, whereas the other group received the usual care from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The predominant surgical diagnosis in both groups was gastroschisis, followed by congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In the initial evaluation, motor performance was equal between the groups, classified as "below average" for age, with z-score=−1.28 (p=0.992). In the reassessment, the physical therapy group presented better scores (p<0.001) and a higher difference in z-score (p<0.001), higher percentage of neonates classified as "within average" (44% in the physical therapy group and 2.6% in the no physical therapy group), as well as a higher weight gain percentage (p=0.038). We found a worsening of motor performance in 10.5% of the no physical therapy group (p<0.001) in the reassment. Motor performance improved in 81.6% of the physical therapy group and in only 13.2% of the no physical therapy group individuals (p<0.001). Conclusion: TIMP was safely and effectively applied to newborns; notably, the test must be performed by professionals experienced in care of neonates. Motor intervention was beneficial, significantly improving motor performance, and if applied early, it may adequate the motor development of these neonates, even before hospital discharge.

J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(2): 168-174, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375773


Abstract Objectives: To analyze late-onset sepsis and to describe the etiological agents in newborns with gastroschisis. Methods: A retrospective cohort, including newborns with gastroschisis whose admissions occurred in the period between January 2012 to December 2018 in a tertiary referral center. Maternal and newborn characteristics, surgical procedures and evolution in hospitalization were verified. A bivariate analysis was performed with patients with proven late-onset neonatal sepsis and according to the simple or complex gastroschisis category, the prevalent microorganisms in positive cultures were identified, statistical tests were carried out and the significance level adopted was p < 0,05. Results are presented in proportions, averages and standard deviation or medians. The level of significance adopted was p < 0.05. Results: 101 newborns were analyzed, 45 (44.5%) were confirmed late-onset sepsis. The median birth weight was 2285+498 grams, and the gestational age was 35.9 +1.74weeks. The incidence of complex gastroschisis was 17.8%, the hospitalization time was 48.2+29.67 days and mortality was 9.9%. The newborns were divided into 2 groups: Group 1: late-onset sepsis (44.6%), and Group 2: no late-onset sepsis. The presence of complex gastroschisis was a factor associated with infection (p < 0.009). Fasting time (p < 0.001), parenteral nutrition time (p < 0.001), time to achieve full diet (p < 0.001), and hospitalization stay (p < 0.001) were higher in group 2. Gram-positive were the most frequent (51.1%), followed by Gram-negative (20%), and fungi (4.4%). Conclusions: Newborns with gastroschisis have a higher risk of evolving with late-onset sepsis, despite this study did not calculate the risk of sepsis statistically, and the main germs detected by cultures were gram-positive bacteria, specifically Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Clinics ; 77: 100073, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394290


Abstract Objectives: To determine the incidence and risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes according to SARS-CoV-2 infection severity in pregnant women. Method: Open prospective study of pregnant women tested for SARS-CoV-2 by serological and molecular assays during pregnancy or delivery in two hospitals in Sao Paulo, Brazil from April 12, 2020, to February 28, 2021. Five groups were considered for analysis: C0, negative COVID-19 results and no COVID-19 symptoms; C1, positive COVID-19 results, and no symptoms; C2, positive COVID-19 results with mild symptoms; C3, positive COVID-19 results with moderate symptoms; and C4, positive COVID-19 results with severe symptoms. The association between obstetric and neonatal outcomes and COVID-19 severity was determined using multivariate analysis. Results: 734 eligible pregnant women were enrolled as follows: C0 (n = 357), C1 (n = 127), C2 (n = 174), C3 (n = 37), and C4 (n = 39). The following pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were associated with severe COVID-19: oligohydramnios (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] = 6.18; 95% CI 1.87‒20.39), fetal distress (aOR = 4.01; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.84‒8.75), preterm birth (aOR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.47‒20.61), longer hospital stay (aOR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.36‒2.02), and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (aOR = 19.36; 95% CI, 5.86‒63.99). All maternal (n = 6, 15.4%, p < 0.001) and neonatal (n = 5, 12.5%, p < 0.001) deaths and most fetal deaths (n = 4, 9.8%, p < 0.001) occurred in C4 group. Moderate COVID-19 was associated with oligohydramnios (aOR = 6.23; 95% CI 1.93‒20.13) and preterm birth (aOR = 3.60; 95% CI 1.45‒9.27). Mild COVID-19 was associated with oligohydramnios (aOR=3.77; 95% CI 1.56‒9.07). Conclusion: Adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were associated with maternal symptomatic COVID-19 status, and risk increased with disease severity. HIGHLIGHTS COVID-19 increases the rates of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Serious cases are associated with oligohydramnios, fetal distress, prematurity, neonatal ICU admission, maternal and neonatal deaths. The maternal clinical status dictates obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

Clinics ; 77: 100136, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421228


Abstract Introduction Limited data are available on pregnant women with COVID-19 and their neonates. Objective This study aimed to describe clinical characteristics and evolution from birth to discharge of a retrospective cohort of 71 neonates, with one set of twins, born to women with COVID-19 diagnosed at the end of pregnancy. The authors included all newborns admitted into a neonatal unit of a tertiary hospital in Brazil, between March 2020 and March 2021, whose unvaccinated mothers had COVID-19 symptoms and RT-PCR (Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction) for SARS-CoV-2 positive within fourteen days prior to delivery. Newborns to mothers with COVID-19 symptoms and negative tests for SARS-CoV-2 were excluded. Results The main route of birth delivery was cesarean, corresponding to 60 pregnant women (84.5%). The foremost indications for cesarean were pregnant with critical disease (24.6%) and acute fetal distress (20.3%). The mean birth weight was 2452 g (865‒3870 g) and the mean gestational age was 345/7weeks (25‒40 weeks). There were 45 premature newborns (63.3%), of which 21 newborns (29.5%) were less than 32 weeks of gestational age. RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on oropharyngeal swabs was positive in 2 newborns (2.8%) and negative in the other 69 newborns (97.2%). Most newborns (51.4%) needed respiratory support. Therapeutic interventions during hospitalization were inotropic drugs (9.9%), antibiotics (22.8%), parenteral nutrition (26.8%), and phototherapy (46.5%). Conclusion Maternal COVID-19 diagnosticated close to delivery has an impact on the first days of neonatal life.

Clinics ; 77: 100111, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421239


Abstract Background The association between lipoprotein levels and late-onset neonatal sepsis has shown controversial results. The aims are to assess lipid profile, cytokines, and Monocyte-to-HDL (M/H) ratio as diagnostic and prognostic markers for late-onset neonatal sepsis. Methods This prospective study included 49 septic neonates and 17 controls. Cholesterol (CT), Triglyceride (TG), Very-Low-Density (VLDLc), Low-Density (LDLc), and High-Density Lipoproteins (HDLc) were measured at admission (D0) and on days 3, 7 and 10 to evaluate septic shock outcomes. Cytokines and monocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results Septic newborns showed higher IL-6 and IL-8 at D0 and CT levels on D7 and on D10, which also presented higher TG, VLDLc and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations than controls. The septic shock group (n = 22) revealed a higher number of male subjects, CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels, while lower TG, HDLc, monocyte numbers and M/H ratio at admission compared to the non-shock group (n = 27). M/H ratio and non-HDL cholesterol on D0 were risk factors for septic shock (OR = 0.70, 0.49‒0.99; OR = 0.96, 0.92‒0.99, respectively). Decreasing levels from D0 to D3 of CT (OR = 0.96, 0.93‒0.99), VLDLc (OR = 0.91, 0.85‒0.98), and non-HDL cholesterol (OR = 0.92, 0.87‒0.98) were also predictors of septic shock. Conclusions Lower M/H ratios and non-HDL cholesterol at admission and decreasing levels of cholesterol, VLDLc and non-HDL cholesterol during a hospital stay are associated with the development of septic shock in newborns with late-onset neonatal sepsis.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 954-964, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350020


Resumo Fundamento A pandemia da COVID-19 representa uma enorme carga para o sistema de saúde do mundo. Apesar de pacientes pediátricos terem sido relativamente poupados em comparação a adultos, estudos recentes mostraram um número crescente de pacientes críticos com Síndrome Inflamatória Multisistêmica Pediátrica (SIM-P) com disfunção cardiovascular importante. No entanto, pouco se conhece a respeito da relação entre anormalidades cardíacas e biomarcadores inflamatórios e de coagulação. Objetivos Investigar anormalidades ecocardiográficas em pacientes pediátricos com COVID-19 admitidos em um hospital terciário. Métodos Este foi um estudo longitudinal retrospectivo, baseado na revisão de prontuários médicos e ecocardiogramas de pacientes (0-19 anos) admitidos em um hospital terciário entre 30 de março e 30 de junho de 2020. Para a análise estatística, o nível de significância foi estabelecido em 5% (p<0,05). Resultados Foram incluídos 48 pacientes, 73% com doenças pré-existentes, 20 (41,7%) com SIM-P. A idade mediana foi 7,5 (0-18,6) anos; 27 (56,2%) eram do sexo masculino. A duração mediana de internação foi 15,4 (2-92) dias e sete (14,6%) pacientes morreram. Um total de 70 ecocardiografias foram realizadas, 66,7% submeteram-se ao exame somente uma vez, e 33,3% várias vezes. Vinte e três (48%) pacientes apresentaram anormalidades no ecocardiograma: oito (16.6%) disfunção sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo, seis (12.5%) disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direito, e 12 (25%) dilatação da artéria coronária (Z-score>+2,5). Anormalidades ecocardiográficas foram significativamente associadas com SIM-P, admissão na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica, suporte ventilatório/vasoativo, e morte ( p <0,05). Níveis significativamente mais altos de d-dímero (ng/mL) foram detectados em pacientes com disfunção ventricular esquerda [16733(4157-115668) vs. 2406.5(190-95040)], disfunção ventricular direita [25769(3422-115668) vs. 2803.5(190-95040)] e dilatação da artéria coronária [9652.5(921-115668) vs. 2724(190- 95040)] (p<0,05). Conclusão Anormalidades ecocardiográficas eram frequentes nos pacientes pediátricos com COVID-19 e associadas com piores desfechos clínicos. Exacerbação das vias de inflamação e coagulação pode exercer um importante papel na lesão cardiovascular nesses pacientes.

Abstract Background COVID-19 pandemic represents a huge burden to the health system in the world. Although pediatric COVID-19 patients have been relatively spared compared with adults, recent reports showed an increasing number of critically ill patients with multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-c), with marked cardiovascular impairment. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between cardiac abnormalities and inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers. Objectives to investigate echocardiographic abnormalities in pediatric patients with COVID-19 admitted to tertiary hospital. Methods this was a retrospective longitudinal study, based on the review of medical records and echocardiograms of patients (0-19 years) admitted to a tertiary hospital between March 30 and June 30, 2020. For statistical analysis, the significance level was set at 5% (p < 0.05). Results Forty-eight patients were enrolled, 73% with preexisting diseases, 20 (41.7%) with MIS-c. Median age was 7.5 (0-18.6) years; 27 (56.2%) were male. Median duration of hospitalization was 15.4 (2-92) days and seven (14.6%) patients died. A total of 70 echocardiograms were performed; 66.7% patients were scanned only once and 33.3% multiple times. Twenty-three (48%) patients showed echocardiographic abnormalities: eight (16.6%) left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction, six (12.5%) right ventricle (RV) systolic dysfunction and 12 (25%) coronary dilatation (Z-score>+2.5). Echocardiographic abnormalities were significantly associated with MIS-c, admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, multiple organ dysfunction, ventilatory/vasoactive support, and death (p<0.05). Significantly higher d-dimer (ng/mL) levels were detected in patients with LV dysfunction [16733(4157-115668) vs. 2406.5(190-95040)], RV dysfunction [25769(3422-115668) vs. 2803.5(190-95040)] and coronary artery dilation [9652.5(921-115668) vs. 2724(190- 95040)] (p<0.05). Conclusion Echocardiographic abnormalities in COVID-19 pediatric patients were frequent and associated with worse clinical outcomes. Exacerbation of the inflammation and coagulation pathways may play an important role in cardiovascular injury in those patients.

Humans , Male , Child , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Echocardiography , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , SARS-CoV-2
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 544-548, out.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357198


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto no número de casos de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea e as taxas de sobrevivência nos anos seguintes à pandemia de H1N1 de 2009. Métodos: Avaliaram-se dois períodos distintos de utilização de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea como suporte para insuficiência respiratória em crianças, por meio da análise de conjuntos de dados da Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. Foram construídos modelos autorregressivos integrados de médias móveis para estimar os efeitos da pandemia. O ano de 2009 foi o ano de intervenção (epidemia de H1N1) em um modelo de séries temporais interrompidas. Os dados colhidos entre 2001 e 2010 foram considerados pré-intervenção e os obtidos entre 2010 e 2017 como pós-intervenção. Resultados: Em comparação com o período entre 2001 e 2010, o período entre 2010 e 2017 mostrou aumento das taxas de sobrevivência (p < 0,0001), com melhora significante da sobrevivência quando se realizou oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea nos casos de insuficiência aguda por pneumonia viral. Antes do ponto de nível de efeito (2009), o modelo autorregressivo integrado de médias móveis mostrou aumento de 23 casos de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea ao ano. Em termos de sobrevivência, a curva mostra que não houve aumento significante das taxas de sobrevivência antes de 2009 (p = 0,41), porém o nível de efeito foi próximo à significância após 2 anos (p = 0,05), com aumento de 6% na sobrevivência. Em 4 anos, ocorreu aumento de 8% (p = 0,03) na sobrevivência, e, 6 anos após 2009, a sobrevivência mostrou aumento de até 10% (p = 0,026). Conclusão: Nos anos após 2009, ocorreu significante e progressivo aumento global das taxas de sobrevivência com oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea para todos os casos, principalmente em razão de melhoras tecnológicas e dos protocolos de tratamento para insuficiência respiratória aguda relacionada à pneumonia viral e a outras condições respiratórias.

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate whether there was any impact on the number of pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs and survival rates in the years subsequent to the 2009 pandemic. Methods: We studied two different periods of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for respiratory failure in children by analyzing datasets from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. Autoregressive integrated moving average models were constructed to estimate the effect of the pandemic. The year 2009 was the year of intervention (the H1N1 epidemic) in an interrupted time series model. Data collected from 2001 - 2010 were considered preintervention, and data collected from 2010 - 2017 were considered postintervention. Results: There was an increase in survival rates in the period 2010 - 2017 compared to 2001 - 2010 (p < 0.0001), with a significant improvement in survival when extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was performed for acute respiratory failure due to viral pneumonia. The autoregressive integrated moving average model shows an increase of 23 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs per year, prior to the point of the level effect (2009). In terms of survival, the preslope shows that there was no significant increase in survival rates before 2009 (p = 0.41), but the level effect was nearly significant after two years (p = 0.05), with a 6% increase in survival. In four years, there was an 8% (p = 0.03) increase in survival, and six years after 2009, there was up to a 10% (p = 0.026) increase in survival. Conclusion: In the years following 2009, there was a significant, global incremental increase in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survival rates for all runs, mainly due to improvements in the technology and treatment protocols for acute respiratory failure related to viral pneumonia and other respiratory conditions.

Humans , Child , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics
Marques, Heloisa Helena de Sousa; Pereira, Maria Fernanda Badue; Santos, Angélica Carreira dos; Fink, Thais Toledo; Paula, Camila Sanson Yoshino de; Litvinov, Nadia; Schvartsman, Claudio; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo; Gibelli, Maria Augusta Bento Cicaroni; Carvalho, Werther Brunow de; Odone Filho, Vicente; Tannuri, Uenis; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda; Grisi, Sandra; Duarte, Alberto José da Silva; Antonangelo, Leila; Francisco, Rossana Pucineli Vieira; Okay, Thelma Suely; Batisttella, Linamara Rizzo; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de; Brentani, Alexandra Valéria Maria; Silva, Clovis Artur; Eisencraft, Adriana Pasmanik; Rossi Junior, Alfio; Fante, Alice Lima; Cora, Aline Pivetta; Reis, Amelia Gorete A. de Costa; Ferrer, Ana Paula Scoleze; Andrade, Anarella Penha Meirelles de; Watanabe, Andreia; Gonçalves, Angelina Maria Freire; Waetge, Aurora Rosaria Pagliara; Silva, Camila Altenfelder; Ceneviva, Carina; Lazari, Carolina dos Santos; Abellan, Deipara Monteiro; Santos, Emilly Henrique dos; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Bianchini, Fabíola Roberta Marim; Alcantara, Flávio Ferraz de Paes; Ramos, Gabriel Frizzo; Leal, Gabriela Nunes; Rodriguez, Isadora Souza; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carneiro, Jorge David Avaizoglou; Paz, Jose Albino; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Ferranti, Juliana Ferreira; Ferreira, Juliana de Oliveira Achili; Framil, Juliana Valéria de Souza; Silva, Katia Regina da; Kanunfre, Kelly Aparecida; Bastos, Karina Lucio de Medeiros; Galleti, Karine Vusberg; Cristofani, Lilian Maria; Suzuki, Lisa; Campos, Lucia Maria Arruda; Perondi, Maria Beatriz de Moliterno; Diniz, Maria de Fatima Rodrigues; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda Mota; Cordon, Mariana Nutti de Almeida; Pissolato, Mariana; Peres, Marina Silva; Garanito, Marlene Pereira; Imamura, Marta; Dorna, Mayra de Barros; Luglio, Michele; Rocha, Mussya Cisotto; Aikawa, Nadia Emi; Degaspare, Natalia Viu; Sakita, Neusa Keico; Udsen, Nicole Lee; Scudeller, Paula Gobi; Gaiolla, Paula Vieira de Vincenzi; Severini, Rafael da Silva Giannasi; Rodrigues, Regina Maria; Toma, Ricardo Katsuya; Paula, Ricardo Iunis Citrangulo de; Palmeira, Patricia; Forsait, Silvana; Farhat, Sylvia Costa Lima; Sakano, Tânia Miyuki Shimoda; Koch, Vera Hermina Kalika; Cobello Junior, Vilson; HC-FMUSP Pediatric COVID Study Group.
Clinics ; 76: e3488, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350619


OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic/clinical/laboratory/treatments and outcomes among children and adolescents with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included patients diagnosed with pediatric COVID-19 (aged <18 years) between April 11, 2020 and April 22, 2021. During this period, 102/5,951 (1.7%) of all admissions occurred in neonates, children, and adolescents. Furthermore, 3,962 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection samples were processed in patients aged <18 years, and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 occurred in 155 (4%) inpatients and outpatients. Six/155 pediatric patients were excluded from the study. Therefore, the final group included 149 children and adolescents (n=97 inpatients and 52 outpatients) with positive SARS-CoV-2 results. RESULTS: The frequencies of sore throat, anosmia, dysgeusia, headache, myalgia, nausea, lymphopenia, pre-existing chronic conditions, immunosuppressive conditions, and autoimmune diseases were significantly reduced in children and adolescents (p<0.05). Likewise, the frequencies of enoxaparin use (p=0.037), current immunosuppressant use (p=0.008), vasoactive agents (p=0.045), arterial hypotension (p<0.001), and shock (p=0.024) were significantly lower in children than in adolescents. Logistic regression analysis showed that adolescents with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 had increased odds ratios (ORs) for sore throat (OR 13.054; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.750-61.977; p=0.001), nausea (OR 8.875; 95% CI 1.660-47.446; p=0.011), and lymphopenia (OR 3.575; 95% CI 1.355-9.430; p=0.010), but also had less hospitalizations (OR 0.355; 95% CI 0.138-0.916; p=0.032). The additional logistic regression analysis on patients with preexisting chronic conditions (n=108) showed that death as an outcome was significantly associated with pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (OR 22.300; 95% CI 2.341-212.421; p=0.007) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) (OR 11.261; 95% CI 1.189-106. 581; p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Half of the laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases occurred in adolescents. Individuals belonging to this age group had an acute systemic involvement of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pediatric SARS and MIS-C were the most important factors associated with the mortality rate in pediatric chronic conditions with COVID-19.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tertiary Care Centers , SARS-CoV-2