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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 422-432, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364337

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Amiloidose sistêmica é uma doença com manifestações clínicas diversas. O diagnóstico envolve suspeita clínica, aliada a métodos complementares. Objetivo Descrever o perfil clínico, laboratorial, eletrocardiográfico e de imagem no acometimento cardíaco da amiloidose sistêmica. Métodos Estudo de uma amostra de conveniência, analisando dados clínicos, laboratoriais, eletrocardiográficos, ecocardiográficos, medicina nuclear e ressonância magnética. Considerou-se significância estatística quando p < 0,05. Resultados Avaliaram-se 105 pacientes (com mediana de idade de 66 anos), sendo 62 homens, dos quais 83 indivíduos apresentavam amiloidose por transtirretina (ATTR) e 22 amiloidose por cadeia leve (AL). Na ATTR, 68,7% eram de caráter hereditário (ATTRh) e 31,3% do tipo selvagem (ATTRw). As mutações mais prevalentes foram Val142Ile (45,6%) e Val50Met (40,3%). O tempo de início dos sintomas ao diagnóstico foi 0,54 e 2,15 anos nas formas AL e ATTR (p < 0,001), respectivamente. O acometimento cardíaco foi observado em 77,9% dos ATTR e 90,9% dos AL. Observaram-se alterações de condução atrioventricular em 20% e intraventricular em 27,6% dos pacientes, sendo 33,7 % na ATTR e 4,5% das AL (p = 0,006). A forma ATTRw apresentou mais arritmias atriais que os ATTRh (61,5% x 22,8%; p = 0,001). Ao ecocardiograma a mediana da espessura do septo na ATTRw x ATTRh x AL foi de 15 mm x 12 mm x 11 mm (p = 0,193). Observou-se BNP elevado em 89,5% dos indivíduos (mediana 249 ng/mL, IQR 597,7) e elevação da troponina em 43,2%. Conclusão Foi possível caracterizar, em nosso meio, o acometimento cardíaco na amiloidose sistêmica, em seus diferentes subtipos, através da história clínica e dos métodos diagnósticos descritos.


Abstract Background Systemic amyloidosis is a disease with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Diagnosis depends on clinical suspicion combined with specific complementary methods. Objective To describe the clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, and imaging profile in patients with systemic amyloidosis with cardiac involvement. Methods This study was conducted with a convenience sample, analyzing clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance data. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results A total of 105 patients were evaluated (median age of 66 years), 62 of whom were male. Of all patients, 83 had transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, and 22 had light chain (AL) amyloidosis. With respect to ATTR cases, 68.7% were the hereditary form (ATTRh), and 31.3% were wild type (ATTRw). The most prevalent mutations were Val142Ile (45.6%) and Val50Met (40.3%). Time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 0.54 and 2.15 years, in the AL and ATTR forms, respectively (p < 0.001). Cardiac involvement was observed in 77.9% of patients with ATTR and in 90.9% of those with AL. Alterations were observed in atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction in 20% and 27.6% of patients, respectively, with 33.7% in ATTR and 4.5% in AL (p = 0.006). In the ATTRw form, there were more atrial arrhythmias than in ATTRh (61.5% versus 22.8%; p = 0.001). On echocardiogram, median septum thickness in ATTRw, ATTRh, and AL was 15 mm, 12 mm, and 11 mm, respectively (p = 0.193). Elevated BNP was observed in 89.5% of patients (median 249, ICR 597.7), and elevated troponin was observed in 43.2%. Conclusion In this setting, it was possible to characterize cardiac involvement in systemic amyloidosis in its different subtypes by means of clinical history and the diagnostic methods described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cardiology , Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial/diagnostic imaging , Amyloidosis/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Referral and Consultation , Brazil , Prealbumin/genetics , Echocardiography
2.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021326, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339247

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is growing evidence in the literature warning of misdiagnosis involving amyloidosis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Although inducing clinical manifestations outside the peripheral nervous system, light chain and transthyretin amyloidosis may initially present with peripheral neuropathy, which can be indistinguishable from CIDP, leading to a delay in the correct diagnosis. Besides, the precise identification of the amyloid subtype is often challenging. This case report exemplifies clinical and laboratory pitfalls in diagnosing amyloidosis and subtyping amyloid, exposing the patient to potentially harmful procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Amyloidosis, Familial/complications , Paraproteinemias , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating/complications , Diagnostic Errors , Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis/complications
3.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021273, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249008

ABSTRACT

First described by Rokitansky in 1842, and further characterized by Virchow in 1854, amyloidosis is a disorder caused by amyloid deposition, a fibrillary insoluble protein. The clinical spectrum of amyloidosis is broad, as the amyloid deposition may virtually occur in all tissues. Herein, we report the case of a 66-year-old man with a long-lasting emaciating disease, diagnosed, at autopsy, with primary systemic amyloidosis. Amyloid protein deposition was found in many tissues and organs. The involvement of the vessels' wall rendered ischemic injury most prominent in the intestinal loops causing mesenteric ischemia. Despite the thorough organic involvement, the immediate cause of death was aspiration bronchopneumonia. Massive amyloid deposition was found in virtually all major organs, such as the heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, adrenals, prostate, skin, and thyroid: the latter, a complication of the amyloidosis known as amyloid goiter. Post-mortem review of the deceased's laboratory workup showed a slightly abnormal kappa:lambda ratio in the blood; however, no clonal lymphoplasmacytic disorder was confirmed in the bone marrow and other lymphoreticular system organs either by the microscopic examination and immunohistochemical staining. Laser-capture microdissection and tandem mass spectrometry of the splenic tissue detected a peptide profile consistent with an immunoglobulin Kappa light chain. The presence of amyloid purpura favors the diagnosis of primary systemic amyloidosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Amyloidosis/pathology , Pneumatosis Cystoides Intestinalis , Autopsy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Multiple Organ Failure
4.
Autops. Case Rep ; 8(1): e2018002, Jan.-Mar. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905467

ABSTRACT

Mesothelial/monocytic incidental cardiac excrescences (MICE) are unusual findings during the histological analysis of material from the pericardium, mediastinum, or other tissues collected in open-heart surgery. Despite their somewhat worrisome histological appearance, they show a benign clinical course, and further treatment is virtually never necessary. Hence, the importance of recognizing the entity relays in its differential diagnosis, as an unaware medical pathologist may misinterpret it for a malignant neoplasm. Other mesothelial and histiocytic proliferative lesions, sharing very close histological morphology and immunohistochemistry features with MICE, have been described in sites other than the heart or the mediastinum. This similarity has led to the proposal of the common denomination "histiocytosis with raisinoid nuclei." We report three cases from the pathology archives of the Heart Institute of São Paulo University (Incor/HC-FMUSP), diagnosed as "mesothelial/monocytic incidental cardiac excrescence," with immunohistochemical documentation, and provide a literature review of this entity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Heart Diseases/pathology , Histiocytes , Diagnosis, Differential , Epithelium/injuries , Incidental Findings
7.
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 47(6): 643-648, dez. 2011.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-610898

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A classificação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) para os tumores do tecido hematopoético e linfoide (4ª edição, 2008) representa uma revisão atualização da 3ª edição publicada em 2001. A tradução da nomenclatura utilizada para identificar as entidades descritas deve ser clara, precisa e uniforme no sentido de reproduzir de forma correta as diversas entidades clinicopatológicas para clínicos, patologistas e pesquisadores envolvidos na área da onco-hematopatologia. OBJETIVO: Os autores apresentam uma proposta de atualização e padronização terminológica em língua portuguesa, com base na OMS/2008.


INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue (4th edition, 2008) tumors constitutes an updated review of the 3rd edition published in 2001. The translation of the nomenclature used to describe the entities should be clear, precise and uniform so that clinicians, pathologists and researchers involved in the onco-hematopathological area may identify them accurately. OBJECTIVE: With this purpose, the authors present an updated proposal and a terminological standardization in Portuguese based on WHO/2008.


Subject(s)
Leukemia/classification , Lymphoma/classification , Hematologic Neoplasms/classification , Terminology as Topic , World Health Organization
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 15(4): 384-386, July-Aug. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595683

ABSTRACT

Nocardia is a rare opportunistic agent, which may affect immunocompromised individuals causing lung infections and exceptionally infective endocarditis (IE). There are few reports of IE caused by Nocardia sp., usually involving biological prostheses but rarely in natural valves. Its accurate microbiological identification may be hampered by the similarity with Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium spp. Here we report a case of native mitral valve IE caused by this agent in which the clinical absence of response to vancomycin and the suggestion of Nocardia sp. by histology pointed to the misdiagnosis of Corynebacterium spp. in blood cultures. The histological morphology can advise on the need for expansion of cultivation time and use of extra microbiological procedures that lead to the differential diagnosis with Corynebacterium spp. and other agents, which is essential to establish timely specific treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Endocarditis, Bacterial/pathology , Nocardia/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 15(3): 285-287, May-June 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589963

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 67 year-old-male patient admitted to the intensive care unit in the post-coronary bypass surgery period who presented cardiogenic shock, acute renal failure and three episodes of sepsis, the latter with pulmonary distress at the 30th post-operative day. The patient expired within five days in spite of treatment with vancomycin, imipenem, colistimethate and amphotericin B. At autopsy severe adenovirus pneumonia was found. Viral pulmonary infections following cardiovascular surgery are uncommon. We highlight the importance of etiological diagnosis to a correct treatment approach.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Adenovirus Infections, Human/pathology , Bronchiolitis, Viral/pathology , Postoperative Complications/pathology , Bronchiolitis, Viral/virology , Coronary Artery Bypass , Fatal Outcome , Heart Diseases/surgery , Intensive Care Units , Necrosis , Postoperative Complications/virology
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 94(4): e109-e112, abr. 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-546706

ABSTRACT

Relatamos um caso incomum de associação de bronquite plástica (BP) com enteropatia perdedora de proteínas (EPP) em menina de 4 anos e 9 meses de idade. com dupla via de entrada de ventrículo único tipo esquerdo e concordância ventrículo-arterial submetida à cirurgia cavopulmonar total. com túnel lateral intracardíaco aos três anos. Tornaram-se chamativas a eliminação de molde brônquico de fibrina de 10 cm (BP) e a elevação de alfa-1-antitripsina de 52 mg/g de fezes. Em uso de sildenafila. programou-se. em caso de continuidade do processo. a ligadura do ducto torácico e transplante cardíaco.


We report an unusual case of association of plastic bronchitis (PB) to protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) in a girl of 4 years and 9 months of age with double inlet single left ventricle and ventriculoarterial concordance. submitted to total cavopulmonary surgery. with an intracardiac lateral tunnel at the age of three. The elimination of the 10 cm fibrin bronchial mold (PB) and the alpha-1-antitrypsin elevation of 52 mg/g in feces had both become outstanding. Using sildenafil. the thoracic duct ligature and the cardiac transplant were programmed in case of continuity of the process.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Bronchitis/etiology , Fontan Procedure/adverse effects , Protein-Losing Enteropathies/etiology , Heart Ventricles/abnormalities
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 41(4): 409-412, jul.-ago. 2008. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-494499

ABSTRACT

A febre Q é uma zoonose de distribuição mundial causada por Coxiella burnetii, sendo raros os registros da doença no Brasil. Estudos soroepidemiológicos mostraram uma freqüência relativamente elevada de anticorpos contra Coxiella burnetii em populações com exposição ocupacional. Em humanos, pode se manifestar clinicamente como doença aguda ou crônica, sendo que a endocardite é a forma crônica mais freqüente da febre Q e de maior morbi-mortalidade. Relatamos um caso grave de endocardite por Coxiella burnetii adquirida no Brasil com desfecho fatal, apesar de antibioticoterapia adequada e tratamento cirúrgico valvar.


Q fever is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution that is caused by Coxiella burnetii. However, reports of this disease in Brazil are rare. Seroepidemiological studies have shown relatively high frequencies of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in populations with occupational exposure. In humans, it can be manifested clinically as acute or chronic disease. Endocarditis is the most frequent chronic form of Q fever and the form with the greatest morbidity and mortality. We report a severe case of endocarditis due to Coxiella burnetii acquired in Brazil that had a fatal outcome, despite specific antibiotic therapy and valve surgery treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Coxiella burnetii/isolation & purification , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Q Fever , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Endocarditis, Bacterial/pathology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Fatal Outcome , Q Fever/diagnosis , Q Fever/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index
19.
In. Serrano Junior, Carlos V; Tarasoutchi, Flávio; Jatene, Fábio B.; Mathias Junior, Wilson. Cardiologia baseada em relatos de casos. São Paulo, Manole, 2006. p.379-381, ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-441413
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