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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 45-54, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874353

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to reduce radiation doses to the tongue, a patient-specific semi-customized tongue immobilization device (SCTID) was developed using a 3D printer for helical tomotherapy (HT) of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPCa). Dosimetric characteristics and setup stability of the SCTID were compared with those of a standard mouthpiece (SMP). @*Materials and Methods@#For displacement and robust immobilization of the tongue, the SCTID consists of four parts: upper and lower tooth stoppers, tongue guider, tongue-tip position guide bar, and connectors. With the SCTID and SMP, two sets of planning computed tomography and HT plans were obtained for 10 NPCa patients. Dosimetric and geometric characteristics were compared. Position reproducibility of the tongue with SCTID was evaluated by comparing with planned dose and adaptive accumulated dose of the tongue and base of the tongue based on daily setup mega-voltage computed tomography. @*Results@#Using the SCTID, the tongue was effectively displaced from the planning target volume compared to the SMP. The median mucosa of the tongue (M-tongue) dose was significantly reduced (20.7 Gy vs. 27.8 Gy). The volumes of the M-tongue receiving a dose of 15 Gy, 30 Gy, and 45 Gy and the volumes of the mucosa of oral cavity and oropharynx (M-OC/OP) receiving a dose of 45 Gy and 60 Gy were significantly lower than using the SMP. No significant differences was observed between the planned dose and the accumulated adaptive dose in any dosimetric characteristics of the tongue and base of tongue. @*Conclusion@#SCTID can not only reduce the dose to the M-tongue and M-OC/OP dramatically, when compared to SMP, but also provide excellent reproducibility and easy visual verification.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 63-70, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170080

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits and treatment efficiency of carotid-sparing TomoHelical 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (TH-3DCRT) for early glottic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten early-stage (T1N0M0) glottic squamous cell carcinoma patients were simulated, based on computed tomography scans. Two-field 3DCRT (2F-3DCRT), 3-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (3F-IMRT), TomoHelical-IMRT (TH-IMRT), and TH-3DCRT plans were generated with a 67.5-Gy total prescription dose to the planning target volume (PTV) for each patient. In order to evaluate the plan quality, dosimetric characteristics were compared in terms of conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for PTV, dose to the carotid arteries, and maximum dose to the spinal cord. Treatment planning and delivery times were compared to evaluate treatment efficiency. RESULTS: The median CI was substantially better for the 3F-IMRT (0.65), TH-IMRT (0.64), and TH-3DCRT (0.63) plans, compared to the 2F-3DCRT plan (0.32). PTV HI was slightly better for TH-3DCRT and TH-IMRT (1.05) compared to 2F-3DCRT (1.06) and 3F-IMRT (1.09). TH-3DCRT, 3F-IMRT, and TH-IMRT showed an excellent carotid sparing capability compared to 2F-3DCRT (p < 0.05). For all plans, the maximum dose to the spinal cord was < 45 Gy. The median treatment planning times for 2F-3DCRT (5.85 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (7.10 minutes) were much lower than those for 3F-IMRT (45.48 minutes) and TH-IMRT (35.30 minutes). The delivery times for 2F-3DCRT (2.06 minutes) and 3F-IMRT (2.48 minutes) were slightly lower than those for TH-IMRT (2.90 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (2.86 minutes). CONCLUSION: TH-3DCRT showed excellent carotid-sparing capability, while offering high efficiency and maintaining good PTV coverage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Carotid Arteries , Prescriptions , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Spinal Cord
3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 106-114, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170075

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate clinical outcomes following definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for patients with N3-positive stage IIIB (N3-IIIB) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with a focus on radiation therapy (RT) techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2010 to November 2012, 77 patients with N3-IIIB NSCLC received definitive CCRT (median, 66 Gy). RT techniques were selected individually based on estimated lung toxicity, with 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) delivered to 48 (62.3%) and 29 (37.7%) patients, respectively. Weekly docetaxel/paclitaxel plus cisplatin (67, 87.0%) was the most common concurrent chemotherapy regimen. RESULTS: The median age and clinical target volume (CTV) were 60 years and 288.0 cm3, respectively. Patients receiving IMRT had greater disease extent in terms of supraclavicular lymph node (SCN) involvement and CTV > or = 300 cm3. The median follow-up time was 21.7 months. Fortyfive patients (58.4%) experienced disease progression, most frequently distant metastasis (39, 50.6%). In-field locoregional control, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates at 2 years were 87.9%, 38.7%, and 75.2%, respectively. Although locoregional control was similar between RT techniques, patients receiving IMRT had worse PFS and OS, and SCN metastases from the lower lobe primary tumor and CTV > or = 300 cm3were associated with worse OS. The incidence and severity of toxicities did not differ significantly between RT techniques. CONCLUSION: IMRT could lead to similar locoregional control and toxicity, while encompassing a greater disease extent than 3D-CRT. The decision to apply IMRT should be made carefully after considering oncologic outcomes associated with greater disease extent and cost.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
4.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 337-343, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70159

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this report is to describe the proton therapy system at Samsung Medical Center (SMC-PTS) including the proton beam generator, irradiation system, patient positioning system, patient position verification system, respiratory gating system, and operating and safety control system, and review the current status of the SMC-PTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SMC-PTS has a cyclotron (230 MeV) and two treatment rooms: one treatment room is equipped with a multi-purpose nozzle and the other treatment room is equipped with a dedicated pencil beam scanning nozzle. The proton beam generator including the cyclotron and the energy selection system can lower the energy of protons down to 70 MeV from the maximum 230 MeV. RESULTS: The multi-purpose nozzle can deliver both wobbling proton beam and active scanning proton beam, and a multi-leaf collimator has been installed in the downstream of the nozzle. The dedicated scanning nozzle can deliver active scanning proton beam with a helium gas filled pipe minimizing unnecessary interactions with the air in the beam path. The equipment was provided by Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., RayStation from RaySearch Laboratories AB is the selected treatment planning system, and data management will be handled by the MOSAIQ system from Elekta AB. CONCLUSION: The SMC-PTS located in Seoul, Korea, is scheduled to begin treating cancer patients in 2015.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cyclotrons , Helium , Korea , Metallurgy , Particle Accelerators , Patient Positioning , Proton Therapy , Protons , Radiation Oncology , Respiratory System , Seoul
5.
Korean Journal of Medical Physics ; : 91-98, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104170

ABSTRACT

Verification of internal organ motion during treatment and its feedback is essential to accurate dose delivery to the moving target. We developed an offline based internal organ motion verification system (IMVS) using cine EPID images and evaluated its accuracy and availability through phantom study. For verification of organ motion using live cine EPID images, a pattern matching algorithm using an internal surrogate, which is very distinguishable and represents organ motion in the treatment field, like diaphragm, was employed in the self-developed analysis software. For the system performance test, we developed a linear motion phantom, which consists of a human body shaped phantom with a fake tumor in the lung, linear motion cart, and control software. The phantom was operated with a motion of 2 cm at 4 sec per cycle and cine EPID images were obtained at a rate of 3.3 and 6.6 frames per sec (2 MU/frame) with 1,024x768 pixel counts in a linear accelerator (10 MVX). Organ motion of the target was tracked using self-developed analysis software. Results were compared with planned data of the motion phantom and data from the video image based tracking system (RPM, Varian, USA) using an external surrogate in order to evaluate its accuracy. For quantitative analysis, we analyzed correlation between two data sets in terms of average cycle (peak to peak), amplitude, and pattern (RMS, root mean square) of motion. Averages for the cycle of motion from IMVS and RPM system were 3.98+/-0.11 (IMVS 3.3 fps), 4.005+/-0.001 (IMVS 6.6 fps), and 3.95+/-0.02 (RPM), respectively, and showed good agreement on real value (4 sec/cycle). Average of the amplitude of motion tracked by our system showed 1.85+/-0.02 cm (3.3 fps) and 1.94+/-0.02 cm (6.6 fps) as showed a slightly different value, 0.15 (7.5% error) and 0.06 (3% error) cm, respectively, compared with the actual value (2 cm), due to time resolution for image acquisition. In analysis of pattern of motion, the value of the RMS from the cine EPID image in 3.3 fps (0.1044) grew slightly compared with data from 6.6 fps (0.0480). The organ motion verification system using sequential cine EPID images with an internal surrogate showed good representation of its motion within 3% error in a preliminary phantom study. The system can be implemented for clinical purposes, which include organ motion verification during treatment, compared with 4D treatment planning data, and its feedback for accurate dose delivery to the moving target.


Subject(s)
Diaphragm , Human Body , Lung , Particle Accelerators , Track and Field
6.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 155-165, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180477

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to evaluate the positional uncertainty of internal organs during radiation therapy for treatment of liver cancer, we measured differences in inter- and intra-fractional variation of the tumor position and tidal amplitude using 4-dimentional computed radiograph (DCT) images and gated orthogonal setup kilovolt (KV) images taken on every treatment using the on board imaging (OBI) and real time position management (RPM) system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients who underwent 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy for treatment of liver cancer participated in this study. All patients received a 4DCT simulation with an RT16 scanner and an RPM system. Lipiodol, which was updated near the target volume after transarterial chemoembolization or diaphragm was chosen as a surrogate for the evaluation of the position difference of internal organs. Two reference orthogonal (anterior and lateral) digital reconstructed radiograph (DRR) images were generated using CT image sets of 0% and 50% into the respiratory phases. The maximum tidal amplitude of the surrogate was measured from 3D conformal treatment planning. After setting the patient up with laser markings on the skin, orthogonal gated setup images at 50% into the respiratory phase were acquired at each treatment session with OBI and registered on reference DRR images by setting each beam center. Online inter-fractional variation was determined with the surrogate. After adjusting the patient setup error, orthogonal setup images at 0% and 50% into the respiratory phases were obtained and tidal amplitude of the surrogate was measured. Measured tidal amplitude was compared with data from 4DCT. For evaluation of intra-fractional variation, an orthogonal gated setup image at 50% into the respiratory phase was promptly acquired after treatment and compared with the same image taken just before treatment. In addition, a statistical analysis for the quantitative evaluation was performed. RESULTS: Medians of inter-fractional variation for twenty patients were 0.00 cm (range, -0.50 to 0.90 cm), 0.00 cm (range, -2.40 to 1.60 cm), and 0.00 cm (range, -1.10 to 0.50 cm) in the X (transaxial), Y (superior-inferior), and Z (anterior-posterior) directions, respectively. Significant inter-fractional variations over 0.5 cm were observed in four patients. Min addition, the median tidal amplitude differences between 4DCTs and the gated orthogonal setup images were -0.05 cm (range, -0.83 to 0.60 cm), -0.15 cm (range, -2.58 to 1.18 cm), and -0.02 cm (range, -1.37 to 0.59 cm) in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. Large differences of over 1 cm were detected in 3 patients in the Y direction, while differences of more than 0.5 but less than 1 cm were observed in 5 patients in Y and Z directions. Median intra-fractional variation was 0.00 cm (range, -0.30 to 0.40 cm), -0.03 cm (range, -1.14 to 0.50 cm), 0.05 cm (range, -0.30 to 0.50 cm) in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. Significant intra-fractional variation of over 1 cm was observed in 2 patients in Y direction. CONCLUSION: Gated setup images provided a clear image quality for the detection of organ motion without a motion artifact. Significant intra- and inter-fractional variation and tidal amplitude differences between 4DCT and gated setup images were detected in some patients during the radiation treatment period, and therefore, should be considered when setting up the target margin. Monitoring of positional uncertainty and its adaptive feedback system can enhance the accuracy of treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artifacts , Diaphragm , Ethiodized Oil , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Liver , Liver Neoplasms , Skin , Uncertainty
7.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 91-102, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the accuracy and efficacy of EDR2 film, a 2D ionization chamber array (MatriXX) and an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID) in the pre-treatment QA of IMRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fluence patterns, shaped as a wedge with 10 steps (segments) by a multi-leaf collimator (MLC), of reference and test IMRT fields were measured using EDR2 film, the MatriXX, and EPID. Test fields were designed to simulate leaf positioning errors. The absolute dose at a point in each step of the reference fields was measured in a water phantom with an ionization chamber and was compared to the dose obtained with the use of EDR2 film, the MatriXX and EPID. For qualitative analysis, all measured fluence patterns of both reference and test fields were compared with calculated dose maps from a radiation treatment planning system (Pinnacle, Philips, USA) using profiles and gamma evaluation with 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm criteria. By measurement of the time to perform QA, we compared the workload of EDR2 film, the MatriXX and EPID. RESULTS: The percent absolute dose difference between the measured and ionization chamber dose was within 1% for the EPID, 2% for the MatriXX and 3% for EDR2 film. The percentage of pixels with gamma%>1 for the 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm criteria was within 2% for use of both EDR2 film and the EPID. However, differences for the use of the MatriXX were seen with a maximum difference as great as 5.94% with the 2%/2 mm criteria. For the test fields, EDR2 film and EPID could detect leaf-positioning errors on the order of -3 mm and -2 mm, respectively. However it was difficult to differentiate leaf-positioning errors with the MatriXX due to its poor resolution. The approximate time to perform QA was 110 minutes for the use of EDR2 film, 80 minutes for the use of the MatriXX and approximately 55 minutes for the use of the EPID. CONCLUSION: This study has evaluated the accuracy and efficacy of EDR2 film, the MatriXX and EPID in the pre-treatment verification of IMRT. EDR2 film and the EPID showed better performance for accuracy, while the use of the MatriXX significantly reduced measurement and analysis times. We propose practical and useful methods to establish an effective QA system in a clinical environment.


Subject(s)
Electronics , Electrons , Silicon , Water
8.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 42-48, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51891

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The introduction of image guided radiation therapy/four-dimensional radiation therapy (IGRT/4DRT) potentially increases the accumulated dose to patients from imaging and verification processes as compared to conventional practice. It is therefore essential to investigate the level of the imaging dose to patients when IGRT/4DRT devices are installed. The imaging dose level was monitored and was compared with the use of pre-IGRT practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A four-dimensional CT (4DCT) unit (GE, Ultra Light Speed 16), a simulator (Varian Acuity) and Varian IX unit with an on-board imager (OBI) and cone beam CT (CBCT) were installed. The surface doses to a RANDO phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY USA) were measured with the newly installed devices and with pre-existing devices including a single slice CT scanner (GE, Light Speed), a simulator (Varian Ximatron) and L-gram linear accelerator (Varian, 2100C Linac). The surface doses were measured using thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs) at eight sites-the brain, eye, thyroid, chest, abdomen, ovary, prostate and pelvis. RESULTS: Compared to imaging with the use of single slice non-gated CT, the use of 4DCT imaging increased the dose to the chest and abdomen approximately ten-fold (1.74+/-0.34 cGy versus 23.23+/-3.67 cGy ). Imaging doses with the use of the Acuity simulator were smaller than doses with the use of the Ximatron simulator, which were 0.91+/-0.89 cGy versus 6.77+/-3.56 cGy, respectively. The dose with the use of the electronic portal imaging device (EPID; Varian IX unit) was approximately 50% of the dose with the use of the L-gram linear accelerator (1.83+/-0.36 cGy versus 3.80+/-1.67 cGy). The dose from the OBI for fluoroscopy and low-dose mode CBCT were 0.97+/-0.34 cGy and 2.3+/-0.67 cGy, respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of 4DCT is the major source of an increase of the radiation (imaging) dose to patients. OBI and CBCT doses were small, but the accumulated dose associated with everyday verification need to be considered


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Abdomen , Brain , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Electronics , Electrons , Eye , Fluoroscopy , Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography , Light , Ovary , Particle Accelerators , Pelvis , Prostate , Thorax , Thyroid Gland
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