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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833823

ABSTRACT

Echinostome metacercariae were investigated in freshwater snails from 26 districts in 7 provinces of upper northern Thailand. The species identification was carried out based on the morphologies of the metacercariae and adult flukes harvested from experimental hamsters, and on nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Twenty-four out of 26 districts were found to be infected with echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails with the prevalence of 40.4%. The metacercariae were found in all 6 species of snails, including Filopaludina martensi martensi (21.9%), Filopaludina doliaris (50.8%), F. sumatrensis polygramma (61.3%), Bithynia siamensis siamensis (14.5%), Bithynia pulchella (38.0%), and Anenthome helena (4.9%). The echinostome metacercariae found in these snails were identified as Echinostoma revolutum (37-collar-spined) and Echinostoma macrorchis (45-collar-spined) morphologically and molecularly. The 2-week-old adult flukes of E. revolutum revealed unique features of the cirrus sac extending to middle of the ventral sucker and smooth testes. E. macrorchis adults revealed the cirrus sac close to the right lateral margin of the ventral sucker and 2 large and elliptical testes with slight indentations and pointed posterior end of the posterior testis. The ITS2 and nad1 sequences confirmed the species identification of E. revolutum, and the sequences of E. macrorchis have been deposited for the first time in Gen-Bank. The presence of the life cycle of E. macrorchis is a new record in Thailand and the snail F. doliaris as their second intermediate host seems to be new among the literature.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833794

ABSTRACT

The third stage larvae (L3) of Anisakis typica were detected in 2 species of threadfin bream, Nemipterus hexodon and N. japonicus, from the Gulf of Thailand, and were morphologically and molecularly characterized. Total 100 threadfin breams, 50 Nemipterus hexodon and 50 N. japonicus, were examined with naked eyes after the opening of abdominal cavity with scissors. Almost all infected larvae remained alive and active even the fish were transported for 1-2 days. Anisakid larvae were exclusively distributed in the body cavity and rarely in the liver. The prevalence of A. typica L3 were 68.0% and 60.0% in N. hexodon and N. japonicus and their infection intensities were 3.5 and 4.2 per fish infected each. Morphological and morphometric analysis were performed by viewing specimens under both a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Interestingly, the protruded mucron of Anisakis typica under SEM showed a distinct cylindrical shape that differed from the cone shape of A. simplex. The protruded mucron could be used to identify A. typica L3 larvae in the future. A comparison of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA nucleotide sequences of these species revealed high blast scores with A. typica. Conclusively, it was confirmed that A. typica L3 are prevalent in threadfin breams from the Gulf of Thailand, and their morphological and molecular characters are something different from those of other anisakid larvae, including A. simplex and A. pegreffii.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761744

ABSTRACT

We tried a series of morphological and molecular approaches to identify a new species of Stellantchasmus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) originating from the wrestling half-beaked fish, Dermogenys pusillus of Thailand. Adult worm samples of the new species were recovered from hamsters experimentally infected with the metacercariae from D. pusillus in Thailand. Two isolates (Thai and Korean) of Stellantchasmus falcatus were used as comparative control groups. Worm samples of 3 Stellantchasmus groups were morphologically observed and molecularly analyzed with the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene. The morphological characteristics of S. dermogenysi n. sp. are similar to S. falcatus originating from brackish water fish, but minor difference was noted including the absence of the prepharynx, position of the ovary near the ceca end, smaller body size, and shorter esophageal length. A phylogenetic tree derived from neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood methods suggests that S. dermogenysi n. sp. is separated from S. falcatus supported by high bootstrap values. The relative divergences persist between these host-specific trematodes, which we suggest should be recognized as 2 distinct species. Comparisons of S. dermogenysi n. sp. with S. falcatus isolated from mullets in Thailand and Korea indicate a genetic divergence of mitochondrial DNA of 19.4% and 21.7%, respectively. By the present study, a new species, Stellantchasmus dermogenysi n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae), is proposed in Thailand based on molecular evidences, in addition to minor morphological differences between S. falcatus and the new species.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Body Size , Cricetinae , DNA, Mitochondrial , Electron Transport Complex IV , Female , Humans , Korea , Metacercariae , Ovary , Phylogeny , Saline Waters , Smegmamorpha , Thailand , Trees , Wrestling
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825777

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the parasitic infection of Anentome helena (A. helena) and determine the validity of species boundaries for A. helena by combining molecular phylogeny and morphological approaches.Methods:A total of 325 individuals of A. helena were collected throughout northern Thailand. Shells were measured and compared by t-test. Radulae were investigated by using light and scanning electron microscope. Two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences of COI and 16S rRNA from 36 specimens of A. helena and related species were used to test the validity of the morphospecies. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using neighbour joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Infection of A. helena with trematode larva was examined and observed.Results:Morphological examination of A. helena revealed 2 distinct morphospecies. Genetic divergences supported the separation of the two morphotypes into two distinct groups. Both individual and combined analyses of the two nucleotide fragments revealed two phylogroups that corresponded with shell and radula characteristics. In addition, A. helena was found infected with 37-collar spined echinostome metacercariae. The prevalence and intensity of metacercariae was highest in the San Kamphaeng district, Chiang Mai province, with 7.5% and 1.670±0.577, respectively.Conclusions:These findings suggest that comprehensive taxonomic revision of this unrecognised species complex is needed. This study represents the preliminary step to reveal new data on the recent distribution of trematode infection in A. helena. This information may be useful for developing conservation management of the snail and the practice of targeted regimes to reduce anthelmintic resistance in the future.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742223

ABSTRACT

The family Thapariellidae has been reported in only 3 countries since 1990. The objective of this study was to identify Thapariella anastomusa metacercariae in snails in Thailand based on morphological traits using a light (LM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A total of 94 Filopaludina snails were collected and identified as 50 F. martensi martensi and 44 F. doliaris. Metacercariae of T. anastomusa were recovered from the snails by the crushing method. The overall prevalence was 22.3% (21/94), and the mean intensity was 17.0 per snail. The prevalence in F. martensi martensi was 24.0% (12/50) and F. doliaris 20.5% (9/44) with the mean intensity of 18.8 and 14.8 per snail, respectively. SEM revealed traits such as a concave ventral body and well-developed oral and ventral suckers. This study represents the first report of T. anastomusa in South East Asia. While LM and SEM observations provide novel insights into T. anastomusa metacercarial morphology and life history, the trematode’s life cycle remains unclear. To date, there has been no report of T. anastomusa causing infections in humans. However, the snails F. martensi martensi and F. doliaris carrying the infective stages of T. anastomosa are frequently consumed by Thai people. This consumption, particularly uncooked snails, may present a risk of Thapariella infections in humans.


Subject(s)
Asians , Far East , Humans , Life Cycle Stages , Metacercariae , Methods , Prevalence , Snails , Thailand
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168708

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the morphology and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Centrocestus formosanus originating from 5 species of freshwater fish, i.e., Esomus metallicus, Puntius brevis, Anabas testudineus, Parambassis siamensis, and Carassius auratus, in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and phylogeny based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) were performed. The results showed similar morphologies of adult C. formosanus from day 5 after infection in chicks. C. formosanus originated from 4 species of freshwater fish had the same number of circumoral spines on the oral sucker, except for those from C. auratus which revealed 34 circumoral spines. The phylogenetic tree obtained from SRAP profile and the combination of ITS2 and CO1 sequence showed similar results that were correlated with the number of circumoral spines in adult worms. Genetic variability of C. formosanus also occurred in different species of freshwater fish hosts. However, more details of adult worm morphologies and more sensitive genetic markers are needed to confirm the species validity of C. formosanus with 34 circumoral spines originating from C. auratus in the future.


Subject(s)
Adult , Electron Transport Complex IV , Fresh Water , Genetic Markers , Goldfish , Humans , Phylogeny , Spine , Thailand , Trees
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69359

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae was investigated in ornamental fish purchased from a pet shop in Chiang Mai, Thailand, including Carassius auratus (goldfish), Cyprinus carpio (Koi), Poecilia latipinna (Sailfin Molly), Danio rerio (Zebrafish), and Puntigrus tetrazona (Tiger barb). The parasite species was identified by the morphology of worms as well as by a molecular approach using ITS2. The results showed that 50 (33.3%) of 150 fish examined were infected with the metacercariae. The highest prevalence was found in C. auratus (83.3%), and the highest intensity was noted in C. carpio (70.8 metacercariae/fish). The most important morphological character was the presence of 32–34 circumoral spines on the oral sucker. The phylogenetic studies using the rRNA ITS2 region revealed that all the specimens of C. formosanus in this study were grouped together with C. formosanus in GenBank database. This is the first report on ornamental fish, C. carpio, P. latipinna, D. rerio, and P. tetrazona, taking the role of second intermediate hosts of C. formosanus in Thailand. Prevention and control of metacercarial infection in ornamental fish is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Carps , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Goldfish , Metacercariae , Parasites , Poecilia , Prevalence , Spine , Thailand , Zebrafish
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To examine the taxonomic boundaries in the Stellantchasmus populations in different hosts and reveal the cryptic speciation of the Stellantchasmus in Thailand based on both morphological and molecular approaches.@*METHODS@#Stellantchasmus falcatus (S. falcatus) s.l. was collected from different hosts throughout Thailand. The worms were examined and measured. The nuclear ITS2 gene and the mitochondrial COI gene were used to investigate the S. falcatus s.l. from Dermogenus pusillus and Liza subviridis.@*RESULTS@#Stellantchasmus was one of food-borne trematode that widely distribute throughout Thailand. The comparison of S. falcatus s.l. from Dermogenus pusillus and Liza subviridis indicated a genetic divergence of nuDNA with 3.6% and mtDNA with 19.3%, respectively. Morphological characteristics were fairly different in the ratio of body size, length of prepharynx, and ratio of organ size.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results provide initial evidence that S. falcatus s.l. from different hosts tend to be a different species based on both molecular and morphological characters. Cryptic species complexes are generally found among parasites that tend to have large populations and/or rapid evolution. The degree of genetic diversity existing would suggest the practice of targeted regimes to design and minimize these lections of anthelmintic resistance in the future.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72755

ABSTRACT

Raillietina species are prevalent in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand. Their infection may cause disease and death, which affects the public health and economic situation in chicken farms. The identification of Raillietina has been based on morphology and molecular analysis. In this study, morphological observations using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) coupled with molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene were employed for precise identification and phylogenetic relationship studies of Raillietina spp. Four Raillietina species, including R. echinobothrida, R. tetragona, R. cesticillus, and Raillietina sp., were recovered in domestic chickens from 4 districts in Phayao province, Thailand. LM and SEM observations revealed differences in the morphology of the scolex, position of the genital pore, number of eggs per egg capsule, and rostellar opening surface structures in all 4 species. Phylogenetic relationships were found among the phylogenetic trees obtained by the maximum likelihood and distance-based neighbor-joining methods. ITS2 and ND1 sequence data recorded from Raillietina sp. appeared to be monophyletic. The query sequences of R. echinobothrida, R. tetragona, R. cesticillus, and Raillietina sp. were separated according to the different morphological characters. This study confirmed that morphological studies combined with molecular analyses can differentiate related species within the genus Raillietina in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Cestoda , Chickens , Eggs , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , NAD , Ovum , Oxidoreductases , Phylogeny , Public Health , Thailand , Trees
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130566

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the life history, morphology, and maturation of larval stages and adult worms of Fasciola gigantica in experimental mice. Lymnaea auricularia rubiginosa was used as the intermediate host, and Oryza sativa was used for encystment of the metacercariae, while Mus musculus was used as the definitive host for maturation study. Fresh eggs from the gall bladder of water buffaloes fully developed into embryonated ones and hatched out at days 11-12 after incubation at about 29masculineC. Free-swimming miracidia rapidly penetrated into the snail host, and gradually developed into the next larval stages; sporocyst, redia, and daughter redia with cercariae. Fully-developed cercariae were separated from the redia and shed from the snails on day 39 post-infection (PI). Free-swimming cercariae were immediately allowed to adhere to rice plants, and capsules were constructed to protect metacercariae on rice plants. Juvenile worms were detected in intestines of mice at days 3 and 6 PI, but they were found in the bile duct from day 9 PI. Juvenile and adult flukes were recovered from 16 mice experimentally infected with metacercariae, with the average recovery rate of 35.8%. Sexually mature adult flukes were recovered from day 42 PI. It could be confirmed that experimentally encysted metacercariae could infect and develop to maturity in the experimental host. The present study reports for the first time the complete life history of F. gigantica by an experimental study in Thailand. The obtained information can be used as a guide for prevention, elimination, and treatment of F. gigantica at environment and in other hosts.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae/parasitology , Animals , Buffaloes/parasitology , Fasciola/anatomy & histology , Gallbladder/parasitology , Larva/anatomy & histology , Life Cycle Stages , Mice , Microscopy , Oryza/parasitology , Time Factors
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130559

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the life history, morphology, and maturation of larval stages and adult worms of Fasciola gigantica in experimental mice. Lymnaea auricularia rubiginosa was used as the intermediate host, and Oryza sativa was used for encystment of the metacercariae, while Mus musculus was used as the definitive host for maturation study. Fresh eggs from the gall bladder of water buffaloes fully developed into embryonated ones and hatched out at days 11-12 after incubation at about 29masculineC. Free-swimming miracidia rapidly penetrated into the snail host, and gradually developed into the next larval stages; sporocyst, redia, and daughter redia with cercariae. Fully-developed cercariae were separated from the redia and shed from the snails on day 39 post-infection (PI). Free-swimming cercariae were immediately allowed to adhere to rice plants, and capsules were constructed to protect metacercariae on rice plants. Juvenile worms were detected in intestines of mice at days 3 and 6 PI, but they were found in the bile duct from day 9 PI. Juvenile and adult flukes were recovered from 16 mice experimentally infected with metacercariae, with the average recovery rate of 35.8%. Sexually mature adult flukes were recovered from day 42 PI. It could be confirmed that experimentally encysted metacercariae could infect and develop to maturity in the experimental host. The present study reports for the first time the complete life history of F. gigantica by an experimental study in Thailand. The obtained information can be used as a guide for prevention, elimination, and treatment of F. gigantica at environment and in other hosts.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae/parasitology , Animals , Buffaloes/parasitology , Fasciola/anatomy & histology , Gallbladder/parasitology , Larva/anatomy & histology , Life Cycle Stages , Mice , Microscopy , Oryza/parasitology , Time Factors
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51157

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the infection status, worm development, and phylogenetic characteristics of the intestinal trematode, Stellantchasmus falcatus. The metacercariae of S. falcatus were detected only in the half-beak (Dermogenus pusillus) out of the 4 fish species examined. Their prevalence was 90.0%, and the intensity of infection was 919 metacercariae on average. Worms were recovered from 33 (97.1%) of 34 chicks that were experimentally infected with 200 S. falcatus metacercariae each, and the average recovery rate was 43.0%. The body size and inner organs of S. falcatus quickly increased in the experimental chicks over days 1-2 post-infection (PI). In addition, ITS2 sequence data of this parasite were analyzed to examine the phylogenetic relationships with other trematodes using the UPGMA method. The results indicated that the ITS2 sequence data recorded from trematodes in the family Heterophyidae appeared to be monophyletic. This study concluded that D. pusillus serves as a compatible second intermediate host of S. falcatus in Thailand and that S. falcatus can develop rapidly in the experimental chicks. Data collected from this study can help to close the gap in knowledge regarding the epidemiology, biology, and phylogenetic characteristics of S. falcatus in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fishes , Heterophyidae/classification , Metacercariae/classification , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Thailand , Trematode Infections/parasitology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819735

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the prevalence of echinostome metacercariae in Filopaludina dorliaris (F. dorliaris) and Filopaludina martensi martensi (F. martensi martensi) and genotype variation of echinostome metacercariae by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.@*METHODS@#Filopaludina sp. snails were collected from eight localities of Lamphun Province, Northern Thailand and examined for echinostome metacercariae. RAPD-PCR was used to analyze genotype variation of echinostome metacercariae.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3 226 F. dorliaris and F. martensi martensi snails were collected from eight localities. The overall prevalences of echinostome metacercariae in F. dorliaris and F. martensi martensi were 40.89% and 36.27%, while the intensity of infection was 20.37 and 12.04, respectively. The dendrogram constructed base on RAPD profiles, 4 well supported domains were generated; (i) group of metacercariae from Ban Hong, Mae Ta, Meaung, Pa Sang, Toong Hua Chang, and Weang Nong that were clustered in the group of E. revolutum, (ii) Ban Thi, (iii) Lee, and (iv) 3 adults of an out group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This research demonstrated RAPD profiling has been a useful tool to detect DNA polymorphisms to determine genetic relationship between echinostome metacercariae in Lamphun Province, Northern Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Echinostoma , Classification , Genetics , Echinostomiasis , Epidemiology , Parasitology , Metacercariae , Classification , Genetics , Molecular Typing , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Snails , Parasitology , Thailand , Epidemiology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the infection of Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) in domestic cattle from Chiang Mai province and molecular confirmation using ITS-2 region.@*METHODS@#The liver and gall bladder of Bubalus bubalis (B. bubalis) and Bos taurus (B. taurus) from slaughterhouses were examined adult worms and prevalence investigation. The species confirmation with phylogenetic analysis using ITS-2 sequences was performed by maximum likelihood and UPGMA methods.@*RESULTS@#The total prevalences of infection in B. bubalis and Bubalus taurus (B. taurus) were 67.27% and 52.94% respectively. The respective prevalence in both B. bubalis and B. taurus were acquired from Doi-Saket, Muang, and Sanpatong districts, with 81.25%, 62.50% and 60.00% for B. bubalis and 62.50%, 50.00% and 47.06% for Bos taurus respectively. The species confirmation of F. gigantica and some related species by basing on maximum likelihood and UPGMA methods used, 4 groups of trematodes were generated, first F. gigantica group including specimen of Chiang Mai, second 2 samples of F. hepatica, third group of 3 rumen flukes; Orthocoelium streptocoelium, F. elongatus and Paramphistomum epliclitum and fourth group of 3 minute intestinal flukes; Haplorchis taichui, Stellantchasmu falcatus, Haplorchoides sp. and liver fluke; Opisthorchis viverrini respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results can be confirmed the Giant liver fluke which mainly caused fascioliasis in Chiang Mai was identified as F. gigantica and specimens were the same as those of F. gigantica recorded in other different countries. Nucleotide sequence of ITS-2 region has been proven as effective diagnostic tool for the identification of F. gigantica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases , Epidemiology , Parasitology , DNA, Helminth , Genetics , DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , Fasciola , Genetics , Fascioliasis , Epidemiology , Parasitology , Gallbladder , Parasitology , Liver , Parasitology , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Thailand , Epidemiology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820673

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze a phylogenetic tree for understanding the molecular systematic of trematode in Family Heterophyidae, which are highly distributed in Thailand.@*METHODS@#Based on thirteen sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mCOI) gene from six genera of heterophyid trematodes, viz. Haplorchis, Stellantchasmus, Centrocestus, Metagonimus, Pygidopsis, and Haplorchoides were aligned automatically using the Clustal × 2.0 program. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by maximum likeinghood (ML) and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods, with 1 000 bootstrap using the 5.0 program.@*RESULTS@#The phylogenetic relationship from both methods was similar and separated into three groups consisting of Haplorchoides pumilio group, Haplorchoides taichui group and another heterophyid genera.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The sequence data of mtCOI can be used to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of trematodes at the genus level. Each clade of different genera of heterophyid trematodes can be separated into sister groups that correlated with the morphological characteristic, kind of secondary intermediate host and geographic distribution.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Helminth , Genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV , Genetics , Fishes , Parasitology , Helminth Proteins , Genetics , Heterophyidae , Classification , Genetics , Phylogeny , Trematode Infections , Parasitology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-500393

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Methods:The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study. Results:A total of 2 479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2 479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae;gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%). Conclusions:The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103956

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of 37-collar spined echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails was investigated in 6 districts of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2,914 snails that belong to 12 species were examined, and 7 snail species (Clea helena, Eyriesia eyriesi, Bithynia funiculata, Bithynia siamensis siamensis, Filopaludina doliaris, Filopaludina sumatrensis polygramma, and Filopaludina martensi martensi) were found infected with echinostome metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae was the highest in Filopaludina spp. (38.5-58.7%) followed by B. funiculata (44.0%), E. eyriesi (12.5%), B. siamensis siamensis (8.2%), and C. helena (5.1%). Metacercariae were experimentally fed to hamsters and domestic chicks, and adult flukes were recovered from both hosts at days 15 and 20 post-infection. The adult flukes were identified based on morphological features, morphometrics, host-parasite relationships, and geographical distribution. They were compatible to Echinostoma revolutum or Echinostoma jurini, with only minor differences. As the adults were recovered from both hamsters and chicks, our specimens were more compatible to E. revolutum rather than E. jurini (reported only from mammals). This is the first report for metacercariae of E. revolutum in the snail host, C. helena, and also confirmed that Filopaludina spp., E. eryresi, and Bithynia spp. act as the second intermediate hosts of E. revolutum under natural conditions, which are indigenously distributed in Chiang Mai province.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Cricetinae , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Fresh Water , Life Cycle Stages , Metacercariae/anatomy & histology , Prevalence , Snails/parasitology , Thailand/epidemiology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312420

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 2 479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2 479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae; gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cercaria , Fresh Water , Prevalence , Snails , Parasitology , Thailand , Epidemiology , Trematoda
19.
in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-130077

ABSTRACT

Background: Fish-borne trematode infection is a parasitic zoonosis with a great variety of clinical manifestations. According to current information, the metacercaria of heterophyid trematode can be found in freshwater fish, especially the cyprinoid group. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Heterophyidae metacercariae in freshwater fish. Material and methods: A parasitological investigation was done using 129 fish from 17 species: Labiobarbus siamensis, Puntioplites proctozysron Barbodes gonionotus, Barbodes altus, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Hampala macrolepidota, Mystacoleucus marginatus, Notopterus notopterus, Pristolepis fasciatus, Anabas testudineus, Puntius brevis, Poropuntius deauratus, Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Osteochilus hasselti, Labiobarbus spilopleura, Lobocheilus davisi and Rasboratornieri. The fish were caught during the rainy season (June-September 2007) in the Chiang Mai water reservoirs (Mae Ngad and Mae Kuang) and the Chiang Rai water reservoirs (Nong Luang and Mae Tak). Results: The prevalence of heterophyid metacercariae infection at Mae Ngad, Mae Kuang, Nong Luang and Mae tak were 37.83%, 51.35%, 12.00% and 63.33%, respectively. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of Haplorchis metacercarial infection in cyprinoid fish. The highest intensity of heterophyid metacercariae infection in Barbodes gonionotus was in Mae Kuang at 104.

20.
in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-129837

ABSTRACT

Background: Food-born trematode infections such as opisthochiasis are major causes of morbidity in Asia. Fish-borne trematode infections are commonly found in the northern and northeastern regions of Thailand. Several species of cyprinoid freshwater fish have been reported as secondary intermediate hosts. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of infections with Opisthorchis viverrini and other intestinal parasites in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, which is an endemic area for minute intestinal fluke infections in Northern Thailand due to environmental characteristics and the traditional consumption of raw fish. Results: Stool samples were collected from 327 subjects from Cho Lae sub-district, Ban Pao sub-district, Mae Taeng district, Luang Nuea sub-district, Doi Saket district, and Nong Yaeng sub-district San Sai district, Chiang Mai. The subject ages were between 10 and 60 years. Of these, 144 were males and 183 were females (male to female ratio 1:1.27). Conclusion: Parasites were found in 36 stool samples (11.0%). The majority of detected parasites (17 cases, 5.2 percent) were Opisthorchis viverrini. Other intestinal parasites included hook-worms, Trichuris trichiura, and minute intestinal flukes. The highest prevalence (31.2%) was found in Cho Lae sub-district, Mae Taeng district. The prevalence of infection was significantly associated with the health behaviour of the subjects. There was no significant association with sex-distribution.

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