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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 101-110, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914375

ABSTRACT

Background/aims@#The appropriate number of band ligations during the first endoscopic session for acute variceal bleeding is debatable. We aimed to compare the technical aspects of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) in patients with variceal bleeding according to the number of bands placed per session. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed multicenter data from patients who underwent EVL for acute variceal bleeding. Patients were classified into minimal EVL (targeting only the foci with active bleeding or stigmata of recent bleeding) and maximal EVL (targeting potential bleeding sources in addition to the aforementioned targets) groups. The primary endpoint was 5-day treatment failure. The secondary endpoints were 30-day rebleeding, 30-day mortality, and intraprocedural adverse events. @*Results@#Minimal EVL was associated with lower rates of hypoxia and shock during EVL than maximal EVL (hypoxia, 0.9% vs 2.9%; shock, 1.3% vs 3.4%). However, treatment failure was higher in the minimal EVL group than in the maximal EVL group (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.41). Age ≥60 years, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score ≥15, Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification C, presence of hepatocellular carcinoma, and systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg at initial presentation were also associated with treatment failure. In contrast, 30-day rebleeding and 30-day mortality did not differ between the minimal and maximal EVL groups. @*Conclusions@#Given that minimal EVL was associated with a high risk of treatment failure, maximal EVL may be a better option for variceal bleeding. However, the minimal EVL strategy should be considered in select patients because it does not affect 30-day rebleeding and mortality.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918988

ABSTRACT

Since Warren and Marshall demonstrated Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as a cause of gastritis in the early 1980s, H. pylori has been associated with various gastric diseases, including gastric ulcer, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, gastric adenoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, and hyperplastic gastric polyps. H. pylori eradication therapy can treat some associated diseases, including low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma, and significantly reduce the risk of peptic ulcer recurrence or progression of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. In East Asia, where H. pylori and gastric cancer are prevalent, several studies have been conducted to prove whether the risk of gastric cancer development is reduced through H. pylori eradication therapy. Early studies failed to show the benefits of H. pylori eradication therapy in gastric cancer prevention. However, recent studies with extended follow-up periods have reported reduced risks of gastric cancer after treatment of H. pylori infection. H. pylori eradication therapy effectively prevents gastric cancer even in patients who were treated for early gastric cancer, and can be used in treating hyperplastic gastric polyps. Herein, we reviewed current evidence supporting the benefits of H. pylori eradication therapy to help clinicians understand its impact on gastric cancer prevention and hyperplastic polyp treatment.

3.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 403-417, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914976

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Owing to differences in the general characteristics of gastric cancer (GC) according to histological type, the association of GC risk factors, such as diet, may also differ depending on the histological type. We investigated the associations between individual and combined intake of soy products, vegetables, and dairy products and GC mortality by following up cases of death among Korean GC cases and whether these associations differ according to the histological type. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 508 GC cases were enrolled from two hospitals between 2002 and 2006. Their survival or death was prospectively followed up until December 31, 2016, through a review of medical records and telephonic surveys. Finally, 300 GC cases classified as intestinal- or diffuse-type GC cases were included. The median follow-up period was 7.1 years. @*Results@#In the fully adjusted model, a high intake of soy products (hazard ratio [HR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19–0.96) and the combination of soy products and vegetables (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12–0.96) or soy products and dairy products (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14–0.98) decreased the mortality from intestinal-type GC. In particular, patients consuming various potentially protective foods (HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.06–0.83) showed a highly significant association with a lower mortality from intestinal-type GC. However, no significant association was found with diffuse-type GC. @*Conclusions@#High intake of potentially protective foods, including soy products, vegetables, and dairy products, may help increase survival in intestinal-type GC.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913750

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop a short version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) core set and verify functioning levels of patients for stroke rehabilitation in Korea. Using the Delphi technique, a 3-round consensus process was conducted. Thirty multidisciplinary rehabilitation experts from different hospitals completed the consensus study. The questionnaire for this study adopted the comprehensive ICF core set for stroke developed by the Geyh group. A 7-point Likert-type scale was used by participants to weigh the impact of each category on activities of daily living or rehabilitation after a stroke. The consensus of ratings was assessed with Spearman's rho and inter-quartile range indices. A core set to assess functioning levels of patients with stroke was developed from those categories. A short version of ICF core set to assess and verify functioning levels of patients with stroke was developed for 12 categories, including 3 categories (consciousness, muscle power, and attention) from body functions, 1 (structure of brain) from body structures, 5 (eating, walking, moving around, changing basic body position, and carrying out daily routine) from activities and participation, and 3 (individual attitudes of immediate family members, immediate family, and personal care providers/personal assistants) from environmental factors. This preliminary study developed a Delphi consensus process, gathering statistical evidence and expert commands based on the short version of ICF core set for rehabilitation of stroke patients in Korea.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

6.
Intestinal Research ; : 127-157, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898809

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

8.
Intestinal Research ; : 127-157, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891105

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874455

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to clarify the effect of obesity on the occurrence of and mortality from primary liver cancer. @*Methods@#This study was conducted using a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library until November 2018 using the primary keywords “obesity,” “overweight,” “body mass index (BMI),” “body weight,” “liver,” “cancer,” “hepatocellular carcinoma,” “liver cancer,” “risk,” and “mortality.” Studies assessing the relationship between BMI and occurrence of or mortality from primary liver cancer in prospective cohorts and those reporting hazard ratios (HRs) or data that allow HR estimation were included. @*Results@#A total of 28 prospective cohort studies with 8,135,906 subjects were included in the final analysis. These included 22 studies with 6,059,561 subjects for cancer occurrence and seven studies with 2,077,425 subjects for cancerrelated mortality. In the meta-analysis, an increase in BMI was associated with the occurrence of primary liver cancer (HR, 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.50–1.90, I2=56%). A BMI-dependent increase in the risk of occurrence of primary liver cancer was reported. HRs were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.81), 1.77 (95% CI, 1.56–2.01), and 3.08 (95% CI, 1.21–7.86) for BMI >25 kg/m2, >30 kg/m2, and >35 kg/m2, respectively. Furthermore, increased BMI resulted in enhanced liver cancer-related mortality (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.14–2.27, I2=80%). @*Conclusions@#High BMI increases liver cancer mortality and occurrence of primary liver cancer. Obesity is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of and mortality from primary liver cancer.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899251

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891547

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837308

ABSTRACT

Owing to advancements in next-generation sequencing and non-culture-based microbial research techniques, we have recognized that many bacterial taxa other than Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are present in the human stomach. Gastric microbial composition depends on gastric diseases, including gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Although H. pylori is a major factor associated with gastric cancer development, other bacterial taxa may affect gastric carcinogenesis. Because the risk of gastric cancer development can be reduced through H. pylori eradication, many investigators have studied the changes in the microbial composition in the stomach after H. pylori eradication. The gastric microbiome in patients with H. pylori infection typically shows abundance of H. pylori and a low microbial diversity index. If we treat H. pylori-infected patients with antibiotics, microbial diversity increases, and the relative abundance also increases in many bacterial taxa. Several studies suggested that the microbial composition in patients with H. pylori infection could be restored by H. pylori eradication therapy; however, there have been inconsistent findings of the abundant bacterial taxa after H. pylori eradication in patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. More studies are required to reach a definitive conclusion on restoration of the microbial composition after H. pylori eradication according to the severity of gastric inflammation.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837287

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

14.
Intestinal Research ; : 18-33, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834398

ABSTRACT

The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been revolutionized for the last 10 years by the increasing use of immunomodulators and biologics. With immunosuppression of this kind, opportunistic infection is an important safety concern for patients with IBD. In particular, viral hepatitis is determined by the interaction between the virus and the host’s immunity, and the risk of reactivation increases if immunity is compromised by immunosuppression therapy. Parts of Asia, including Korea, still show intermediate endemicity for the hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus compared with the United States and Western Europe. Thus, members of IBD research group of the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases have produced a guideline on the prevention and management of viral hepatitis in IBD.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834120

ABSTRACT

The Korean guidelines for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced peptic ulcers were previously developed under co-work with the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research and Korean Society of Gastroenterology at 2009. On the other hand, the previous guidelines were based mainly on a literature review and expert opinions. Therefore, the guidelines need to be revised. In this study, a guideline development committee for drug-induced peptic ulcers was organized under the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research in 2017. Nine statements were developed, including four for NSAID, three for aspirin and other antiplatelet agents, and two for anticoagulants through de novo processes based on evidence-based medicine, such as a literature search, meta-analysis, and the consensus was established using the modified Delphi method. The primary target of this guideline was adult patients taking long-term NSAIDs, aspirin, or other antiplatelet agent and anticoagulants. The revised guidelines reflect the consensus of expert opinions and are intended to assist relevant clinicians in the management and prevention of drug-induced peptic ulcers and associated conditions.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834087

ABSTRACT

Although surgery was the standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers, endoscopic resection is now a standard treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers without regional lymph node metastasis. High-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, and image-enhanced endoscopy such as narrow band imaging are performed to assess the edge and depth of early gastrointestinal cancers for delineation of resection boundaries and prediction of the possibility of lymph node metastasis before the decision of endoscopic resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection and/or endoscopic submucosal dissection can be performed to remove early gastrointestinal cancers completely by en bloc fashion. Histopathological evaluation should be carefully made to investigate the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastasis such as depth of cancer invasion and lymphovascular invasion. Additional treatment such as radical surgery with regional lymphadenectomy should be considered if the endoscopically resected specimen shows risk factors for lymph node metastasis. This is the first Korean clinical practice guideline for endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal cancer. This guideline was developed by using mainly de novo methods and encompasses endoscopic management of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, early gastric cancer, and early colorectal cancer. This guideline will be revised as new data on early gastrointestinal cancer are collected.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834079

ABSTRACT

Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) refers to bleeding that develops in the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz. NVUGIB is an important cause for visiting the hospital and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although European and Asian-Pacific guidelines have been published, there has been no previous guidelines regarding management of NVUGIB in Korea. Korea is a country with a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and patients have easy accessibility to receive endoscopy. Therefore, we believe that guidelines regarding management of NVUGIB are mandatory. The Korean Society of Gastroenterology reviewed recent evidence and recommends practical management guidelines on NVUGIB in Korea.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833836

ABSTRACT

Studies that investigated esophageal microbiomes are limited when compared to those on intestinal microbiomes. Nevertheless, several studies have investigated the relationship between esophageal microbiomes and various esophageal diseases, owing to the advancement of next-generation sequencing techniques. Streptococcus is the most common bacterial taxon in a normal esophagus. Additionally, Haemophilus, Neisseria , Prevotella , and Veillonella are also found. However, gram-negative bacteria, including Prevotella , are more abundant in a diseased esophagus, such as in gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. This systematic review aims to summarize current evidences on esophageal microbiomes in various esophageal diseases.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

20.
Gut and Liver ; : 560-570, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833181

ABSTRACT

Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) refers to bleeding that develops in the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz. NVUGIB requires hospitalization and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.Although European and Asian-Pacific guidelines have been published, there have been no previous guidelines regarding management of NVUGIB in Korea. Korea has a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections, and patients have easy accessibility to endoscopy. Therefore, we believe that guidelines regarding management of NVUGIB in Korea are essential. The Korean Society of Gastroenterology reviewed the recent evidence and recommends practical management guidelines on NVUGIB in Korea.

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