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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874191

ABSTRACT

Background@#Plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is caused by immune dysregulation. We evaluated the expression of immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) on T cell subsets in PCM patients according to disease course and cytogenetic abnormalities.This study aimed to find a target group suitable for therapeutic use of PD-1 blockade in PCM. @*Methods@#A total of 188 bone marrow (BM) samples from 166 PCM patients and 32 controls were prospectively collected between May 2016 and May 2017. PD-1 expression on BM T cell subsets was measured using flow cytometry. @*Results@#At diagnosis, the median PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells was 24.6%, which did not significantly differ from that in controls. After stem cell transplantation, PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells was higher than that at diagnosis (P < 0.001), regardless of residual disease. PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells in patients with residual disease after chemotherapy was significantly higher than that at diagnosis (P = 0.001) and after complete remission following chemotherapy (P = 0.044). PD-1 expression on CD8+ T cells was higher in PCM patients with cytogenetic abnormalities, including monosomy 13, 1q gain, complex karyotype, and hypodiploidy. @*Conclusions@#PD-1 blockade might have therapeutic potential in refractory PCM patients after chemotherapy, especially in those with high- or intermediate-risk cytogenetic abnormalities.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a subset of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) with bone marrow (BM) involvement and an IgM monoclonal gammopathy of any level. We aimed to identify the clinical, laboratory, and BM findings of patients with WM and to evaluate the usefulness of CD154 for the diagnosis and prognosis of WM.METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and BM studies and/or flow cytometric immunotyping of 31 patients with untreated WM. Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry (CD20, CD138, tryptase, and CD154) of BM was performed.RESULTS: Only six patients presented with symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome. Eleven patients had solid cancer and/or another hematologic malignancy. Mast cells (MC) increased in all samples, with some in close contact with tumor cells. Tryptase-positive MC (17.1/ high-power fields [HPF], 1.2–72.0/HPF) and CD154-positive MC (8.6/HPF, 0.1–31.1/HPF) were observed. The high CD154-positive MC (≥8.6/HPF) group showed a lower overall five-year survival rate than the low CD154-positive MC (<8.6/HPF) group (71.9% vs. 100.0%; P=0.012). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of BM aspirates showed increased B lymphocytes and plasma cells with a normal phenotype (CD138⁺/CD38⁺/CD19⁺/CD45⁺/CD56⁻).CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one third of WM patients showed other malignancies and all patients had increased MC. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric immunophenotyping are useful for diagnosing WM, and increased CD154-positive MC can indicate poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Immunohistochemistry , Immunophenotyping , Lymphoma , Mast Cells , Medical Records , Paraproteinemias , Phenotype , Plasma Cells , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Tryptases , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: JL1, a CD43 epitope and mucin family cell surface glycoprotein, is expressed on leukemic cells. An anti-JL1 antibody combined with a toxic substance can have targeted therapeutic effects against JL1-positive leukemia; however, JL1 expression on bone marrow (BM) lymphoma cells has not been assessed using flow cytometry. We investigated JL1 expression on BM lymphoma cells from patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to assess the potential of JL1 as a therapeutic target. METHODS: Patients with BM involvement of mature B-cell (N=44) or T- and natural killer (NK)-cell (N=4) lymphomas were enrolled from May 2015 to September 2016. JL1 expression on BM lymphoma cells was investigated using flow cytometry. Clinical, pathological, and cytogenetic characteristics, and treatment responses were compared according to JL1 expression status. RESULTS: Of the patients with NHL and BM involvement, 37.5% (18/48) were JL1-positive. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, 100%, 38.9%, 33.3%, 100%, and 25.0% of Burkitt lymphomas, diffuse large B-cell leukemias, mantle cell leukemias, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, and other B-cell lymphomas, respectively, were JL1-positive. Three mature T- and NK-cell NHLs were JL1-positive. JL1 expression was associated with age (P=0.045), complete response (P=0.004), and BM involvement at follow-up (P=0.017), but not with sex, performance status, the B symptoms, packed marrow pattern, cytogenetic abnormalities, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: JL1 positivity was associated with superior complete response and less BM involvement in NHL following chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Burkitt Lymphoma , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Drug Therapy , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, B-Cell , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mucins , Therapeutic Uses , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832107

ABSTRACT

Minimal residual disease (MRD) status is the strongest independent prognostic factor for patients with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Monitoring of the MRD status allows risk-adapted therapy as its absence or presence guides patient therapy and can result in significant treatment reduction or intensification, respectively. MRD assays should be sensitive (exceeding a threshold of 10−4 per current guidelines), specific, widely applicable, rapid, and technically feasible. Classical MRD assays that are widely used in pediatric ALL include multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC), which identifies aberrant immunophenotypes, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR), which detects fusion transcripts or clonal immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor (IG/TCR) gene rearrangements. These assays have sensitivities of 10−3 to 10−5 and have been standardized internationally. However, each assay has its own pitfalls such as false negatives caused by immunophenotypic shifts in MFC, relatively limited applicability of the fusion transcript PCR, and the technical complexity associated with designing PCR for quantifying clonal IG/TCR gene rearrangements using allele-specific oligonucleotides. Next-generation flow cytometry, next-generation sequencing, and droplet digital PCR are expected to replace classical MRD assays, given their higher sensitivities (10−5 to 10−6) and accuracies as well as greater technical feasibilities. Before their incorporation into the standard practice for care for children with ALL, these assays require further exploration to ascertain whether their higher sensitivities are clinically relevant. Furthermore, standardization and quality assurance programs should be devised to enhance the clinical adoption of these new assays. Lastly, new targets should be identified to improve the monitoring of MRD; moreover, both the methodology and clinical significance of MRD evaluation should be revisited in the era of immunotherapy.

7.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 185-188, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760495

ABSTRACT

The three-dimensional (3-D) shape of erythrocytes is strongly associated with various diseases. However, conventional optical imaging approaches with Wright's staining only provide information on two-dimensional morphology. Here, we employed optical diffraction tomography (ODT), a label-free 3-D quantitative phase imaging technique, and observed uniquely shaped red blood cells (RBCs) in the peripheral blood of a patient diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome. Peripheral blood samples were collected when the patient visited our hospital for his two out-patient follow-ups in May 2018. The 3-D tomograms of randomly chosen RBCs were reconstructed using a commercial ODT setup. From the reconstructed 3-D RBCs, 37.5% and 32.8% of RBCs demonstrated cup-like shapes at the first and the second out-patient follow-up, respectively. Even though this is a single case report, the finding is novel and can be a potential dyserythropoietic feature found in peripheral blood.


Subject(s)
Erythrocytes , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Optical Imaging , Outpatients , Refractometry
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762438

ABSTRACT

POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome, which includes polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes due to plasma cell (PC) neoplasm. Diagnosis of this disease is challenging because of its rarity and complex clinical manifestations. We attempted to identify the key clinical features and characteristic bone marrow (BM) findings of POEMS syndrome, by reviewing the medical records and BM analyses of 24 Korean patients. Frequent clinical manifestations included polyneuropathy (100%), monoclonal gammopathy (100%), organomegaly (92%), extravascular volume overload (79%), and endocrinopathy (63%). The BM analyses revealed mild PC hyperplasia (median PCs: 5.5%) and frequent megakaryocytic hyperplasia (88%), megakaryocyte clusters (88%), and hyperlobation (100%). Flow cytometry of BM aspirates using CD138/CD38/CD45/CD19/CD56 showed normal (67%, 4/6) or neoplastic PC immunophenotypes (33%, 2/6). A diagnosis of POEMS syndrome must be considered when a patient suspected of having PC dyscrasia shows the above clinical presentation and BM findings.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hyperplasia , Medical Records , Megakaryocytes , Paraneoplastic Syndromes , Paraproteinemias , Plasma Cells , POEMS Syndrome , Polyneuropathies , Skin
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739114

ABSTRACT

Assessment of bone marrow (BM) involvement in peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL) is straightforward in cases of extensive involvement but difficult in cases of minimal to partial involvement. We evaluated the usefulness of CD3 as an immunohistochemical marker for assessing BM involvement in PTCL patients. BM biopsies of 92 PTCL patients were immunohistochemically stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, and CD56, and evaluated by two hematopathologists. CD3 positivity was graded according to the proportion of CD3-positive cells and the number of CD3-positive cells in a cluster. These criteria were used to determine the cut-offs at which significant differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were observed. Multivariate analysis controlling the International Prognostic Index (IPI) score and its individual factors revealed that >20 CD3-positive cells in a cluster adversely affected PFS (relative risk [RR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–4.3; P=0.047) and OS (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1–5.1; P=0.028) independent of IPI score. A cluster with >20 CD3-positive cells is a candidate indicator for BM involvement in PTCL.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral , Multivariate Analysis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. Alveolar RMS (ARMS) is characterized by FOXO1-related chromosomal translocations that result in a poorer clinical outcome compared with embryonal RMS (ERMS). Because the chromosomal features of RMS have not been comprehensively defined, we analyzed the clinical and laboratory data of childhood RMS patients and determined the clinical significance of chromosomal abnormalities in the bone marrow. METHODS: Fifty-one Korean patients with RMS < 18 years of age treated between 2001 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. Clinical factors, bone marrow and cytogenetic results, and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 36 patients (70.6%) had ERMS and 15 (29.4%) had ARMS; 80% of the ARMS patients had stage IV disease. The incidences of bone and bone marrow metastases were 21.6% and 19.6%, respectively, and these results were higher than previously reported results. Of the 40 patients who underwent bone marrow cytogenetic investigation, five patients had chromosomal abnormalities associated with the 13q14 rearrangement. Patients with a chromosomal abnormality (15 vs 61 months, P=0.037) and bone marrow involvement (17 vs 61 months, P=0.033) had a significantly shorter median OS than those without such characteristics. Two novel rearrangements associated with the 13q14 locus were detected. One patient with concomitant MYCN amplification and PAX3/FOXO1 fusion showed an aggressive clinical course. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive approach involving conventional cytogenetics and FOXO1 FISH of the bone marrow is needed to assess high-risk ARMS patients and identify novel cytogenetic findings.


Subject(s)
Arm , Bone Marrow , Child , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasm Metastasis , Rhabdomyosarcoma , Sarcoma , Translocation, Genetic
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788605

ABSTRACT

Precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is the most common subtype of pediatric acute leukemia, generally has a good prognosis. However, the prognosis also depends on the genetic abnormalities of the leukemic blast. Concurrent MYC and IGH/BCL2 translocations have recently been reported as a “double hit” in adult patients, but non-immunoglobulin (non-IG)/MYC translocation has rarely been reported. In this paper, we report a case of pediatric precursor B-cell ALL associated with translocations (14;18)(q32;q21) and (8;9)(q24;p13). The patient was a previously healthy 13-year-old boy. Complete remission was not achieved after first-line four-drug induction chemotherapy; thus, intensive salvage regimen, including high-dose cytarabine and L-asparaginase, were administered, which resulted in morphologic remission. However, his disease relapsed during the second cycle of salvage regimen, and he died of sepsis-induced multiorgan failure.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Cytarabine , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Leukemia , Male , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid , Prognosis
18.
Blood Research ; : 82-82, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112849

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Hodgkin Disease , Sclerosis
19.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 103-110, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and characteristics of HLA-DR⁻/CD34⁻ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) also known as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)-like AML. METHODS: This study included 683 newly diagnosed patients with AML. After exclusion of 211 patients with recurrent genetic abnormalities, one with acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis, two with myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome, and two devoid of metaphase cells, we classified the remaining 467 patients as follows: group 1, HLA-DR⁺/CD34⁺ (typical AML); group 2, HLA-DR⁺/CD34⁻ or HLA-DR⁻/CD34⁺; group 3, APL-like AML. RESULTS: Group 1 comprised 294 patients, group 2 comprised 133, and group 3 comprised 40. Therefore, the frequency of APL-like AML among 683 unselected patients with AML was 5.9%. Group 3 patients had significantly higher leukocyte counts and bone marrow (BM) blast percentages, higher frequencies of normal karyotypes and NPM1 mutation, higher fractions of CD33-positive cells, higher concentrations of fibrin degradation products and D-dimers, lower frequencies of complex karyotypes, monosomal karyotypes and poor cytogenetic risk, lower fractions of CD13-positive cells, and lower fibrinogen concentrations, compared with group 1 patients. The values of the BM blast percentage, number of CD33-positive cells, and DIC score of the patients with APL-like AML were intermediate between those of the patients with typical AML and APL. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that APL-like AML is not uncommon, and it has characteristics distinguishable from those of typical AML. APL-like AML may have some pathophysiological relationships with APL, which need further investigation.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Cytogenetics , Dacarbazine , Down Syndrome , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinogen , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Karyotype , Leukemia, Myeloid , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Leukocyte Count , Metaphase , Primary Myelofibrosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23103

ABSTRACT

Precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is the most common subtype of pediatric acute leukemia, generally has a good prognosis. However, the prognosis also depends on the genetic abnormalities of the leukemic blast. Concurrent MYC and IGH/BCL2 translocations have recently been reported as a “double hit” in adult patients, but non-immunoglobulin (non-IG)/MYC translocation has rarely been reported. In this paper, we report a case of pediatric precursor B-cell ALL associated with translocations (14;18)(q32;q21) and (8;9)(q24;p13). The patient was a previously healthy 13-year-old boy. Complete remission was not achieved after first-line four-drug induction chemotherapy; thus, intensive salvage regimen, including high-dose cytarabine and L-asparaginase, were administered, which resulted in morphologic remission. However, his disease relapsed during the second cycle of salvage regimen, and he died of sepsis-induced multiorgan failure.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Cytarabine , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Leukemia , Male , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid , Prognosis
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