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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 566-573, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831856

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second-most common primary liver malignancy, arising from the peripheral intrahepatic bile duct epithelium. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be involved in the development of ICC. We explored the prognostic value of hepatitis virus infection, as well as other prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with ICC. @*Methods@#A retrospective chart review was performed for patients diagnosed with ICC between August 2005 and December 2018 at Konkuk University Medical Center. We identified a total of 131 patients with ICC. Overall survival rates of patients with and without hepatitis were determined. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate factors influencing survival outcomes. @*Results@#A total of 17.6% (23/131) of patients were positive for HBV or HCV. Hepatitis B positive ICC patients were significantly younger with higher albumin and higher α-fetoprotein than those without hepatitis viral infections. The median survival of hepatitis-positive and hepatitis-negative groups was 280 and 213 days, respectively. Survival rates were not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.279). Multivariate analyses indicated that lower serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) (p < 0.001), lower T stage (p = 0.042), the absence of lymph-node metastasis (p = 0.043), and receiving curative surgery (p = 0.033) were independent predictors of better outcomes. @*Conclusions@#While hepatitis influenced a number of clinical features in ICC patients, it did not affect survival rate. Prognostic factors influencing survival outcomes with ICC were CA 19-9 level, T stage, the presence of lymph node metastasis, and curative surgery.

2.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 314-322, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a tumor marker whose level is elevated in many types of cancers and other benign conditions. CA 19-9 levels are frequently found to be elevated in individuals during general health examinations. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of such individuals and to determine the need for medical follow-up. METHODS: We investigated individuals who underwent a health inspection, including a serum CA 19-9 test, at our center. Their CA 19-9 levels, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and personal and past histories were investigated. Additionally, subgroup analyses were performed for those who underwent follow-up study for the elevated CA 19-9 levels. RESULTS: Of 58,498 subjects, 581 (1.0%) had elevated CA 19-9 levels. Multivariate analyses revealed that older age, female sex, lower BMI, and diabetes were independent predisposing factors for elevated CA 19-9 level. A subgroup analysis revealed that the causative conditions were identified in 129 of 351 subjects (36.8%). Among them, the causative conditions in 31 subjects (8.8%, including four cases of cancer and 15 of benign tumors) were not detected at the initial check-up and were found during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The use of CA 19-9 as a marker for cancer in healthy individuals is inappropriate. However, medical follow-up in individuals with elevated CA 19-9 levels may be useful because some causative diseases may be detected during follow-up.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor , Body Mass Index , CA-19-9 Antigen , Causality , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
3.
Gut and Liver ; : 522-530, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the ABC classification system, group A consists of seronegative subjects without gastric corpus atrophy. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pseudo group A subjects. METHODS: Group A subjects were identified among consecutive Korean adults who underwent a serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) test and pepsinogen (PG) assay on the day of endoscopy. Past infection was defined as the presence of either eradication history or endoscopic findings suggesting past infection (i.e., gastric xanthoma, metaplastic gastritis, or advanced atrophy >closed-type 1). RESULTS: Among 2,620 group A subjects, 448 (17.1%) had eradication history, and 133 (5.1%) showed endoscopic findings suggesting past infection. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.148; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.067 to 1.236) and earlier year of birth (OR, 1.086; 95% CI, 1.009 to 1.168) were independent risk factors for classification into pseudo group A, with cutoff points at 50.5 years and birth year of 1959.5, respectively. Positive H. pylori test findings were found in 22 subjects (3.1%) among the 715 subjects who underwent the urea breath test or Giemsa staining on the same day. Current infection was positively correlated with PG I and PG II levels (p<0.001) but not with age, anti-H. pylori IgG titer, or classification into pseudo group A. CONCLUSIONS: Among the group A subjects, 22.2% had past infection. The risk was higher in subjects older than 50 years, especially those born before 1960. Furthermore, current infection was found in 3.1% of the subjects and was correlated with increased gastric secretory ability.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Atrophy , Azure Stains , Breath Tests , Classification , Endoscopy , Gastritis , Helicobacter pylori , Immunoglobulin G , Parturition , Pepsinogen A , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Urea , Xanthomatosis
4.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 35-39, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741330

ABSTRACT

Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare complication after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma. We present a case of BBF that developed 5 months after 11 TACE procedures in a 78-year-old male patient with a 3-month history of a persistent cough and yellowish sputum. BBF was found between the bronchus and the right intrahepatic bile duct (B7) by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. On the initial endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), we failed to approach to the BBF due to severe hilar obstruction. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was performed, and 30-50 mL of bile was drained daily. But the BBF was not resolved until 2 months after PTBD. The patient was treated by placement of a plastic stent to the BBF site during the second ERCP. BBF was resolved 7 days after ERCP on the PTBD tubogram. The patient remained asymptomatic after the stent placement, and there was no recurrence at the 2-month follow-up ERCP.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Bile , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Bronchi , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance , Cough , Drainage , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies , Plastics , Recurrence , Sputum , Stents
5.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 277-284, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) seroconversion may develop in seronegative adults. Although a positive correlation has been reported between alcohol consumption and seroconversion in Korea, an inverse correlation has been reported in other countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for seroconversion in Korea. METHODS: We included Korean adults who were H. pylori-negative negative in their annual serum immunoglobulin G and pepsinogen assays, and in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Subjects with a history of H. pylori eradication or gastrectomy were excluded. The criteria for heavy alcohol consumption were ≥ 15 drinks/week for males and ≥ 8 drinks/week for females. RESULTS: Of 267 H. pylori-seronegative subjects, 26 (9.7%) exhibited seroconversion at a mean follow-up time of 39.0 ± 19.1 months. Seroconversion was positively correlated with alcohol consumption (p = 0.001), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use (p = 0.015), a higher body mass index (p = 0.033), a longer follow-up period (p = 0.038), and a greater number of follow-up tests (p = 0.004). Heavy drinking (odds ratio 6.754, 95% confidence interval 1.892–24.102, p = 0.003) and social drinking (odds ratio 4.360, 95% confidence interval 1.130–16.826, p = 0.033) were independent risk factors for seroconversion. During follow-up, subjects with seroconversion had higher serum levels of pepsinogen II (12.0 ± 7.8 ng/mL) than others (9.1 ± 5.3 ng/mL) (p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption is related to seroconversion in Koreans. H. pylori transmission might be prevented by reducing alcohol consumption and controlling drinking habits.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Alcohol Drinking , Body Mass Index , Drinking , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrectomy , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Immunoglobulin G , Korea , Pepsinogen A , Pepsinogen C , Risk Factors , Seroconversion
6.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 159-164, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections is a useful and effective procedure. One of the main limitations is the lack of devices tailored specifically for this technique. This study aims to evaluate a newly developed, fully covered, biflanged metal stent customized for EUS-guided transenteric drainage. METHODS: We enrolled one dog in an animal study and six patients with pancreatic fluid (five with pancreatic pseudocysts and one with pancreatic walled-off necrosis) in a clinical study. We performed EUS-guided drainage of the pancreatic fluid or gallbladder using a newly developed metal stent. Study outcomes were technical and clinical success, adverse events, and stent removability. RESULTS: In the animal study, the stent was placed successfully in the gallbladder via the EUS-guided transduodenal approach without complication. The cholecystoduodenal tract was intact on necropsy performed immediately after the procedure. The stents were inserted successfully and deployed in the six patients. There was no adverse event during or after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: EUS-guided transenteric drainage using a new fully covered, biflanged metal stent was technically feasible and was not associated with any serious adverse event. The tailored design of the flange at the end of the stent facilitated the effectiveness of the procedure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Clinical Study , Drainage , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Gallbladder , Pancreatic Pseudocyst , Stents , Ultrasonography
7.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 143-152, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nodular gastritis (NG) is a well-known endoscopic finding observed in patients with a Helicobacter pylori infection, which may lead to invasive gastric cancer. Lymphofollicular gastritis consists of lymphoid follicles or lymphoid cell aggregates, and is common in children. The aim of this study was to identify patients with NG from those in whom gastric biopsied specimens showed lymphoid follicles and lymphoid cell aggregates. METHODS: Subjects, whose gastric biopsy specimens showed lymphoid follicles or lymphoid cell aggregates, were included in this study. The inclusion criterion was that they underwent a serum pepsinogen assay on the day of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. NG was diagnosed if the endoscopy findings revealed regular-sized, multiple, colorless subepithelial nodules. RESULTS: Among 108 subjects who showed lymphoid follicles or lymphoid cell aggregates, 13 (12.0%) revealed NG on endoscopy, and all these subjects showed positive Giemsa staining. Patients diagnosed with NG were younger (p=0.012) and showed a female predominance (p=0.001) compared to those without NG. The mean serum pepsinogen levels were higher (p=0.001) and lymphoid follicle-dominant subjects were more common (p<0.001) in the NG subjects than in those without NG. Logistic regression analysis revealed a younger age (p=0.041) and female gender (p=0.002) to be significant independent risk factors for NG. CONCLUSIONS: NG should be distinguished from lymphofollicular gastritis because only 12% of patients showing gastric biopsy findings of lymphoid follicles and lymphoid cell aggregates demonstrated NG on endoscopy. NG is an endoscopic finding that is more common in women and in the younger population, irrespective of the biopsy findings and gastric secretory ability.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Azure Stains , Biopsy , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastritis , Helicobacter pylori , Logistic Models , Lymphocytes , Lymphoid Tissue , Pepsinogen A , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms
8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 796-802, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25082

ABSTRACT

The serum pepsinogen (PG) assay findings are correlated with the status of Helicobacter pylori infection, but there are controversies on the link with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopic findings. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of a serum PG assay for correlating with endoscopic findings in H. pylori-seroprevalent adult population. Korean adults who visited for a health check-up were included consecutively. Subjects after gastrectomy or H. pylori eradication were excluded. After completing the serum PG assay and anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer on the same day of UGI endoscopy, subjects with equivocal serology test finding or gastric neoplasm were excluded. Of the 4,830 included subjects, 3,116 (64.5%) were seropositive for H. pylori. Seropositive finding was related to high serum PG I (P < 0.001) and PG II (P < 0.001) concentrations, low PG I/II ratio (P < 0.001), old age (P < 0.001), and male gender (P = 0.006). After adjusting age and gender, the serum PG I and II concentrations were positively correlated with the presence of nodular gastritis (NG) (all P = 0.003). The serum PG I was positively correlated with gastric ulcer (P = 0.003), and it was correlated with duodenal ulcer in seropositive subjects (P = 0.008). The PG I/II ratio was positively correlated with erosive esophagitis, while it was inversely related to chronic atrophic gastritis and metaplastic gastritis (all P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that the serum PG assay finding correlates well with the UGI endoscopic finding. A higher serum PG concentration in subjects with NG and peptic ulcer disease suggests that endoscopic findings reflect gastric secreting ability.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Duodenal Ulcer , Endoscopy , Esophagitis , Gastrectomy , Gastritis , Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter pylori , Immunoglobulin G , Pepsinogen A , Peptic Ulcer , Stomach Neoplasms , Stomach Ulcer
9.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 181-189, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The serum anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and serum pepsinogen (PG) assays are widely used to screen for gastric cancer. An equivocal serology test finding indicates IgG titer between the positive and negative test findings. This study aims to evaluate the long-term follow-up result after an equivocal test finding on the serum anti-H. pylori IgG assay. METHODS: Koreans aged 18 years or older with an equivocal serum anti-H. pylori IgG assay finding were included. Subjects were excluded if they did not undergo H. pylori serology test, serum PG assay, and upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy on the same day at our center. The annual test findings were followed-up using the same methods. RESULTS: Of the 7,178 subjects who underwent the serum assays and UGI endoscopy on the same day, 274 (3.8%) subjects showed an equivocal H. pylori serology test finding. Of the 98 subjects who were followed-up, 58 (59.2%) showed seropositive finding at the mean follow-up period of 30.6±12.4 months. Subjects with seroconversion showed a higher initial serum PG I (p=0.023) and PG II (p=0.036) levels than those without seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS: An equivocal H. pylori serology test finding was not rare (3.8%) in Korean adults, and 60% of equivocal subjects showed seroconversion within 3 years. Higher seroconversion rates in subjects with high PG I and PG II levels suggest that intact gastric secreting ability plays a role in the survival of H. pylori. Therefore, equivocal subjects with increased serum PG levels should be considered as potential seropositive subjects.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Endoscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Immunoglobulin G , Pepsinogen A , Seroconversion , Stomach Neoplasms
10.
Gut and Liver ; : 383-391, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The presence of invasion is a diagnostic criterion of early gastric cancer (EGC) in Korea, whereas diagnosis in Japan is based on enlarged nuclei and prominent nucleoli. Moreover, the depth of invasion is the location of cancer cell infiltration in Korea, whereas it is the location of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) or cancer cell infiltration in Japan. We evaluated the characteristics of EGC with LVI to uncover the effects of different diagnostic criteria. METHODS: Consecutive T1-stage EGC patients who underwent complete resection were included after endoscopic or surgical resection. The presence of LVI was evaluated. RESULTS: LVI was present in 112 of 1,089 T1-stage EGC patients. LVI was associated with depth of invasion (p<0.001) and age (p=0.017). The prevalence of LVI in mucosal cancer was significantly higher in Korea (p<0.001), whereas that of submucosal cancer was higher in Japan (p=0.024). For mucosal EGC types, LVI was positively correlated with diagnostic criteria applied in Korea (p=0.017). For submucosal EGC types, LVI was positively correlated with Japanese criteria (p=0.001) and old age (p=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: The higher prevalence of LVI for mucosal EGC in Korea and for submucosal EGC in Japan indicates that different diagnostic criteria should be considered when reading publications from other countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Diagnosis , Japan , Korea , Prevalence , Stomach Neoplasms
11.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 578-584, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a common condition, but is difficult to detect in asymptomatic individuals. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic PUD during screening endoscopy and to identify risk factors for the presence of symptoms in patients with PUD. METHODS: We investigated subjects who underwent a health inspection, including endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and a serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG assay, and who completed a self-report questionnaire about their symptoms. RESULTS: Of the 12,852 subjects included in the study, 124 (1.0%) had symptomatic PUD and 309 (2.4%) had asymptomatic PUD. Old age, current smoking, and H. pylori infection were independent risk factors for symptomatic and asymptomatic PUD. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was an independent risk factor only for symptomatic PUD (p=0.040). Compared to subjects with asymptomatic PUD, subjects with symptomatic PUD were more likely to have active-stage ulcers (p=0.002) and to drink more heavily (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Use of NSAIDs is a risk factor for symptomatic PUD, but not for asymptomatic PUD. Excessive alcohol consumption and active-stage ulcers in patients with PUD are related to the presence of gastroduodenal symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohol Drinking , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Endoscopy , Helicobacter pylori , Immunoglobulin G , Mass Screening , Peptic Ulcer , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Ulcer
12.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 79-84, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Despite improvements in surgical techniques and postoperative patient care, bile leakage can occur after hepatobiliary surgery and may lead to serious complications. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic treatment of bile leakage after hepatobiliary surgery. METHODS: The medical records of 20 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography because of bile leakage after hepatobiliary surgery from August 2009 to September 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Endoscopic treatment included insertion of an endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage stent after endoscopic sphincterotomy. RESULTS: Most cases of bile leakage presented as percutaneous bile drainage through a Jackson-Pratt bag (75%), followed by abdominal pain (20%). The sites of bile leaks were the cystic duct stump in 10 patients, intrahepatic ducts in five, liver beds in three, common hepatic duct in one, and common bile duct in one. Of the three cases of bile leakage combined with bile duct stricture, one patient had severe bile duct obstruction, and the others had mild strictures. Five cases of bile leakage also exhibited common bile duct stones. Concerning endoscopic modalities, endoscopic therapy for bile leakage was successful in 19 patients (95%). One patient experienced endoscopic failure because of an operation-induced bile duct deformity. One patient developed guidewire-induced microperforation during cannulation, which recovered with conservative treatment. One patient developed recurrent bile leakage, which required additional biliary stenting with sphincterotomy. CONCLUSIONS: The endoscopic approach should be considered a first-line modality for the diagnosis and treatment of bile leakage after hepatobiliary surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdominal Pain , Bile Ducts , Bile , Catheterization , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholestasis , Common Bile Duct , Congenital Abnormalities , Constriction, Pathologic , Cystic Duct , Diagnosis , Drainage , Hepatic Duct, Common , Liver , Medical Records , Patient Care , Retrospective Studies , Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic , Stents
13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 819-826, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Some people have difficulty tolerating upper endoscopy. The cause of and risk factors for this are not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors involved in poor cooperation during screening upper endoscopy. METHODS: A total of 4,422 subjects who underwent a health inspection with upper endoscopy carried out by a single experienced endoscopist were included. We retrospectively investigated subjects' self-reporting questionnaires and medical records, including endoscopic and histologic findings. The examinees' cooperation and the completeness of endoscopic examination were evaluated based on the operator's subjective judgment. RESULTS: Examinee cooperation during the endoscopic procedure was poor in 358 out of 4,422 subjects (8.1%). Of the subjects with poor cooperation, the endoscopic examination was incomplete in 36 subjects (10.1%). Multivariate analysis revealed that young age (< 40 years), female sex, high body mass index (≥ 25), hiatal hernia, and procedural sedation using midazolam were independent risk factors for poor cooperation. CONCLUSIONS: Cooperation during screening upper endoscopy was poor in a considerable number of examinees. Endoscopists must keep in mind that examinee cooperation is more likely to be poor in the young, obese people, women, patients with hiatal hernias, and those who receive procedural sedation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Body Mass Index , Endoscopy , Gastroscopy , Hernia, Hiatal , Judgment , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Midazolam , Multivariate Analysis , Patient Compliance , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 224-229, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) liquid sclerotherapy of gastric varices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2012 and August 2014, STS liquid sclerotherapy was performed in 17 consecutive patients (male:female = 8:9; mean age 58.6 years, range 44-86 years) with gastric varices. Retrograde venography was performed after occlusion of the gastrorenal shunt using a balloon catheter and embolization of collateral draining veins using coils or gelfoam pledgets, to evaluate the anatomy of the gastric varices. We prepared 2% liquid STS by mixing 3% STS and contrast media in a ratio of 2:1. A 2% STS solution was injected into the gastric varices until minimal filling of the afferent portal vein branch was observed (mean 19.9 mL, range 6-33 mL). Patients were followed up using computed tomography (CT) or endoscopy. RESULTS: Technical success was achieved in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%). The procedure failed in one patient because the shunt could not be occluded due to the large diameter of gastrorenal shunt. Complete obliteration of gastric varices was observed in 15 of 16 patients (93.8%) with follow-up CT or endoscopy. There was no rebleeding after the procedure. There was no procedure-related mortality. CONCLUSION: BRTO using STS liquid can be a safe and useful treatment option in patients with gastric varices.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Balloon Occlusion , Contrast Media/chemistry , Demography , Embolization, Therapeutic , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Portal Vein/diagnostic imaging , Sclerotherapy , Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate/chemistry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 113-123, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72957

ABSTRACT

Stenting in the gastrointestinal tract is a common procedure used for palliation of obstruction in the enteral and biliary tract. Today, stenting of malignant and benign strictures is performed at almost every major tertiary hospital in Korea. Moreover, Korea has become a major global supplier of cutting edge technology in the field of self-expanding metal stents. However, the history of stenting in Korea is relatively short and was far behind that of other nations such as Japan and Germany. The authors are humbled and gratified to have been able to observe the development and application of these stents in Korea, first hand. In this article, the authors review the overall history of stenting with a specific focus on the development of stenting in Korea. The development of esophageal, gastroduodenal, biliary, and colonic stents in Korea are reviewed in this article from a chronological and historical point of view, and a personal account of some of the significant moments of stent development in Korea are described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biliary Tract , Colon , Constriction, Pathologic , Gastrointestinal Tract , Germany , Hand , Japan , Korea , Stents , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Gastrointestinal Intervention ; : 177-182, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184919

ABSTRACT

Accurate diagnosis of pancreatic solid lesions is often difficult using conventional imaging modalities. With the recent introduction of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound (CEH-EUS), it is now possible to evaluate the microvascular environment and dynamic enhancement of a variety of pancreatic lesions. With CEH-EUS, three patterns of pancreatic lesion enhancement compared with the normal pancreatic tissue (fast, simultaneous, or slow), two washout patterns (fast or slow) and two distribution patterns (homogeneous, inhomogeneous) can be described. By evaluating the microvasculature, enhancement speed, and washout pattern, CEH-EUS may help to differentiate pancreatic adenocarcinoma from other masses and differentiate between pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) and inflammatory masses. The finding of a hyperenhancing lesion on CEH–EUS, both with homogeneous and inhomogeneous patterns, was a strong predictor of histology different from adenocarcinoma (94% positive predictive value). pNET was the most common hyperenhancing lesions overall. Although CEH-EUS is useful for ruling out pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, making the differential diagnosis between pNETs and pseudotumoral pancreatic masses is difficult because both may share an isovascular or hypervascular appearance. Currently the interpretation of CEH-EUS findings is examiner-dependent. In the future, digital image analysis by image-processing techniques should allow more objective interpretation.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Microvessels , Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreatic Ducts , Ultrasonography
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 220-227, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Microsatellite instability (MSI) plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to clarify whether MSI is a useful marker for predicting synchronous gastric and colorectal neoplasms. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent both esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy before the resection of gastric or colorectal cancers were included. MSI was analyzed using two mononucleotide and three dinucleotide markers. RESULTS: In total, 434 gastric cancers (372 microsatellite stability [MSS], 21 low incidence of MSI [MSI-L], and 41 high incidence of MSI [MSI-H]) and 162 colorectal cancers (138 MSS, 9 MSI-L, and 15 MSI-H) were included. Patients with MSI gastric cancer had a higher prevalence of synchronous colorectal cancer, colorectal adenoma, and gastric adenoma than those with MSS gastric cancers (4.8% vs 0.5%, p=0.023; 11.3% vs 3.2%, p=0.011; 3.2% vs 1.2%, p=0.00, respectively). The prevalence of synchronous colorectal adenomas was highest in MSI-L gastric cancers (19.0%), compared with MSI-H (7.3%) or MSS (3.2%) gastric cancers (p=0.002). In addition, there were no significant differences in the prevalence rates of synchronous colorectal adenoma among the MSI-H (13.3%), MSI-L (11.1%), and MSS (12.3%) colorectal cancers (p=0.987). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of MSI in gastric cancer may be a predictor of synchronous gastric and colorectal neoplasms, whereas MSI in colorectal cancer is not a predictor of synchronous colorectal adenoma.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenoma/genetics , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Microsatellite Instability , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/genetics , Predictive Value of Tests , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics
18.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 81-84, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55287

ABSTRACT

Lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of the lymphatic system that involves a benign proliferation of the lymphatics, with no established treatment method. Multiple colonic lymphangioma, or colonic lymphangiomatosis, is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis that was detected during a colonoscopic examination conducted as part of a general health check-up. The lesion completely resolved after excisional biopsy.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Colon , Lymphangioma , Lymphatic System
19.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 50-54, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-94918

ABSTRACT

Podostroma cornu-damae is a rare species of fungus belonging to the Hyocreaceae family. Its fruit body is highly toxic, as it contains trichothecene mycotoxins. The morphology is similar to that of immature Ganoderma lucidum, making identification difficult for non-experts. We experienced such a case of a 56- year-old male who picked and consumed podostroma cornu-damae, and consumed. Later that day, he developed digestive system symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. He presented to the emergency room (ER), there were no abnormal physical findings, symptoms improved after gastric lavage, and the patient voluntarily discharged himself on the same day. The following day, as the symptoms gradually deteriorated, he was admitted via the ER. He was presented with severe pancytopenia, alopecia, desquamation of skin, and acute renal failure. He recovered without any complications after conservative care, antibiotics therapy, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor administration. The most commonly reported complications of podostroma cornu-damae intoxication were reported pancytopenia, infection, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, etc. since Prevention is especially important because its toxicity can be lethal and there is no particular treatment to date, prevention is especially important. Promotion and education for the public are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Abdominal Pain , Acute Kidney Injury , Agaricales , Alopecia , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Colony-Stimulating Factors , Digestive System , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Education , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fruit , Fungi , Gastric Lavage , Granulocytes , Mycotoxins , Nausea , Pancytopenia , Reishi , Skin , Vomiting
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 66-72, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colonoscopic polypectomy is highly efficient in preventing colorectal cancer, but polyps may not always be completely removed. Improved knowledge of the risk factors for incomplete polyp resection after polypectomy may decrease the cancer risk and additional costs. The aim of this study was to investigate the conditions that can cause incomplete polyp resection (IPR) after colonoscopic polypectomy. METHODS: A total of 12,970 polyps that were removed by colonoscopic polypectomy were investigated. Among them, we identified 228 cases with a positive resection margin and 228 controls with a clear resection margin that were matched for age, gender, and polyp size. We investigated the location, morphology, and histological type of the polyps and evaluated the skills of the endoscopist and assisting nurse. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that the polyps, which were located in the proximal part of the colon and rectum, were at significant risk of IPR. Histologically, an advanced polyp and an inexperienced assistant were also independent risk factors for IPR. CONCLUSIONS: Polypectomy should be performed more carefully for polyps suspected to be cancerous and polyps located in the proximal part of the colon or rectum. A systematic training program for inexperienced assistants may be needed to decrease the risk of IPR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Competence , Colon/pathology , Colonic Polyps/pathology , Colonoscopy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Failure
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