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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 405-435, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000785

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is a significant cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Early and precise diagnosis is crucial, and clinical outcomes can be markedly enhanced. The rise of artificial intelligence (AI) has ushered in a new era, notably in image analysis, paving the way for major advancements in breast cancer diagnosis and individualized treatment regimens. In the diagnostic workflow for patients with breast cancer, the role of AI encompasses screening, diagnosis, staging, biomarker evaluation, prognostication, and therapeutic response prediction. Although its potential is immense, its complete integration into clinical practice is challenging. Particularly, these challenges include the imperatives for extensive clinical validation, model generalizability, navigating the “black-box” conundrum, and pragmatic considerations of embedding AI into everyday clinical environments. In this review, we comprehensively explored the diverse applications of AI in breast cancer care, underlining its transformative promise and existing impediments. In radiology, we specifically address AI in mammography, tomosynthesis, risk prediction models, and supplementary imaging methods, including magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. In pathology, our focus is on AI applications for pathologic diagnosis, evaluation of biomarkers, and predictions related to genetic alterations, treatment response, and prognosis in the context of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Our discussion underscores the transformative potential of AI in breast cancer management and emphasizes the importance of focused research to realize the full spectrum of benefits of AI in patient care.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 523-530, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976701

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This single-arm phase II trial investigate the efficacy and safety of S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX) in patients with metastatic breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes were enrolled. Patients received S-1 (40-60 mg depending on patient’s body surface area, twice a day, day 1-14) and oxaliplatin (130 mg/m2, day 1) in 3 weeks cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor 1.1. Secondary endpoints included time-to-progression (TTP), duration-of-response (DoR), overall survival (OS), and adverse events. @*Results@#A total of 87 patients were enrolled from 11 institutions in Korea. Hormone receptor was positive in 54 (62.1%) patients and six (6.9%) had human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive disease. Forty-eight patients (85.1%) had visceral metastasis and 74 (55.2%) had more than three sites of metastases. The ORR of SOX regimen was 38.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.9 to 50.0) with a median TTP of 6.0 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 6.9). Median DoR and OS were 10.3 months (95% CI, 5.5 to 15.1) and 19.4 (95% CI, not estimated) months, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was reported in 28 patients (32.1%) and thrombocytopenia was observed in 23 patients (26.6%). @*Conclusion@#This phase II study showed that SOX regimen is a reasonable option in metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 975-984, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895970

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, a validated predictive biomarker for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, is reported to change over time. This poses challenges during clinical application in non-small cell lung cancer. @*Methods@#This study included patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgery or biopsy and evaluation of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells via immunohistochemistry more than twice. We set the threshold of PD-L1 positivity to 10% and categorized patients into four groups according to changes in PD-L1 expression. Clinicopathologic information was collected from medical records. Statistical analyses, including Fisher’s exact test and log-rank test, were performed. @*Results@#Of 109 patients, 38 (34.9%) and 45 (41.3%) had PD-L1 positivity in archival and recent samples, respectively. PD-L1 status was maintained in 78 (71.6%) patients, but changed in 31 (28.4%), with 19 (17.4%) from negative to positive. There were no significant differences in characteristics between patients who maintained PD-L1 negativity and whose PD-L1 status changed from negative to positive. Patients harboring PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples achieved better responses (p = 0.129) and showed longer overall survival than those who maintained PD-L1 negativity when they received immune checkpoint inhibitors after platinum failure (median overall survival 14.4 months vs. 4.93 months; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.93). @*Conclusions@#PD-L1 status changed in about one-fourth of patients. PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples was predictive of better responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, archival samples could be used for assessment of PD-L1 status. The need for new biopsies should be decided individually.

4.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 975-984, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903674

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, a validated predictive biomarker for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, is reported to change over time. This poses challenges during clinical application in non-small cell lung cancer. @*Methods@#This study included patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgery or biopsy and evaluation of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells via immunohistochemistry more than twice. We set the threshold of PD-L1 positivity to 10% and categorized patients into four groups according to changes in PD-L1 expression. Clinicopathologic information was collected from medical records. Statistical analyses, including Fisher’s exact test and log-rank test, were performed. @*Results@#Of 109 patients, 38 (34.9%) and 45 (41.3%) had PD-L1 positivity in archival and recent samples, respectively. PD-L1 status was maintained in 78 (71.6%) patients, but changed in 31 (28.4%), with 19 (17.4%) from negative to positive. There were no significant differences in characteristics between patients who maintained PD-L1 negativity and whose PD-L1 status changed from negative to positive. Patients harboring PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples achieved better responses (p = 0.129) and showed longer overall survival than those who maintained PD-L1 negativity when they received immune checkpoint inhibitors after platinum failure (median overall survival 14.4 months vs. 4.93 months; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.93). @*Conclusions@#PD-L1 status changed in about one-fourth of patients. PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples was predictive of better responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, archival samples could be used for assessment of PD-L1 status. The need for new biopsies should be decided individually.

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 175-181, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875449

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare salivary gland tumor characterized by indolence, with a high rate of local recurrence and distant metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) on locally advanced unresectable ACC. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 10 patients with pathologically confirmed ACC of the head and neck who received CCRT with cisplatin in Seoul National University Hospital between 2013 and 2018. @*Results@#Ten patients with unresectable disease at the time of diagnosis or with positive margins after surgical resection received CCRT with weekly cisplatin. Eight patients (80%) achieved complete remission, of which three later developed distant metastases without local relapse; one patient developed distant metastasis and local relapse. Two patient achieved partial remission without progression. Patients experienced several toxicities, including dry mouth, radiation dermatitis, nausea, and salivary gland inflammation of mostly grade 1 to 2. Only one patient showed grade 3 oral mucositis. Median relapse-free survival was 34.5 months (95% confidence interval, 22.8 months to not reached). @*Conclusions@#CCRT with cisplatin is effective for local control of ACC with manageable toxicity and may be an effective treatment option for locally advanced unresectable ACC.

6.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 18-25, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837100

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was aim to evaluate the patterns of failure according to radiotherapy (RT) target volume for cervical lymph nodes in metastases of unknown primary origin in head and neck region (HNMUO). @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty-two patients with HNMUO between 1998 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed the clinical outcomes and primary site failure depending on the radiation target volume. The target volume was classified according to whether the potential head and neck mucosal sites were included and whether the neck node was treated involved side only or bilaterally. @*Results@#Potential mucosal site RT (mucosal RT) was done to 23 patients and 39 patients did not receive mucosal RT. Mucosal RT showed no significant effect on overall survival (OS) and locoregional recurrence (LRR). The location of primary site failure encountered during follow-up period was found to be unpredictable and 75% of patients with recurrence received successful salvage therapies. No significant differences in OS and LRR were found between patients treated to unilateral (n = 35) and bilateral neck irradiation (n = 21). Treatment of both necks resulted in significantly higher mucositis. @*Conclusions@#We found no advantages in OS and LRR of patients with HNMUO when mucosal sites and bilateral neck node were included in the radiation target volume.

7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1116-1124, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Although crizotinib is standard chemotherapy for advanced anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), clinical factors affecting progression-free survival (PFS) have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors affecting PFS of crizotinib and develop a prognostic model for advanced ALK-positive NSCLC.@*METHODS@#Clinicopathologic features of patients enrolled in PROFILE 1001, 1005, 1007, and 1014 (training cohort) were reviewed. We conducted multivariate Cox analysis for PFS and overall survival (OS) in the training cohort (n = 159) and generated a proportional hazards model based on significant clinicopathologic factors, and then validated the model in an independent validation cohort (n = 40).@*RESULTS@#In the training cohort, the objective response rate was 81.5%. Median PFS and OS from the start of crizotinib were 12.4 and 31.3 months, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis showed poor performance status, number of metastatic organs (≥ 3), and no response to crizotinib independently associated shorter PFS. Based on a score derived from these three factors, median PFS and OS of patients with one or two factors were significantly shorter compared to those without these factors (median PFS, 22.4 months vs. 10.5 months vs. 6.5 months; median OS, not reached vs. 29.1 months vs. 11.8 months, respectively; p < 0.001 for each group). This model also had validated in an independent validation cohort.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Performance status, number of metastatic organs, and response to crizotinib affected PFS of crizotinib in ALK-positive NSCLC. Based on these factors, we developed a simple and useful prediction model for PFS.

8.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1313-1323, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Since patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have favorable outcomes after treatment, treatment de-escalation for these patients is being actively investigated. However, not all HPV-positive HNSCCs are curable, and some patients have a poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to identify poor prognostic factors in patients with HPV-positive HNSCC.@*METHODS@#Patients who received a diagnosis of HNSCC and tested positive for HPV from 2000 to 2015 at a single hospital site (n = 152) were included in this retrospective analysis. HPV typing was conducted using the HPV DNA chip assay or liquid bead microarray system. Expression of p16 in the tumors was assessed by immunohistochemistry. To determine candidate factors associated with overall survival (OS), univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 152 patients with HPV-positive HNSCC were included in this study; 82.2% were male, 43.4% were current or former smokers, and 84.2% had oropharyngeal cancer. By univariate analysis, old age, performance status ≥ 1, non-oropharyngeal location, advanced T classification (T3–4), and HPV genotype 18 were significantly associated with poor OS. By multivariable analysis, performance status ≥ 1 and non-oropharyngeal location were independently associated with shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR], 4.36, p = 0.015; HR, 11.83, p = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, HPV genotype 18 positivity was also an independent poor prognostic factor of OS (HR, 10.87, p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Non-oropharyngeal cancer, poor performance status, and HPV genotype 18 were independent poor prognostic factors in patients with HPV-positive HNSCC. Patients with these risk factors might not be candidates for de-escalation treatment.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 670-680, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715838

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare asparaginase-related toxicities in two asparaginase preparations, namely native Escherichia coli L-asparaginase (L-ASP) and pegylated asparaginase (PEG-ASP) in combination with ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone (IMEP) in natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 NTCL patients who received IMEP plus native E. coli L-ASP or PEG-ASP at Seoul National University Hospital were included in this study between January 2013 and March 2016. IMEP/ASP treatment consisted of ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, plus native E. coli L-ASP (6,000 IU/m2 on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) or PEG-ASP (2,500 IU/m2 on day 1) every 3 weeks. ASP-related toxicities, toxicity patterns, length of hospital stay, and clinical outcomes were compared between the different treatment groups. RESULTS: The frequency of ASP-related toxicities was similar between the IMEP plus native E. coli L-ASP group and the PEG-ASP group apart from hypofibrinogenemia (native E. coli L-ASP vs. PEG-ASP group, 86.4% vs. 36.8%; p=0.001). Although post-treatment transaminase and albumin levels were significantly high and low, respectively, hepatotoxicity gradients before and after treatment did not differ significantly between the groups. Since PEG-ASP was given at an outpatient clinic in some patients, length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the IMEP plus PEG-ASP group (median, 4.0 vs. 6.0 days; p=0.002). A favorable tendency of clinical outcomes was observed in NTCL patients treated with IMEP plus PEG-ASP (complete remission rate, 73.7% vs. 45.5%; p=0.067). CONCLUSION: IMEP plus PEG-ASP showed similar ASP-related toxicities, shorter length of hospital stay, and a trend towards improved clinical outcomes compared with IMEP plus native E. coli L-ASP in NTCL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Asparaginase , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Etoposide , Ifosfamide , Length of Stay , Lymphoma , Methotrexate , Prednisolone , Seoul
10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 570-578, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of induction chemotherapy (IC) for eyeball preservation has not been established in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the paranasal sinus and nasal cavity (PNSNC). Periorbital involvement frequently leads to eyeball exenteration with a margin of safety. We evaluated the treatment outcomes, including survival and eyeball preservation, of patients who received IC for HNSCC of the PNSNC. METHODS: We reviewed 21 patients diagnosed with HNSCC of the PNSNC who were treated with IC. We analyzed response, eyeball preservation rate, and overall survival. RESULTS: Tumors were located in the paranasal sinus (n = 14) or nasal cavity (n = 7). Most patients had stage T4a (n = 10) or T4b (n = 7) disease. More than half of the patients received a chemotherapy regimen of docetaxel, fluorouracil, and cisplatin (n = 11). Thirteen patients (61.9%) achieved a partial response after IC and 15 patients (71.4%) achieved T down-staging. Among 17 patients with stage T4 disease, which confers a high risk of orbital exenteration, 14 (82.4%) achieved preservation of the involved eye. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of patients who achieved a partial response to IC was 84.6%. The 3-year OS rate of patients with stable disease or disease progression after IC was 25.0% (p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: IC could be considered for down-staging patients with advanced T-stage disease. It could also be a reasonable option for eyeball preservation in locally advanced HNSCC of the PNSNC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cisplatin , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy , Fluorouracil , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Induction Chemotherapy , Nasal Cavity , Neck , Orbit , Orbit Evisceration , Organ Preservation , Paranasal Sinuses
11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 907-916, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61894

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the survival of patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC) undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) alone with that of patients undergoing induction chemotherapy (IC) using docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) followed by CRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases was performed in April 2015 and abstracts from the American Society of Clinical Oncology meetings (2008-2014) were reviewed. Summaries of the results were pooled using a fixed-effect model, and the risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane tool. RESULTS: A total of six relevant trials comprising 1,280 patients were identified. There was no statistically significant overall survival (OS) advantage for TPF prior to CRT (TPF/CRT) over CRT alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.09; p=0.339). Progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly longer in the TPF/CRT arms (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.95; p=0.009). Patients with non-oropharyngeal LA-HNSCC obtained the greatest OS and PFS benefits from TPF (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.99; p=0.043 and HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.94; p=0.022, respectively). The complete response rate was significantly increased (risk ratio [RR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.56; p < 0.001), and the distant metastasis rate tended to decrease (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.40 to 1.04; p=0.071) in the TPF/CRT arms. CONCLUSION: IC with TPF followed by CRT is not superior to CRT alone for OS. However, PFS and the complete response rate were significantly improved in the TPF/CRT arms. TPF/CRT for patients with nonoropharyngeal LA-HNSCC provided clear survival advantages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arm , Bias , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Epithelial Cells , Fluorouracil , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Induction Chemotherapy , Medical Oncology , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis
12.
13.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 281-285, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114235

ABSTRACT

Statins lower the hyperlipidemia and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events and related mortality. A 60-year-old man who was diagnosed with a transient ischemic attack was started on acetyl-L-carnitine, cilostazol, and rosuvastatin. After rosuvastatin treatment for 4 weeks, the patient presented with sudden onset fever, cough, and dyspnea. His symptoms were aggravated despite empirical antibiotic treatment. All infectious pathogens were excluded based on results of culture and polymerase chain reaction of the bronchoscopic wash specimens. Chest radiography showed diffuse ground-glass opacities in both lungs, along with several subpleural ground-glass opacity nodules; and a foamy alveolar macrophage appearance was confirmed on bronchoalveolar lavage. We suspected rosuvastatin-induced lung injury, discontinued rosuvastatin and initiated prednisolone 1 mg/kg tapered over 2weeks. After initiating steroid therapy, his symptoms and radiologic findings significantly improved. We suggest that clinicians should be aware of the potential for rosuvastatin-induced lung injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Acetylcarnitine , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Chemically-Induced Disorders , Cough , Dyspnea , Fever , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hyperlipidemias , Incidence , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Lung , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung Injury , Macrophages, Alveolar , Mortality , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prednisolone , Radiography , Thorax , Rosuvastatin Calcium
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