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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200313, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory. OBJECTIVES Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan. METHODS In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay. FINDINGS Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids. CONCLUSION The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/genetics , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Mosquito Vectors/virology , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insect Vectors/genetics
2.
Malaria journal ; 5(77)2006.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1265199

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent field studies indicated that insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) maintain their efficacy despite a high frequency of the knock-down resistance (kdr) gene in Anopheles gambiae populations. It was essential to evaluate ITNs efficacy in areas with metabolic-based resistance. Methods: Bifenthrin was used in this experiment because it is considered a promising candidate for bednets impregnation. Nets were treated at 50 mg/m2; a dose that has high insecticidal activity on kdr mosquitoes and at 5 mg/m2; a dose that kills 95of susceptible mosquitoes under laboratory conditions with 3 minutes exposure. Bednets were holed to mimic physical damage. The trial was conducted in three experimental huts from Pitoa; North-Cameroon where Anopheles gambiae displays metabolic resistance and cohabits with An. funestus. Results: Bifenthrin at 50 mg/m2 significantly reduced anophelines' entry rate (80). This was not observed at 5 mg/m2. Both treatments increased exophily in An. gambiae; and to a lesser extent in An. funestus. With bifenthrin at high dosage; over 60reduction in blood feeding and 75-90mortality rates were observed in both vectors. Despite presence of holes; only a single An. gambiae and two An. funestus females were collected inside the treated net; and all were found dead. The same trends were observed with low dosage bifenthrin though in most cases; no significant difference was found with the untreated control net. Conclusion: Bifenthrin-impregnated bednets at 50 mg/m2 were efficient in the reduction of human-vector contact in Pitoa. Considerable personal protection was gained against An. funestus and metabolic pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae populations


Subject(s)
Anopheles , Malaria
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