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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e17-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967452

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the impact of distributional changes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection fear with sex differences. A quota sampling strategy was followed and 483 Korean adults were surveyed in a community sample. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess COVID-19 infection fear, depressive symptoms, and general characteristics.Quantile regression was used to explore the regression relationship of COVID-19 infection fear and an individual’s sex. There was a significant difference in COVID-19 infection fear (P= 0.001) and depression (P = 0.008) between the sexes - male and female. The differences between sexes at the 20th and 30th percentiles were significant (β = 2.04, P = 0.006; β = 1.5, P = 0.004, respectively). The results demonstrate that sex significantly predicts COVID-19 infection fear and women had significantly greater fear than men in the mild-level of COVID-19 infection fear.

2.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 13-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966741

ABSTRACT

Background@#Exchange nailing is a standard treatment for femoral shaft nonunion after intramedullary nailing. However, substantial uncertainty and controversy remain regarding the mode of interlocking fixation. This study aimed to compare the success rate and time to union of exchange nailing based on interlocking modes. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive patients who underwent exchange nailing for aseptic femoral shaft nonunion between February 2000 and February 2021. Patients who underwent exchange nailing using the dynamically locked mode and statically locked mode constituted the dynamic group and static group, respectively. We compared the success rates of the index surgery and the time to union between the groups and measured the extent of interlocking screw migration on the dynamic oblong hole in the dynamic group. @*Results@#The dynamic group and static group comprised 17 patients and 18 patients, respectively. All patients in the dynamic group achieved bone union, whereas 5 patients in the static group did not and underwent additional intervention. The success rate of the index surgery was significantly higher in the dynamic group than in the static group (100% vs. 72.2%, p = 0.045). Four of the 5 failed unions in the static group achieved bone union after dynamization. The median time to union was significantly shorter in the dynamic group than in the static group (6.0 months [range, 4.0–6.0] vs. 12.0 months [range, 3.7–21.7], p= 0.035). In the dynamic group, 3 of 17 patients exhibited interlocking screw migration ranging from 1.1 to 4.1 mm. @*Conclusions@#Exchange nailing with dynamic mode yields a higher success rate and shorter time to union in aseptic femoral shaft nonunion than that with static mode, without the risk of excessive shortening.

3.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 37-44, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926389

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The factors related to injury severity in accidents in Korea are unclear. This study helps primary physicians treat victims of traffic accidents with a high probability of severe injury during the initial evaluation in the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This study was conducted on patients who visited Pusan National University Hospital regional trauma center, Korea, between January 2017 and December 2019 due to involvement in automobile accidents as a driver. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship of factors with injury severity. @*Results@#A total of 973 patients were included. Of them, 316 (32.5%) were severely injured. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age was significantly associated with more severe injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.030; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.017-1.043; P<0.001). A significant difference was noted in injury severity according to the mode of transportation to the ED. Transportation via private ambulance was associated with more severe injury than via public ambulance (OR, 5.853; 95% CI, 3.986-8.594; P<0.001). The severe injury was more likely when the collision involved a large-sized vehicle (OR, 2.369; 95% CI, 1.466-3.826; P<0.001), or a fixed object (OR, 2.077; 95% CI, 1.326-3.254; P<0.001) compared to a small-sized vehicle. The group that did not wear a seat belt had more severe injuries than those who wore a seat belt (OR, 2.218; 95% CI, 1.421-3.463; P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Injury severity was correlated with age, mode of transportation to the ED, type of collision and seat belt use. These results will help primary physicians assess critically ill patients.

4.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 161-165, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928486

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The COVID-19 pandemic has caused 1.4 million deaths globally and is associated with a 3-4 times increase in 30-day mortality after a fragility hip fracture with concurrent COVID-19 infection. Typically, death from COVID-19 infection occurs between 15 and 22 days after the onset of symptoms, but this period can extend up to 8 weeks. This study aimed to assess the impact of concurrent COVID-19 infection on 120-day mortality after a fragility hip fracture.@*METHODS@#A multi-centre prospective study across 10 hospitals treating 8% of the annual burden of hip fractures in England between 1st March and 30th April, 2020 was performed. Patients whose surgical treatment was payable through the National Health Service Best Practice Tariff mechanism for "fragility hip fractures" were included in the study. Patients' 120-day mortality was assessed relative to their peri-operative COVID-19 status. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 27.@*RESULTS@#A total of 746 patients were included in this study, of which 87 (11.7%) were COVID-19 positive. Mortality rates at 30- and 120-day were significantly higher for COVID-19 positive patients relative to COVID-19 negative patients (p < 0.001). However, mortality rates between 31 and 120-day were not significantly different (p = 0.107), 16.1% and 9.4% respectively for COVID-19 positive and negative patients, odds ratio 1.855 (95% CI 0.865-3.978).@*CONCLUSION@#Hip fracture patients with concurrent COVID-19 infection, provided that they are alive at day-31 after injury, have no significant difference in 120-day mortality. Despite the growing awareness and concern of "long-COVID" and its widespread prevalence, this does not appear to increase medium-term mortality rates after a hip fracture.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Hip Fractures/surgery , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , State Medicine , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 586-590, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916529

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Passive leg raising for treating patients with shock involves the elevation of the legs in the supine position and can also be applied to patients showing sudden aggravation after lying down for a certain period. A study involving healthy adults has reported that this type of passive leg raising is ineffective for those who spend a long time in the supine position. The study measured cardiac output intermittently using echocardiography rather than measuring it continuously in real time, making it impossible to examine the overall trend in cardiac output before and after the leg raise. This study aimed to examine changes and trends in cardiac output using a device that measures cardiac output in real time. @*Methods@#The present study was conducted from January to August 2020 and included healthy adults aged 18 years and above. Cardiac output was measured with a noninvasive cardiac output measuring device (electrical cardiometry, ICON) for 30 minutes in the supine position and for another 30 minutes in the supine position with the legs raised at 45° for 60 minutes. @*Results@#A total of 40 participants were included in the study. Cardiac output increased from 5.13±1.42 L/min to 5.14± 1.64 L/min after the passive leg raise. However, the increase was not statistically significant (P=0.958). @*Conclusion@#No statistically significant change was found between the cardiac outputs before the leg raise and after the leg raise.

6.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 59-63, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916492

ABSTRACT

Copper sulfate is widely used as a fungicide and pesticide. Acute copper sulfate poisoning is rare but potentially lethal in severe cases. Copper sulfate can lead to cellular damage of red blood cells, hepatocytes, and myocytes. Toxic effects include intravascular hemolysis, acute tubular necrosis and, rhabdomyolysis. A 76-year-old man presented with vomiting and epigastric pain. He had ingested a copper-containing fungicide (about 13.5 g of copper sulfate) while attempting suicide 2 hours prior to presentation. From day 3 at the hospital, laboratory findings suggesting intravascular hemolysis were noted with increased serum creatinine level. He was treated with a chelating agent, dimercaptosuccinic acid (succimer). His anemia and acute kidney injury gradually resolved with a 19-day regimen of succimer. Our case suggests that succimer can be used for copper sulfate poisoning when other chelating agents are not available.

7.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 158-164, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901699

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aerosol box was rapidly developed and disseminated to minimize viral exposure during aerosolizing procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic, yet users may not understand how to use and clean the device. This could potentially lead to increased viral exposure to subsequent patients and practitioners. We evaluated intraoperative contamination and aerosol box decontamination and the impact of a preoperative educational visual aid. @*Methods@#Using a double-blinded randomized design, forty-four anesthesiology trainees and faculty completed a simulated anesthetic case using an aerosol box contaminated with a fluorescent marker; half of the subjects received a visual aid prior to the simulation. Intraoperative contamination was evaluated at 10 standardized locations using an ultraviolet (UV) light. Next, subjects were instructed to clean the aerosol box for use on the next patient. Following cleaning, the box was evaluated for decontamination using an UV light. @*Results@#Median total contamination score was significantly reduced in the experimental group (5.0 vs. 10.0, P < 0.001). The aerosol box was completely cleaned by 36.4% of subjects in the experimental group compared to 4.5% in the control group (P = 0.009). @*Conclusions@#The use of a visual aid significantly decreased intraoperative contamination and improved box cleaning. Despite these findings, a potentially clinically significant amount of viral exposure may exist. Thorough evaluation of the risks and benefits of the aerosol box should be completed prior to use. If an aerosol box is used, a visual aid should be considered to remind practitioners how to best use and clean the box.

8.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 539-544, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897277

ABSTRACT

Study DesignThis study enrolled patients in from a single center who underwent primary spinal fusion procedure and divided them into two groups (group-control study).PurposeGood local infiltration can reduce postoperative analgesic requirements and enable expedited discharge. Administration of a combination of levobupivacaine (200 mg/100 mL, 0.9% normal saline), ketorolac (30 mg), and adrenaline (0.5 mg) as a wound infiltrate is recommended at an optimum combination.Overview of LiteratureThere is currently no consensus on the optimum intraoperative local infiltration of spinal surgery patients undergoing operative fusion.MethodsPatients who were enrolled in two spinal centers (over 24 months) undergoing primary spinal fusion procedures were allocated into two groups, comparing the type of local infiltration used at the time of the procedure. Group 1 received the combination of levobupivacaine (200 mg), ketorolac (30 mg), and adrenaline (0.5 mg), while group 2 received other types of local anesthetics. Primary outcome measures include patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) use, morphine consumption, and length of hospital stay. Secondary outcome measure are as follows: days of physiotherapy, pain score, side effects, and complications.ResultsThere are a total of 140 patients enrolled. Seventy-five patients enrolled were allocated to group 1, receiving the study combination, and 65 patients were assigned in group 2, receiving other local infiltrations. All primary outcome measures (consumption of morphine, use of PCA, and length of stay) were significantly higher in group 2 than the study combination (pppConclusionsOur data suggest that the studied wound infiltration is a safe and feasible option that could provide good postoperative pain control without significant side effects. It also allowed to reduce dependence of opioids and PCA, earlier postoperative mobilization, lower pain scores postoperatively, and reduced hospital stay.

9.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 158-164, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893995

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aerosol box was rapidly developed and disseminated to minimize viral exposure during aerosolizing procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic, yet users may not understand how to use and clean the device. This could potentially lead to increased viral exposure to subsequent patients and practitioners. We evaluated intraoperative contamination and aerosol box decontamination and the impact of a preoperative educational visual aid. @*Methods@#Using a double-blinded randomized design, forty-four anesthesiology trainees and faculty completed a simulated anesthetic case using an aerosol box contaminated with a fluorescent marker; half of the subjects received a visual aid prior to the simulation. Intraoperative contamination was evaluated at 10 standardized locations using an ultraviolet (UV) light. Next, subjects were instructed to clean the aerosol box for use on the next patient. Following cleaning, the box was evaluated for decontamination using an UV light. @*Results@#Median total contamination score was significantly reduced in the experimental group (5.0 vs. 10.0, P < 0.001). The aerosol box was completely cleaned by 36.4% of subjects in the experimental group compared to 4.5% in the control group (P = 0.009). @*Conclusions@#The use of a visual aid significantly decreased intraoperative contamination and improved box cleaning. Despite these findings, a potentially clinically significant amount of viral exposure may exist. Thorough evaluation of the risks and benefits of the aerosol box should be completed prior to use. If an aerosol box is used, a visual aid should be considered to remind practitioners how to best use and clean the box.

10.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 539-544, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889573

ABSTRACT

Study DesignThis study enrolled patients in from a single center who underwent primary spinal fusion procedure and divided them into two groups (group-control study).PurposeGood local infiltration can reduce postoperative analgesic requirements and enable expedited discharge. Administration of a combination of levobupivacaine (200 mg/100 mL, 0.9% normal saline), ketorolac (30 mg), and adrenaline (0.5 mg) as a wound infiltrate is recommended at an optimum combination.Overview of LiteratureThere is currently no consensus on the optimum intraoperative local infiltration of spinal surgery patients undergoing operative fusion.MethodsPatients who were enrolled in two spinal centers (over 24 months) undergoing primary spinal fusion procedures were allocated into two groups, comparing the type of local infiltration used at the time of the procedure. Group 1 received the combination of levobupivacaine (200 mg), ketorolac (30 mg), and adrenaline (0.5 mg), while group 2 received other types of local anesthetics. Primary outcome measures include patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) use, morphine consumption, and length of hospital stay. Secondary outcome measure are as follows: days of physiotherapy, pain score, side effects, and complications.ResultsThere are a total of 140 patients enrolled. Seventy-five patients enrolled were allocated to group 1, receiving the study combination, and 65 patients were assigned in group 2, receiving other local infiltrations. All primary outcome measures (consumption of morphine, use of PCA, and length of stay) were significantly higher in group 2 than the study combination (pppConclusionsOur data suggest that the studied wound infiltration is a safe and feasible option that could provide good postoperative pain control without significant side effects. It also allowed to reduce dependence of opioids and PCA, earlier postoperative mobilization, lower pain scores postoperatively, and reduced hospital stay.

11.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 123-131, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To elucidate the effect of anterolateral bowing on the fracture height of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs), we separated the AFFs into 2 groups according to the presence of anterolateral femoral bowing (straight group and bowing group) and analyzed the fracture height. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical and radiological features of AFFs in the straight group and bowing group, and to determine which factors were associated with the fracture height of AFFs in the total cohort and each subgroup. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients with AFFs were included in this study (43 patients in the bowing group and 56 patients in the straight group). Clinical and radiological characteristics were compared between the groups. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of factors on fracture height. RESULTS: Patients in the straight group were younger, heavier, and taller, and had a higher bone mineral density, smaller anterior and lateral bowing angles, and more proximal fracture height than those in the bowing group. Multivariable analysis showed that the presence of anterolateral bowing itself and height were associated with fracture height in the total cohort. In the subgroup analysis, the lateral bowing angle in the straight group and the estimated apex height in the bowing group were associated with fracture height. The lateral bowing angle was not significantly associated with fracture height in the total cohort and the bowing group. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of anterolateral bowing and the level of the apex of the bowed femur were important factors for the fracture height of AFFs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Density , Cohort Studies , Femoral Fractures , Femur , Linear Models , Osteoporosis , Stress, Mechanical
12.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 468-472, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758481

ABSTRACT

A closed internal degloving injury is a soft tissue injury, in which the subcutaneous tissue is ripped from the underlying fascia. In rare cases, a closed internal degloving injury can lead to hemorrhagic shock. A 79-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department following an auto-pedestrian accident, in which she was hit by a car. She was in a stupor and was hypotensive. The initial evaluation was unremarkable. During management, the patient required the transfusion of a large volume of blood, and vasoactive agent. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large hematoma in her lower back and gluteal area and she was diagnosed with a closed internal degloving injury. Missed or delayed diagnosis of this type of injury may result in a significant increase in transfusion requirements and irreversible hemorrhagic shock.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Contusions , Delayed Diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fascia , Hematoma , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Soft Tissue Injuries , Stupor , Subcutaneous Tissue
13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 145-153, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to clarify the role of acute alcohol use and alcohol use disorder in individuals exhibiting suicidal behaviors, including repetition of suicide attempt.@*METHODS@#Data pertaining to 691 suicide attempters who had visited an emergency center and had been followed-up from 2010 to 2015 were gathered. Participants were categorized into following three groups according to alcohol use pattern at the time of the suicide attempt: 1) suicide attempters with neither alcohol use disorder nor acute alcohol consumption (NAU), 2) suicide attempters who had used alcohol during the suicide attempt but did not have alcohol use disorder (AAU), and 3) suicide attempters with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Group comparisons and multivariate Cox proportional models for suicidal behavior were used for statistical analysis.@*RESULTS@#AUD have been shown to have lower lethality of suicide attempt but higher risk of suicide reattempts in the future. Furthermore, positive relationships between suicide reattempts and AUD persisted throughout the longer period than other groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Suicide attempters with AUD should be considered a high-risk group for suicide reattempts in future, and this group should be followed-up for a longer period with specialized care program.

14.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 490-500, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916514

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Under the overcrowding conditions of large emergency departments, the proportion of elderly patients is increasing in Korea. This paper describes the necessity of the preparedness of Korean emergency departments and society for the rapidly aging population.@*METHODS@#This was a retrospective observational study. Patients who presented to a tertiary hospital emergency department (ED) in one year were included. The use of medical resources between young adult (≥20 and <65 years of age) and elderly patients (≥65 years of age) was compared.@*RESULTS@#This study included 26,712 patients. The young adult group and the elderly group was 15,021 (56.2%) and 11,691 (43.8%), respectively. The ratio of firehouse ambulance visit mode (28.6%) and inter-facility transfer visit mode (18.9%) of the elderly group was higher compared to those of the young adult group (26.4% and 10.6%, P<0.001). The elderly group visited more at daytime (P<0.001). With aging, the admission ratios of the elderly group to the general ward (38.9%) and intensive care unit (13.0%) were higher than the young adult group (9.8% and 4.3%, P<0.001). The mean ED length of stay and mean length of hospitalization of the elderly group was longer than that of the young adult group (P<0.001). The medical cost of the elderly group was approximately three times higher than that of the young adult group.@*CONCLUSION@#Elderly patients required more emergency medical resources in both the prehospital and hospital stages. Korean emergency departments and society require efforts for not only expansion but also the appropriate use of medical resources in a rapidly aging population.

15.
Journal of the Korean Fracture Society ; : 79-86, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738439

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To prevent excessive sliding and subsequent fixation failures in unstable intertrochanteric fractures with posteromedial comminution, extramedullary reduction through overlapping of the anteromedial cortices of both proximal and distal fragments as a buttress has been introduced. The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties between two reduction methods-intramedullary reduction and extramedullary reduction-in treating unstable intertrochanteric fractures with posteromedial comminution (AO/OTA classification 31-A2.2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight pairs of frozen human cadaveric femora were used. The femora of each pair were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the intramedullary reduction group or the extramedullary reduction group. A single axial load-destruction test was conducted after cephalomedullary nailing. Axial stiffness, maximum load to failure, and energy absorbed to failure were compared between the two groups. Moreover, the pattern of mechanical failure was identified. RESULTS: The mean axial stiffness in the extramedullary reduction group was 27.3% higher than that in the intramedullary reduction group (422.7 N/mm vs. 332.0 N/mm, p=0.017). Additionally, compared with the intramedullary reduction group, the mean maximum load to failure and mean energy absorbed to failure in the extramedullary group were 44.9% and 89.6% higher, respectively (2,848.7 N vs. 1,966.5 N, p=0.012 and 27,969.9 N·mm vs. 14,751.0 N·mm, p=0.012, respectively). In the intramedullary reduction group, the mechanical failure patterns were all sliding and varus deformities. In the extramedullary reduction group, sliding and varus deformities after external rotation were noted in 3 specimens, sliding and varus deformities after internal rotation were noted in 3 specimens, and medial slippage was noted in 2 specimens. CONCLUSION: In unstable intertrochanteric fractures with posteromedial comminution, the biomechanical properties of extramedullary reduction are superior to those of intramedullary reduction. Anteromedial cortex could be the proper buttress, despite a comminuted posteromedial cortex. It could help enhance the stability of the bone-nail construct.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cadaver , Classification , Congenital Abnormalities , Hip Fractures
16.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 71-75, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715061

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ultrasonographic examination compared to chest radiography (CXR) is effective for evaluating complications after central venous catheterization. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study. Immediately after central venous catheter insertion, we asked the radiologic department to perform a portable CXR scan. A junior and senior medical resident each performed ultrasonographic evaluation of the position of the catheter tip and complications such as pneumothorax and pleural effusion (hemothorax). We estimated the time required for ultrasound (US) and CXR. RESULTS: Compared to CXR, US could equivalently identify the catheter tip in the internal jugular or subclavian veins (P=1.000). Compared with CXR, US examinations conducted by junior residents could equivalently evaluate pneumothorax (P=1.000), while US examinations conducted by senior residents could also equivalently evaluate pneumothorax (P=0.557) and pleural effusion (P=0.337). The required time for US was shorter than that for CXR (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Compared to CXR, US could equivalently and more quickly identify complications such as pneumothorax or pleural effusion.


Subject(s)
Catheterization, Central Venous , Catheters , Central Venous Catheters , Diagnostic Imaging , Observational Study , Pleural Effusion , Pneumothorax , Prospective Studies , Radiography , Subclavian Vein , Thorax , Ultrasonography
17.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 408-414, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with low acuity who need hospitalization may be at risk if they do not receive proper treatment in overcrowded emergency rooms. This study was conducted to investigate factors affecting the hospitalization of patients with low acuity of Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS). METHODS: This study was a retrospective chart review analysis of patients aged 15 years or older who had triaged as KTAS 4 and 5 grades when visiting a local emergency medical center from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2017. Multivariate logistic analysis was performed to analyze the effects of age, sex, reasons for visiting, visiting route, ambulance utilization, KTAS grade and major category on patient admission. RESULTS: A total of 10,540 patients were enrolled and the odds ratio (OR) increased with age from those aged over 34 years (P < 0.001). Patients that triaged as KTAS grade 5 (adjusted OR, 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36–1.82), had a condition caused by disease (adjusted OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 2.00–2.68), and visited by using an ambulance (public: adjusted OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.91–1.22; private: adjusted OR, 4.60; 95% CI, 3.85–5.49) were more likely to be hospitalized. Individuals in the “general” major category were more likely to be hospitalized than those falling into other major categories (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The factors influencing the hospitalization of patients with low acuity were age, reasons for visiting, visiting route, ambulance utilization, KTAS grade and major category on patient admission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Accidental Falls , Ambulances , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Odds Ratio , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Triage
18.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 39-43, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741489

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of using a bacteriophage (phage) to control Flavobacterium psychrophilum (F. psychrophilum) infection of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) was evaluated in this study. Intramuscular challenge failed to induce sufficient infection levels; therefore, a newly designed net-scratch challenge method was also used to induce bacterial infection. Administration of phage PFpW-3 in F. psychrophilum-infected ayu showed notable protective effects, increased survival rates and mean times to death. Additionally, the fate of inoculated bacteria and phage in ayu were investigated. Our results suggest that the phage PFpW-3 could be considered an alternative biocontrol agent against F. psychrophilum infections in ayu culture.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Bacterial Infections , Bacteriophages , Flavobacterium , Methods , Osmeriformes , Survival Rate
19.
Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine ; : 135-144, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738899

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify the differences of demographic and clinical characteristics between child-adolescents who received medical inpatient care and non-hospitalized adolescents after suicide attempts. METHODS: The study included 35 child-adolescents who were hospitalized (Admission group) and 114 child-adolescents who were not hospitalized (Non-Admission group) as a result of a suicide attempt from 2009 to 2015. We compared sociodemographic, clinical, and suicide attempt-related characteristics through a chi-square test and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the differences between the two groups. RESULTS: Child-adolescents of this study most commonly attempted suicide by poisoning, and for motivation of interpersonal problems. Admission group had significantly fewer attempts through injury by sharp objects (χ²=4.374, p=0.037) and attempted suicide with a higher chance of actually dying when compared to Risk-Rescue Rating Scale (t=1.981, p=0.049). In addition, Admission group had relatively common motivation for academic problems (χ²=12.082, p=0.001) and less motivation for interpersonal difficulties. (χ²=9.869, p=0.002) Psychiatric diagnosis at the time of visiting the emergency department showed higher rates of depression in the admission group than Non-Admission group (χ²=8.649, p=0.003). The results of logistic regression showed that depression affects hospitalization (OR=2.783, 95% CI 1.092–7.089, p=0.032). CONCLUSIONS: This study is meaningful in that it revealed the social and clinical characteristics of all child-adolescents who were hospitalized at a university hospital after attempting suicide. This study identified differences in motivation, methods, and psychiatric diagnosis of hospitalized adolescents and those who were not. Therefore, the results may help adolescent suicide attempters to get a discriminatory approach based on their admission.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Adolescent, Hospitalized , Depression , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Inpatients , Logistic Models , Mental Disorders , Motivation , Poisoning , Suicide , Suicide, Attempted
20.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 39-43, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918290

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of using a bacteriophage (phage) to control Flavobacterium psychrophilum (F. psychrophilum) infection of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) was evaluated in this study. Intramuscular challenge failed to induce sufficient infection levels; therefore, a newly designed net-scratch challenge method was also used to induce bacterial infection. Administration of phage PFpW-3 in F. psychrophilum-infected ayu showed notable protective effects, increased survival rates and mean times to death. Additionally, the fate of inoculated bacteria and phage in ayu were investigated. Our results suggest that the phage PFpW-3 could be considered an alternative biocontrol agent against F. psychrophilum infections in ayu culture.

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