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1.
J. health sci. (Londrina) ; 21(3): https://seer.pgsskroton.com/index.php/JHealthSci/article/view/6709, 24/09/2019.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051441

ABSTRACT

Surgical Site Infections (SSI) are infections related to surgical procedures in inpatients and outpatients, indicated with high prevalence in relation to infections linked to preventable health care. Thus, the objective of the study is to perform a review on bacterial, fungal and viral infections in surgical site in relation to clinical, diagnostic and epidemiological aspects. A bibliographic and exploratory research was carried out and the Virtual Health Library (VHL), Capes Periodicals and the Pubmed to search the articles were consulted. As for the clinical aspects, the phlogistic signs that allow to identify an inflammatory picture, being a response of the organism to some aggressive agent. Among the bacterial diagnostic methods, the most used ones are the color smear examination, cultural and biochemical characteristics, ELISA, PCR and SAR. As for the detection of fungi and yeasts are the production of the germ tube, micro-culture in agar-tween 80 agar, assimilation of carbohydrates or nitrogen and fermentation of carbohydrates. For viruses, virus isolation, cell culture, laboratory animals and embryonated eggs may be used. Although bacterial infections account for most surgical infections, fungal and viral infections can also be seen in hospital settings and their diagnosis needs to be performed as soon as possible for proper treatment, reducing costs for medical services and length of stay of the patient in the hospital environment, also reducing other risks of infection. (AU)


As Infecções do Sítio Cirúrgico (ISC) são infecções relacionadas a procedimentos cirúrgicos em pacientes internados e ambulatoriais, indicadas com alta prevalência em relação às infecções ligadas aos cuidados em saúde evitáveis. Neste sentido, o objetivo do estudo é realizar uma revisão sobre as infecções bacterianas, fúngicas e virais em sítio cirúrgico em relação aos aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e epidemiológicos. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica e exploratória e consultada a Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), os Periódicos Capes e o Pubmed para busca dos artigos. Quanto aos aspectos clínicos, os sinais flogísticos que permitem identificar um quadro inflamatório, sendo uma resposta do organismo frente a algum agente agressor. Dentre os métodos diagnósticos bacterianos, os mais utilizados são o Exame de esfregaços corados, Características culturais e bioquímicas, ELISA, PCR e o SAR. Quanto à detecção de fungos e leveduras estão a produção do tubo germinativo, micro cultivo em ágar fubá-tween 80, assimilação de carboidratos ou de nitrogênio e fermentação dos carboidratos. Em relação aos vírus, podem ser utilizadas o isolamento dos vírus, a cultura de células, os animais de laboratório e os ovos embrionados. Apesar das infecções bacterianas representarem a maior parte das infecções cirúrgicas, as infecções fúngicas e virais também podem ser vistas em ambientes hospitalares e seu diagnóstico precisa ser realizado o mais rápido possível para um tratamento adequado, reduzindo os custos com serviços médicos e o tempo de permanência do paciente no ambiente hospitalar, diminuindo também outros riscos de infecção. (AU)

2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180555, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Polymyxins are currently used as a "last-line" treatment for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. OBJECTIVES To identify the major mechanisms of resistance to polymyxin and compare the genetic similarity between multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains recovered from inpatients of public hospitals in the Mid-West of Brazil. METHODS 97 carbapenems non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were studied. β-lactamases (bla OXA-48, bla KPC, bla NDM, bla CTX-M, bla SHV, bla TEM, bla IMP, bla VIM) and mcr-1 to mcr-5 genes were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mutations in chromosomal genes (pmrA, pmrB, phoP, phoQ, and mgrB) were screened by PCR and DNA sequencing. Clonal relatedness was established by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. FINDINGS K. pneumoniae isolates harbored bla KPC (93.3%), bla SHV (86.6%), bla TEM (80.0%), bla CTX-M (60%) genes. Of 15 K. pneumoniae resistant to polymyxin B the authors identified deleterious mutations in pmrB gene, mainly in T157P. None K. pneumoniae presented mcr gene variants. Genetic polymorphism analyses revealed 12 different pulsotypes. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Deleterious mutations in pmrB gene is the main chromosomal target for induction of polymyxin resistance in carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in public hospitals in the Mid-West of Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colistin , Polymyxins , Drug Resistance, Multiple
3.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180167, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002438

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the treatment compliance of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Methods: We studied 188 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in the Central-West Region of Brazil from 2000 to 2010, to assess their compliance to treatment. In order to be considered compliant, patients needed to present two established criteria: (1) receive medicines from the pharmacy, and (2) achieve a self-reported utilization of at least 80% of the dispensed antifungal compounds prescribed since their previous appointment. Results: Most patients were male (95.7%), had the chronic form of the disease (94.2%), and were treated with cotrimoxazole (86.2%). Only 44.6% of patients were treatment compliant. The highest loss to follow-up was observed in the first 4 months of treatment (p < 0.02). Treatment compliance was higher for patients with than for those without pulmonary involvement (OR: 2.986; 95%CI 1.351-6.599), and higher for patients with than without tuberculosis as co-morbidity (OR: 2.763; 95%CI 1.004-7.604). Conclusions: Compliance to paracoccidioidomycosis treatment was low, and the period with the highest loss to follow-up corresponds to the first four months. Pulmonary paracoccidioidal involvement or tuberculosis comorbidity predicts a higher compliance to paracoccidioidomycosis therapy.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a adesão ao tratamento de paracoccidioidomicose. Métodos: Estudo conduzido com 188 pacientes com paracoccidioidomicose atendidos em um hospital terciário na Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, de 2000 a 2010, para avaliar adesão ao tratamento. Foram considerados aderentes pacientes que tiveram o seguinte critério: retiraram os medicamentos na farmácia e autorrelataram a utilização de, no mínimo, 80% de dispensação dos antifúngicos prescritos na última consulta. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes era homem (95,7%), tinha a forma crônica da doença (94,2%) e foi tratada com sulfametoxazol/trimetropim (86,2%). Apenas 44,6% dos pacientes aderiram ao tratamento. A maior perda de seguimento foi observada nos primeiros 4 meses de tratamento (p < 0,02). Adesão ao tratamento foi maior em pacientes com do que sem envolvimento pulmonar (RC: 2,986; IC95% 1,351-6,6599) e maior para os pacientes com do que sem tuberculose associada (RC 2,763; IC95% 1,004-7,604). Conclusões: A adesão ao tratamento da paracoccidioidomicose foi baixa e os primeiros 4 meses constituíram o período com maior evasão. Pacientes com envolvimento paracocidióidico pulmonar ou tuberculose associada revelaram maior adesão ao tratamento da paracoccidioidomicose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 485-492, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957449

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to describe cryptococcal meningitis (CM) cases and the associated demographic, clinical, and microbiological data obtained from cities in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Midwestern region of Brazil. METHODS: The data from 129 patients with laboratory-confirmed CM admitted from 1997 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The molecular types of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were analyzed to determine their geographic distribution. RESULTS: The patients had a mean age of 37 years and consisted mostly of men (76.7%). Most of the Cryptococcus isolates were obtained from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and included 105 (87.5%) and 5 (55.6%) isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii complexes, respectively. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of URA5 revealed that most of the isolates were C. neoformans molecular type VNI (89.1%), whereas the molecular types VGII (7%) and VNII (3.9%) were observed less frequently. Notably, 65% of the cases with a time from symptom onset to laboratory diagnosis of more than 60 days resulted in fatalities, and sequelae were observed among the patients who survived. CONCLUSIONS: The present study documents the occurrence of neurocryptococcosis, which is mainly caused by C. neoformans VNI, in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with probable autochthonous cases in the Brazilian Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, and a biome where cryptococcosis has not yet been explored.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/epidemiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Fungal/cerebrospinal fluid , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Genotype , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 352-356, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041467

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION We describe the clinical and laboratorial features of oral candidiasis in 66 HIV-positive patients. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques were performed for differentiation of Candida spp. isolated from patients at a public teaching hospital in Midwest Brazil. RESULTS: Oral lesions, mainly pseudomembranous, were significantly related to higher levels of immunosuppression. Of 45 Candida isolates, 66.7% were C. albicans. Most of the isolates were susceptible to the antifungal drugs tested. CONCLUSIONS: Oral lesions were associated with higher immunosuppression levels. Lower susceptibility to antifungals by non-albicans isolates supports the importance of surveillance studies using susceptibility tests to aid in the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis, Oral/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Mycological Typing Techniques , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Middle Aged
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 205-212, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974346

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study compares patients with and without non-viral microbial keratitis in relation to sociodemographic variables, clinical aspects, and involved causative agent. Clinical aspects, etiology and therapeutic procedures were assessed in patients with and without keratitis that were diagnosed in an Eye Care Center in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: (a) cases: 64 patients with non-viral microbial keratitis diagnosed at biomicroscopy; and (b) controls: 47 patients with other eye disorders that were not keratitis. Labor activity related to agriculture, cattle raising, and contact lens use were all linked to keratitis occurrence (p < 0.005). In patients with keratitis, the most common symptoms were pain and photophobia, and the most frequently used medicines were fourth-generation fluoroquinolones (34.4%), amphotericin B (31.3%), and natamycin (28.1%). Microbial keratitis evolved to corneal perforation in 15.6% of cases; transplant was indicated in 10.9% of cases. Regarding the etiology of this condition, 23 (42.2%) keratitis cases were caused by bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 12.5%), 17 (39.1%) by fungi (Fusarium spp., 14.1% and Aspergillus spp., 4.7%), and 4 (6.3%) by Acanthamoeba. Patients with keratitis present with a poorer prognosis. Rapid identification of the etiologic agent is indispensable and depends on appropriate ophthalmological collection and microbiological techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Keratitis/microbiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Brazil , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/genetics , Keratitis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 843-847, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041438

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Incidence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. from two teaching public hospitals are described. METHODS The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute broth microdilution and genomic differentiation using PCR. RESULTS Of 221 Candida isolates, 50.2% were obtained from intensive care unit patients; 71.5% were recovered from urine and 9.1% from bloodstream samples. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto was the most common candidemia agent. CONCLUSIONS We observed variations in Candida species distribution in hospitals in the same geographic region and documented the emergence of non-C. albicans species resistant to azoles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Voriconazole/pharmacology , Hospitals, Public , Middle Aged
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 501-504, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749737

ABSTRACT

The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany) mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2%) K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2%) were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the blaKPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology , beta-Lactamases , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Tertiary Care Centers , beta-Lactamases/genetics
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(4): 426-432, Jul-Aug/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683325

ABSTRACT

Introduction Vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis is considered a critical determinant of bloodstream infection (BSI) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of BSI in patients with end-stage renal disease using central venous catheters for hemodialysis. Methods A cohort study was conducted in a public teaching hospital in central-western Brazil from April 2010 to December 2011. For every patient, we noted the presence of hyperemia/exudation upon catheter insertion, as well as fever, shivering, and chills during hemodialysis. Results Fifty-nine patients were evaluated. Thirty-five (59.3%) patients started dialysis due to urgency, 37 (62.7%) had BSI, and 12 (20%) died. Hyperemia at the catheter insertion site (64.9%) was a significant clinical manifestation in patients with BSI. Statistical analysis revealed 1.7 times more cases of BSI in patients with hypoalbuminemia compared with patients with normal albumin levels. The principal infective agents identified in blood cultures and catheter-tip cultures were Staphylococcus species (24 cases), non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (7 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 5 cases of Chryseobacterium indologenes), and Candida species (6). Among the Staphylococci identified, 77.7% were methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Of the bacteria isolated, the most resistant were Chryseobacterium indologenes and Acinetobacter baumannii. Conclusions Blood culture was demonstrated to be an important diagnostic test and identified over 50% of positive BSI cases. The high frequency of BSI and the isolation of multiresistant bacteria were disturbing findings. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism, although Gram-negative bacteria predominated overall. These results highlight the importance of infection prevention and control measures in dialysis units. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Fungemia/microbiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Hospitals, Teaching , Kidney Failure, Chronic/microbiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 114-115, Jan.-Feb. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666808

ABSTRACT

The increased frequency and dissemination of enterobacteria resistant to various antimicrobials is currently worldwide concern. In January 2010, a 94-year-old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was admitted to the University Hospital. This patient died 21 days after hospitalization due to the clinical worsening. Klebsiella pneumoniae producing of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was isolated of urine culture. This bacterium demonstrated resistance to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ertapenem and imipenem. Susceptibility to cefoxitin, cefepime, meropenem, colistin and tigecycline. This study reports the first case of infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the bla kpc gene in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil , Fatal Outcome , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1302-1308, Oct.-Dec. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665812

ABSTRACT

Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources.Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Antifungal Agents/toxicity , Dilution/methods , Ethanol/analysis , Plant Extracts/toxicity , In Vitro Techniques , Plants, Medicinal/toxicity , Grassland , Methods
13.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 71(4): 762-765, out.-dez. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: lil-706146

ABSTRACT

A infecção primária do pericárdio e do endocárdio é rara. Este estudo descreve a evolução de uma criança com cardite reumática aguda, complicada com pericardite infecciosa bacteriana, secundária a abscessos de pele e endocardite fúngica. O tempo prolongado de internação, o uso de cateter venoso central e a antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro foram os fatores que provavelmente favoreceram a colonização, a candidíase invasiva e o desenvolvimento da endocardite por levedura do complexo Candida parapsilosis.


Subject(s)
Candidemia , Endocarditis , Pericarditis
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 15(3): 195-199, May-June 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589947

ABSTRACT

Infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has spread worldwide, with limited options for treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate metallo-β-lactamase-producing P. aeruginosa strains and compare their genetic profile using samples collected from patients in intensive care units. Forty P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from two public hospitals in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, from January 1st, 2007 to June 31st, 2008. Profiles of antimicrobial susceptibility were determined using the agar diffusion method. Metallo-β-lactamase was investigated using the double-disk diffusion test and PCR. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Respiratory and urinary tracts were the most common isolation sites. Of the 40 samples tested, 72.5 percent (29/40) were resistant to ceftazidime and 92.5 percent (37/40) to imipenem, whereas 65 percent (26/40) were resistant to both antimicrobials. Fifteen pan-resistant samples were found. Five percent (2/40) of samples were positive for metallo-β-lactamase on the phenotype test. No metallo-β-lactamase subtype was detected by PCR. Macrorestriction analysis revealed 14 distinct genetic patterns. Based on the superior accuracy of PCR, it can be inferred that P. aeruginosa isolates from the investigated hospitals have alternative mechanisms of carbapenem resistance. The results also suggest clonal spread of P. aeruginosa between the studied hospitals.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , beta-Lactam Resistance , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Intensive Care Units , Molecular Typing , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/genetics
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(2): 144-148, abr. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-579643

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To verify the possibility of an experimental infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and to confirm by PCR that the symptoms manifested after infection were due to the virulence factors of the studied bacteria. METHODS: Experimental units were 14 healthy pups of Boxer breed, aged 60 days. The animals were divided into three groups. One animal from each litter was included in a control group and the remaining animals were divided into two groups: one inoculated with strain 4083, and another one inoculated with strain SPA14. Gelatinous capsules coated with enteric-coating solution were used for the inoculation of strains. E. coli isolation from feces was performed for all tested animals, and the extracted DNA was subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). RESULTS: All infected animals presented diarrhea and had the gene eae amplified by PCR. CONCLUSION: The efficiency of PCR for the studied strains indicates that this technique can be recommended for the diagnosis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli as a differential from other pathogens causing diarrhea. It may also be used in the future to verify whether other virulence factors (bfpA gene and EAF plasmid) persist after infection and to assess the pathogenicity of these bacteria.


OBJETIVO: Verificar a possibilidade de uma infecção experimental com Escherichia coli enteropatogênicas e confirmar por PCR que os sintomas manifestados após a infecção foram decorrentes dos fatores de virulência da bactéria estudada. MÉTODOS: As unidades experimentais foram 14 filhotes saudáveis com idade de 60 dias da raça Boxer. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos, sendo um controle de cada ninhada e o restante dividido em dois grupos, um de animais inoculados com a cepa 4083 e o outro de animais inoculados com a cepa SPA14. Para inoculação das cepas, utilizaram-se cápsulas gelatinosas revestidas com solução de revestimento entérico. O isolamento de E. coli das fezes foi realizado em todos os animais testados, e o DNA extraído foi submetido à técnica de PCR. RESULTADOS: Todos os animais infectados apresentaram diarréia e tiveram a gene eae amplificado por meio de PCR. CONCLUSÃO: Através da eficiência da PCR das amostras, a técnica seria recomendada para diagnóstico da Escherichia coli enteropatogênicas como diferencial de outros patógenos que causam diarréia, e, no futuro, verificar se outros fatores de virulência (gene bfpA e plasmídeo EAF) permaneceriam após a infecção, podendo avaliar a patogenicidade das EPEC.


Subject(s)
Dogs , Dogs/classification , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Infections/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 41(5): 459-463, set.-out. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-496709

ABSTRACT

O objetivo de nosso estudo foi realizar tipagem molecular de 25 amostras clínicas de Candida spp, isoladas de crianças com candidemia, internadas na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal de um Hospital Universitário entre 1998 a 2006. Dados demográficos e clínicos foram obtidos de prontuários para conhecimento dos aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos. Identificação das leveduras foi feita por método convencional e a susceptibilidade antifúngica por método de microdiluição. O perfil genético foi determinado pela técnica de RAPD-PCR. Candida albicans (11; 44 por cento) e Candida parapsilosis (10; 40 por cento) foram as mais isoladas. Dezessete (68 por cento) dos recém-nascidos tinham peso inferior a 1.500g. Prematuridade (92 por cento), uso de cateter venoso central (100 por cento), foram as condições de risco mais associados. Dezenove (76 por cento) pacientes foram a óbito. Apenas uma cepa de Candida parapsilosis, mostrou ser sensível dose dependente ao fluconazol. Na análise molecular, foram observados 11 padrões genéticos distintos. Somente em dois casos foi observada relação epidemiológica, sugerindo mesma fonte de infecção.


The aim of our study was to perform molecular typing on 25 clinical samples of Candida spp that were isolated from children with candidemia who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital between 1998 and 2006. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the medical records to ascertain the clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Yeast identification was done using conventional methods and susceptibility to antifungals was assessed using a microdilution method. The genetic profile was determined using the RAPD-PCR technique. Candida albicans (11; 44 percent) and Candida parapsilosis (10; 40 percent) were the species most frequently isolated. Seventeen (68 percent) of the newborns weighed less than 1,500g. Prematurity (92 percent) and use of a central venous catheter (100 percent) were the risk conditions with greatest association. Nineteen patients (76 percent) died. Only one strain of Candida parapsilosis showed dose-dependent sensitivity to fluconazole. Molecular analysis showed 11 distinct genetic patterns. An epidemiological relationship was seen in only two cases, thus suggesting the same source of infection.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/classification , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Fungemia/microbiology , Brazil , Candida/drug effects , Candida/genetics , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Hospitals, Public , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycological Typing Techniques , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 50(5): 265-268, Sept.-Oct. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-495760

ABSTRACT

The incidence of Candida bloodstream infection has increased over the past years. In the Center-West region of Brazil, data on candidemia are scarce. This paper reports a retrospective analysis of 96 cases of Candida bloodstream infection at a Brazilian tertiary-care teaching hospital in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, from January 1998 to December 2006. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from medical records and from the hospital's laboratory database. Patients' ages ranged from three days to 92 years, with 53 (55.2 percent) adults and 43 (44.8 percent) children. Of the latter, 25 (58.1 percent) were newborns. The risk conditions most often found were: long period of hospitalization, utilization of venous central catheter, and previous use of antibiotics. Fifty-eight (60.4 percent) patients died during the hospitalization period and eight (13.7 percent) of them died 30 days after the diagnosis of candidemia. Candida albicans (45.8 percent) was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis (34.4 percent), C. tropicalis (14.6 percent) and C. glabrata (5.2 percent). This is the first report of Candida bloodstream infection in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and it highlights the importance of considering the possibility of invasive Candida infection in patients exposed to risk factors, particularly among neonates and the elderly.


A incidência de infecções na corrente sangüínea causada por Candida spp. tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, os dados sobre candidemia são escassos. Realizamos uma análise retrospectiva de casos de infecção na corrente sangüínea por Candida em um hospital terciário de ensino de Mato Grosso do Sul. Noventa e seis episódios diagnosticados de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2006 foram incluídos no estudo. Os dados demográficos e clínicos foram obtidos de prontuários; os dados laboratoriais provieram de registros do laboratório hospitalar. Dos pacientes, 43 (44,8 por cento) eram crianças e 53 (55,2 por cento) adultos, com idades variando de três dias a 92 anos. Das crianças, 25 (58,1 por cento) eram recém-nascidas. As condições de risco mais encontradas foram: prolongado tempo de internação, uso de cateter venoso central e uso prévio de antibióticos. Cinqüenta e oito (60,4 por cento) pacientes foram a óbito durante a hospitalização e oito (13,7 por cento) deles foram a óbito 30 dias após o diagnóstico de candidemia. Candida albicans (45,8 por cento) foi a espécie mais prevalente seguida por C. parapsilosis (34,4 por cento), C. tropicalis (14,6 por cento) e C. glabrata (5,2 por cento). Esta é a primeira descrição de infecção na corrente sangüínea por espécies de Candida em Mato Grosso do Sul, confirmando a importância da suspeita clínica de infecções invasivas por tais microrganismos na evolução de pacientes expostos a fatores de risco, principalmente no caso de idosos e neonatos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Candida/classification , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Fungemia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Candidiasis/mortality , Fungemia/microbiology , Fungemia/mortality , Hospitals, Teaching , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
18.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 50(2): 75-78, Mar.-Apr. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-482218

ABSTRACT

To identify the clinical and epidemiological profile of cryptococcosis diagnosed at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, medical records of 123 patients admitted from January 1995 to December 2005 were analyzed. One hundred and four cases (84.5 percent) had HIV infection, six (4.9 percent) had other predisposing conditions and 13 (10.6 percent) were immunocompetent. Male patients predominated (68.3 percent) and their age ranged from 19 to 69 years (mean: 35.9). Most patients (73.2 percent) were born and lived lifelong in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Involvement of the central nervous system occurred in 103 patients (83.7 percent) and headache and vomiting were the most frequent symptoms. In 77 cases it was possible to identify the Cryptococcus species: 69 (89.6 percent) C. neoformans and eight (10.4 percent) C. gattii. Amphotericin B was the drug of choice for treatment (106/123), followed by fluconazole in 60 percent of cases. The overall lethality rate was 49.6 percent, being 51 percent among the HIV infected patients and 41.2 percent among the non-HIV infected (p > 0.05). Although cryptococcosis exhibited in our region a similar behavior to that described in the literature, the detection of an important rate of immunocompetent individuals and five C. gattii cryptococcosis in HIV-infected patients is noteworthy.


O perfil clínico-epidemiológico de 123 casos de criptococose diagnosticados no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, no período de janeiro de 1995 até dezembro de 2005, foi estudado retrospectivamente. Cento e quatro (84,9 por cento) casos tinham associação com HIV, seis (4,9 por cento) tinham outra condição predisponente e 13 (10,6 por cento) eram imunocompetentes. Houve predomínio do sexo masculino (68,3 por cento) e a idade variou de 19 a 69 anos (média de 35,9 anos). A maioria (73,2 por cento) era natural e procedente de Mato Grosso do Sul. O envolvimento do sistema nervoso central ocorreu em 103 (83,7 por cento) pacientes e os sintomas mais freqüentes foram cefaléia e vômitos. Em 77 casos foi possível identificar a espécie do agente, sendo 69 (89,6 por cento) C. neoformans e oito (10,4 por cento) C. gattii. O antifúngico mais utilizado foi anfotericina B (106/123) seguido de fluconazol em aproximadamente 60 por cento dos casos. A taxa de letalidade foi de 49,6 por cento, sendo 51 por cento entre os pacientes infectados pelo HIV e 41,2 por cento entre os não infectados pelo HIV (p > 0,005). Apesar da criptococose observada em nossa região apresentar comportamento semelhante ao descrito na literatura, chama a atenção a importante taxa da micose em imunocompetentes e cinco casos de infecção por C. gattii em pacientes HIV-positivos.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Cryptococcosis/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
19.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 49(1): 37-39, Jan.-Feb. 2007.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-444575

ABSTRACT

Thirty cases of histoplasmosis observed at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (HU-UFMS) from January 1998 to December 2005 are reported. Most (83.3 percent) of the patients were men, average 33.4 years old, 63.3 percent of them were born and living in Mato Grosso do Sul and 83.3 percent presented AIDS as an underlying disease. In almost all cases (96.7 percent) the disease occurred in its disseminated form and the most frequent clinical manifestations were: fever (83.3 percent), weight loss (70.0 percent), cough (63.3 percent), hepatomegaly and splenomegaly (40.0 percent), and lymph node enlargement (36.7 percent). The laboratory diagnosis was obtained in 29 patients by isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum from various clinical specimens cultivated in Sabouraud dextrose and brain heart infusion agar and in 16 patients the fungus was observed by direct microscopy of Giemsa-stained smears. The observed mortality was 40 percent. This is the first report in the literature of the occurrence of histoplasmosis in Mato Grosso do Sul State.


Foram estudados 30 casos de histoplasmose observados no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul - HU-UFMS, no período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2005. Os pacientes eram, na maioria, homens (83,3 por cento) jovens (média de 33,4 anos de idade), naturais e procedentes de Mato Grosso do Sul (63,3 por cento) e tinham AIDS como principal doença subjacente (83,3 por cento). Houve predomínio da forma disseminada (96,7 por cento) e as manifestações clínicas mais freqüentes foram: febre (83,3 por cento), emagrecimento (70,0 por cento) tosse (63,3 por cento), hepatoesplenomegalia (40,0 por cento) e linfonodomegalia (36,7 por cento). O diagnóstico laboratorial foi obtido por exame microscópio direto de esfregaços corados pela técnica de Giemsa, em 16 pacientes, e isolamento de H. capsulatum em cultivo nos meios de agar Sabouraud dextrose e agar infusão de cérebro e coração, de materiais diversos, em 29 pacientes. A letalidade observada foi de 40 por cento. O trabalho apresenta, pela primeira vez na literatura, a ocorrência de histoplasmose-doença no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Histoplasmosis/mortality
20.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; jan. 2003. 135 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-352667

ABSTRACT

Infecção nosocomiais resultam em considerável índice de mortalidade e morbidade, principalmente em crianças. Considerando as mudanças nos padrões de resistência a antimicrobianos que vêm ocorrendo no mundo, faz-se importante verificar a ocorrência e o perfil de susceptibilidade a esses agentes para otimizar o tratamento. Nesta tese, objetivou-se verificar a freqüência de microrganismos, perfil antimicrobiano e genético e os fatores de riscos associados à aquisição de infecção hospitalar (IH) em pacientes pediátricos de um hospital universitário no Mato Grosso do Sul. De Janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999 caracterizou-se 108 pacientes com IH, dos quais foram isolados 137 microrganismos. A identificação e susceptibilidade antimicrobiana foi feita por meio de provas convencionais e automatizada. Para derterminação da similaridade genética das cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae e staphylococcus aureus foiutilizada a técnica de eletroforese em campo pulsado. Acaracterização molecular deespécies de Candida foi realizada por meio da técnica de reação de polimerase em cadeia utilizando random amplified polymorphic DNA. Os patógenos forma isolados com maior freqüência de recém-nascidos nos quais infecções sagüíneas foram mais freqüentes. Os principais agentes isolados foram: Estafilococos coagulase negativa (37), S. aureus(26), P. aeruginosa (19), K. pneumoniae (18) e Candida spp (13). As condições de riscos mais relacionadas foram: internação prolongada (69,4 por cento), prematuridade (60,9 por cento) e utilização de procedimentos invasivos (95,4 por cento). Ciprofloxacina e imipenem foram as drogas mais ativas contra enterobactérias, P aeruginosa e A. calcoaceticus. Somente 23,1 por cento dos S. aureus foram resistentes à oxacilina. Na tipagem genômica, foram observados 14 padrões distintos entre as cepas de P.aeruginosa, 13 de K. pneumonice, 10 de S.aureus e 6 de Candida spp, demosntrando que a maioria não pertencia a um mesmo clone. As técnicas de PFGE e PCR-RAPD foram eficazes na discriminação das cepas analisadas. Espera-se que com esses estudos possamos subsidiar melhor a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar na tomada de medidas efetivas de prevenção e controle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Patients , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Staphylococcus aureus , Hospitals, University
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