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1.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 288-296, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918757

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a high-grade lung neuroendocrine tumor with a poor prognosis, similar to small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, it remains unclear whether to treat LCNEC as non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or as SCLC. We reviewed our experiences to suggest appropriate treatment strategy for resected pulmonary LCNEC. @*Materials and Methods@#Forty-four patients were treated for pathologically diagnosed pulmonary LCNEC during 2005‒2018. We considered curative surgery first in early-stage or some locally advanced tumors, unless medically inoperable. Adjuvant treatments were decided considering patient’s clinical and pathological features. After excluding two stage I tumors with radiotherapy alone and three stage III tumors with upfront chemotherapy, we analyzed 39 patients with stage I‒III pulmonary LCNEC, who underwent curative resection first. @*Results@#Adjuvant chemotherapy (NSCLC-based 91%, SCLC-based 9%) was performed in 62%, and adjuvant radiotherapy was done in three patients for pN2 or positive margin. None received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). With a median follow-up of 30 months, the 2- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 68% and 51%, and the 2- and 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 49% and 43%, respectively. Aged ≥67 years and SCLC-mixed pathology were significant poor prognostic factors for OS or RFS (p < 0.05). Among 17 recurrences, regional failures were most common (n = 6), and there were five brain metastases. @*Conclusions@#Surgery and adjuvant treatment (without PCI) could achieve favorable outcomes in pulmonary LCNEC, which was more similar to NSCLC, although some factors worsened the prognosis. The importance of intensified adjuvant therapies with multidisciplinary approach remains high.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1031-1040, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831130

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The benefits of reirradiation for head and neck cancer (HNC) have not been determined. This study evaluated the efficacy of reirradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for recurrent or second primary HNC (RSPHNC) and identified subgroups for whom reirradiation for RSPHNC is beneficial. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 118 patients from seven Korean institutions with RSPHNC who underwent IMRT-based reirradiation between 2006 and 2015 were evaluated through retrospective review of medical records. We assessed overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) within the radiotherapy (RT) field following IMRT-based reirradiation. Additionally, the OS curve according to the recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) suggested by the Multi-Institution Reirradiation (MIRI) Collaborative was determined. @*Results@#At a median follow-up period of 18.5 months, OS at 2 years was 43.1%. In multivariate analysis, primary subsite, recurrent tumor size, interval between RT courses, and salvage surgery were associated with OS. With regard to the MIRI RPA model, the class I subgroup had a significantly higher OS than class II or III subgroups. LC at 2 years was 53.5%. Multivariate analyses revealed that both intervals between RT courses and salvage surgery were prognostic factors affecting LC. Grade 3 or more toxicity and grade 5 toxicity rates were 8.5% and 0.8%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#IMRT-based reirradiation was an effective therapeutic option for patients with RSPHNC, especially those with resectable tumors and a long interval between RT courses. Further, our patients' population validated the MIRI RPA classification by showing the difference of OS according to MIRI RPA class.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719723

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hospital case volume on clinical outcomes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 1,073 patients with cT1-4N0-3M0 NPC were collected from a multi-institutional retrospective database (KROG 11-06). All patients received definitive radiotherapy (RT) either with three-dimensional-conformal RT (3D-CRT) (n=576) or intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) (n=497). The patients were divided into two groups treated at high volume institution (HVI) (n=750) and low volume institution (LVI) (n=323), defined as patient volume ≥ 10 (median, 13; range, 10 to 18) and < 10 patients per year (median, 3; range, 2 to 6), respectively. Endpoints were overall survival (OS) and loco-regional progression-free survival (LRPFS). RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 56.7 months, the outcomes were significantly better in those treated at HVI than at LVI. For the 614 patients of propensity score-matched cohort, 5-year OS and LRPFS were consistently higher in the HVI group than in the LVI group (OS: 78.4% vs. 62.7%, p < 0.001; LRPFS: 86.2% vs. 65.8%, p < 0.001, respectively). According to RT modality, significant difference in 5-year OS was observed in patients receiving 3D-CRT (78.7% for HVI vs. 58.9% for LVI, p < 0.001) and not in those receiving IMRT (77.3% for HVI vs. 75.5% for LVI, p=0.170). CONCLUSION: A significant relationship was observed between HVI and LVI for the clinical outcomes of patients with NPC. However, the difference in outcome becomes insignificant in the IMRT era, probably due to the standardization of practice by education.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Education , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
4.
Gut and Liver ; : 315-324, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic resection is a standard treatment for stage T1a esophageal cancer, with esophagectomy or radical radiation therapy (RT) performed for stage T1b lesions. This study aimed to compare treatment outcomes of each modality for clinical stage T1 esophageal cancer. METHODS: In total, 179 patients with clinical T1N0M0-stage esophageal cancer treated from 2006 to 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Sixty-two patients with clinical T1a-stage cancer underwent endoscopic resection. Among 117 patients with clinical T1b-stage cancer, 82 underwent esophagectomy, and 35 received chemoradiotherapy or RT. We compared overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates for each treatment modality. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 32 months (range, 1 to 120 months). The 5-year OS and RFS rates for patients with stage T1a cancer receiving endoscopic resection were 100% and 85%, respectively. For patients with stage T1b, the 5-year OS and RFS rates were 78% and 77%, respectively, for the esophagectomy group; 80% and 44%, respectively, for the RT alone group; and 96% and 80%, respectively, for the chemoradiation group. The esophagectomy group showed significantly higher RFS than the RT alone group (p=0.04). There was no significant difference in RFS between the esophagectomy and chemoradiation groups (p=0.922). Grade 4 or higher treatment-related complications occurred in four patients who underwent esophagectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic resection appeared to be an adequate treatment for patients with T1a-stage esophageal cancer. The multidisciplinary approach involving chemoradiation was comparable to esophagectomy in terms of survival outcome without serious complications for T1b-stage esophageal cancer.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophagectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies
5.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 193-200, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761010

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To explore the role of salvage radiotherapy (RT) for recurrent thymoma as an alternative to surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2015, 47 patients who received salvage RT for recurrent thymoma at Yonsei Cancer Center were included in this study. Recurrent sites included initial tumor bed (n = 4), pleura (n = 19), lung parenchyma (n = 10), distant (n = 9), and multiple regions (n = 5). Three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated RT were used in 29 and 18 patients, respectively. Median prescribed dose to gross tumor was 52 Gy (range, 30 to 70 Gy), with equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD₂). We investigated overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and patterns of failure. Local failure after salvage RT was defined as recurrence at the target volume receiving >50% of the prescription dose. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 83 months (range, 8 to 299 months). Five-year OS and PFS were 70% and 22%, respectively. The overall response rate was 97.9%; complete response, 34%; partial response, 44.7%; and stable disease, 19.1%. In multivariate analysis, histologic type and salvage RT dose (≥52 Gy, EQD₂) were significantly associated with OS. The high dose group (≥52 Gy, EQD₂) had significantly better outcomes than the low dose group (5-year OS: 80% vs. 59%, p = 0.046; 5-year PFS: 30% vs. 14%, p=0.002). Treatment failure occurred in 34 patients; out-of-field failure was dominant (intra-thoracic recurrence 35.3%; extrathoracic recurrence 11.8%), while local failure rate was 5.8%. CONCLUSION: Salvage RT for recurrent thymoma using high doses and advanced precision techniques produced favorable outcomes, providing evidence that recurrent thymoma is radiosensitive.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung , Multivariate Analysis , Pleura , Prescriptions , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Thymoma , Treatment Failure
6.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 304-316, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741960

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The indication of elective neck treatment (ENT) for clinically N0 (cN0) paranasal sinus (PNS) carcinoma remains unclear. We aimed to investigate different treatment outcomes regarding ENT and propose optimal recommendations for ENT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients with cN0 PNS carcinoma who underwent curative-intent treatment between 1992 and 2015. Survival outcomes and pattern of failure were compared between patients who received ENT and those who did not. We sought to identify significant patient or pathologic factors regarding treatment outcomes. RESULTS: Among 124 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, 40 (32%) received ENT (‘ENT (+) group’) and 84 (68%) did not (‘ENT (−) group’). With a median follow-up of 54 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 67%, and the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 45%. There was no significant difference between the ENT (+) and ENT (−) groups regarding OS (p = 0.67) and PFS (p = 0.50). Neither group showed a significantly different pattern of failure, including regional failure (p = 0.91). There was no specific benefit, even in the subgroups analysis by tumor site, histologic type, and T stage. Nevertheless, patients who ever had regional and/or distant failure showed significantly worse prognosis. CONCLUSION: ENT did not significantly affect the survival outcome or pattern of failure in patients with cN0 PNS carcinomas, showing that ENT should not be generalized in this group. However, further discussion on the optimal strategy for ENT should continue because of the non-negligible regional failure rates and significantly worse prognosis after regional failure events.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neck , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1214-1225, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717746

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and functional outcomes in patients with primary base of tongue (BOT) cancer who received definitive radiotherapy (RT) or surgery followed by radiotherapy (SRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2002 and December 2016, 102 patients with stage I-IVB primary BOT cancer underwent either definitive RT (n=46) or SRT (n=56), and treatment outcomes were compared between two groups. The expression of p16 was also analyzed. RESULTS: The RT group had more patients with advanced T stage (T3-4) disease (58.7% vs. 35.7%, p=0.021) and who received chemotherapy (91.3% vs. 37.5%, p < 0.001) than the SRT group. At a median follow up of 36.9 months (range, 3.3 to 181.5 months), the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 75.5% and 68.7%, respectively. With respect to treatment group, the 5-year OS and DFS in the RT and SRT groups did not differ significantly (OS, 68.7% vs. 80.5%, p=0.601; DFS, 63.1% vs. 73.1%, p=0.653). In multivariate analysis, OS differed significantly according to p16 expression (p16-negative vs. p16-positive; hazard ratio [HR], 0.145; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.025 to 0.853; p=0.033). Regarding DFS, p16 expression (p16-negative vs. p16-positive; HR, 0.164; 95% CI, 0.045 to 0.598; p=0.006) showed a significant effect in multivariate analysis. Functional defects (late grade ≥ 3 dysphagia or voice alteration) were more frequently reported in the SRT than in the RT group (16.1% vs. 2.2%, p=0.021). CONCLUSION: Despite advanced disease, patients in the RT group showed comparable survival outcomes and better functional preservation than those in the SRT group.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Deglutition Disorders , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Organ Preservation , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Tongue Neoplasms , Tongue , Treatment Outcome , Voice
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223222

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Adequate control of breakthrough pain is essential for patients with cancer. Managing breakthrough pain mainly depends on understanding the concept of breakthrough pain and the proper usage of rescue medication by physicians. This study aims to assess the attitudes and practice patterns of palliative physicians in managing breakthrough pain for patients in Korea. METHODS: This study was based on data from the 2014 breakthrough cancer pain survey conducted by the Korean Society for Hospice and Palliative Care. One hundred physicians participated in the online survey. Among total 33 self-reported questionnaires, twelve items were selected in this analysis. RESULTS: Rapid onset of action is the main influencing factor in selecting rescue opioids. Oral oxycodone (65%) and parenteral morphine (27%) are commonly used. A few physicians (3%) prefer to use transmucosal fentanyl. The percentage of physicians prescribing oral oxycodone due to its rapid onset of action is just 21.5%, whereas the percentage of physicians using parenteral morphine is 81.5%. Two thirds of respondents (66%) answered that breakthrough pain is not well controlled with rescue medications. CONCLUSION: There is a gap between the needs of physicians in terms of the perceived difficulties of managing breakthrough cancer pain and their practice patterns selecting rescue medications.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Breakthrough Pain , Fentanyl , Hospices , Humans , Korea , Morphine , Oxycodone , Palliative Care , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1097-1105, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160264

ABSTRACT

@#PURPOSE: The impact of postoperative ipsilateral neck radiotherapy (INRT) versus bilateral neck radiotherapy (BNRT) on the clinical outcomes of patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma was analyzed retrospectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between October 2001 and June 2012, 241 patients with T1-2 and N0-N2b tonsillar carcinoma from 16 institutes underwent postoperative INRT (n=84) or BNRT (n=157) following a tonsillectomy. Seventy patients were identified from each group by propensity score matching and compared in terms of the overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method with a log-rank test. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 55 months (range, 3 to 133 months). The survival outcomes in the INRT and BNRT groups were similar: 5-year OS (92.8% vs. 94.0%, p=0.985), DFS (80.5% vs. 94.2%. p=0.085), LRRFS (88.1% vs. 97.1%, p=0.083), and DMFS (92.7% vs. 97.0%, p=0.370). Subgroup analysis revealed no contralateral neck recurrence in 61 patients with T1-2N0-2a regardless of the treatment groups. For 79 patients with N2b, contralateral neck recurrence was more common in the INRT group than in the BNRT group (7.9% vs. 0.0%), but the difference was not significant (p=0.107). The overall grade ≥ 2 toxicities were lower in the INRT group: acute (45.7% vs. 74.3%, p=0.001) and late (4.3% vs. 31.4%, p < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: INRT is an attractive strategy for patients with T1-2N0-2a tonsillar carcinoma compared to BNRT. For patients with N2b, there was a small risk of contralateral neck recurrence when treated with INRT, but its impact on the OS was limited with successful salvage treatment.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Epithelial Cells , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Methods , Neck , Palatine Tonsil , Propensity Score , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy , Tonsillar Neoplasms , Tonsillectomy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167301

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The correlation between radiation dose and loco-regional control (LRC) was evaluated in patients with stage II-III esophageal cancer treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 236 stage II-III esophageal cancer patients treated with definitive CRT at Yonsei Cancer Center between 1994 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Among these, 120 received a radiation dose of 60 Gy) is associated with increased LRC, PFS, and OS in patients with stage II-III esophageal cancer treated with definitive CRT.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Drug Therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms , Humans , Karnofsky Performance Status , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies
11.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 153-162, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44437

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate intracranial control after surgical resection according to the adjuvant treatment received in order to assess the optimal radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2003 and 2015, a total of 53 patients with brain oligometastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent metastasectomy. The patients were divided into three groups according to the adjuvant treatment received: whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) ± boost (WBRT ± boost group, n = 26), local RT/Gamma Knife surgery (local RT group, n = 14), and the observation group (n = 13). The most commonly used dose schedule was WBRT (25 Gy in 10 fractions, equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions [EQD2] 26.04 Gy) with tumor bed boost (15 Gy in 5 fractions, EQD2 16.25 Gy). RESULTS: The WBRT ± boost group showed the lowest 1-year intracranial recurrence rate of 30.4%, followed by the local RT and observation groups, at 66.7%, and 76.9%, respectively (p = 0.006). In the WBRT ± boost group, there was no significant increase in the 1-year new site recurrence rate of patients receiving a lower dose of WBRT (EQD2) <27 Gy compared to that in patients receiving a higher WBRT dose (p = 0.553). The 1-year initial tumor site recurrence rate was lower in patients receiving tumor bed dose (EQD2) of ≥42.3 Gy compared to those receiving <42.3 Gy, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.347). CONCLUSIONS: Adding WBRT after resection of brain oligometastases from NSCLC seems to enhance intracranial control. Furthermore, combining lower-dose WBRT with a tumor bed boost may be an attractive option.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Metastasectomy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
12.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 163-171, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44436

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is widely used therapeutic technique, predictive factors of radiation pneumonitis (RP) after SABR remain undefined. We aimed to investigate the predictive factors affecting RP in patients with primary or metastatic lung tumors who received SABR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, we reviewed 59 patients with 72 primary or metastatic lung tumors treated with SABR, and performed analyses of clinical and dosimetric variables related to symptomatic RP. SABR was delivered as 45–60 Gy in 3–4 fractions, which were over 100 Gy in BED when the α/β value was assumed to be 10. Tumor volume and other various dose volume factors were analyzed using median value as a cutoff value. RP was graded per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03. RESULTS: At the median follow-up period of 11 months, symptomatic RP was observed in 13 lesions (12 patients, 18.1%), including grade 2 RP in 11 lesions and grade 3 in 2 lesions. Patients with planning target volume (PTV) of ≤14.35 mL had significantly lower rates of symptomatic RP when compared to others (8.6% vs. 27%; p = 0.048). Rates of symptomatic RP in patients with internal gross tumor volume (iGTV) >4.21 mL were higher than with ≤4.21 mL (29.7% vs. 6.1%; p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of symptomatic RP following treatment with SABR was acceptable with grade 2 RP being observed in most patients. iGTV over 4.21 mL and PTV of over 14.35 mL were significant predictive factors related to symptomatic RP.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Radiation Pneumonitis , Radiotherapy , Risk Factors , Tumor Burden
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6984

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of adjuvant treatment for curatively resected thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and determine the optimal adjuvant treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred ninety-five patients who underwent a curative resection for thoracic ESCC between 1994 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Postoperatively, the patients received no adjuvant treatment (no-adjuvant group, n=68), adjuvant chemotherapy (AC group, n=62), radiotherapy (RT group, n=41), or chemoradiotherapy (CRT group, n=24). Chemotherapy comprised cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil administration every 3 weeks. The median RT dose was 45.0 Gy (range, 34.8 to 59.4 Gy). The overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional recurrence (LRR), and distant metastasis (DM) rates were estimated. RESULTS: At a median follow-up duration of 42.2 months (range, 6.3 to 215.2 months), the 5-year OS and DFS were 37.6% and 31.4%, respectively. After adjusting for other clinicopathologic variables, the AC and CRT groups had a significantly better OS and DFS compared to the no-adjuvant group (p < 0.05). The LRR rate was significantly lower in the RT and CRT groups than in the no-adjuvant group (p < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was observed in the AC group. In the no-adjuvant and AC groups, 25% of patients received high-dose salvage RT due to LRR. The DM rates were similar. The anastomotic stenosis and leakage were similar in the treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant treatment might prolong survival after an ESCC resection, and RT contributes to a reduction of the LRR. Overall, the risks and benefits should be weighed properly when selecting the optimal adjuvant treatment.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cisplatin , Constriction, Pathologic , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Epithelial Cells , Esophageal Neoplasms , Fluorouracil , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6983

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) for a carcinoma of the external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 32 patients who received RT from 1990 to 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The Pittsburgh classification was used to stage all the cancers (early stage, T1/T2 [n=12]; advanced stage, T3/T4 or N positive [n=20]). Twenty-one patients (65.6%) were treated with postoperative RT and 11 patients (34.4%) were treated with definitive RT. The median radiation doses for postoperative and definitive RT were 60 Gy and 64.8 Gy, respectively. Chemotherapy was administered to seven patients (21.9%). RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates for all patients were 57% and 52%, respectively. The disease control rates for the patients with early stage versus advanced stage carcinomawere 55.6% (5/9) and 50% (6/12) in the postoperative RT group and 66.7% (2/3) and 37.5% (3/8) in the definitive RT group, respectively. Overall, 15 cases (14 patients, 46.7%) experienced treatment failure; these failures were classified as local in four cases, regional in one case, and distant in 10 cases. The median follow-up period after RT was 51 months (range, 7 to 286 months). CONCLUSION: Patients with early stage carcinoma achieved better outcomes when definitive RT was used. Advanced stage carcinoma patients experienced better outcomes with postoperative RT. The high rate of distant failure after RT, with or without surgery, reflected the lack of a consensus regarding the best therapeutic approach for treating carcinoma of the EAC and middle ear.


Subject(s)
Classification , Consensus , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Ear Canal , Ear, Middle , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Failure
15.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 280-289, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33373

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Early hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC) is a rarely diagnosed disease, for which the optimal treatment has not been defined yet. We assessed patterns of failure and outcomes in early HPSCC treated with various therapeutic approaches to identify its optimal treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with stage I (n = 10) and II (n = 26) treated between January 1992 and March 2014 were reviewed. Patients received definitive radiotherapy (RT) (R group, n = 10), surgery only (S group, n = 19), or postoperative RT (PORT group, n = 7). All patients in both the R and PORT groups received elective bilateral neck irradiation. In the S group, 7 patients had ipsilateral and 8 had bilateral dissection, while 4 patients had no elective dissection. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 48 months, the 5-year locoregional control (LRC) rate was 65%. Six patients had local failure, 1 regional failure (RF), 3 combined locoregional failures, and 2 distant failures. There was no difference in 5-year LRC among the R, S, and PORT groups (p = 0.17). The presence with a pyriform sinus apex extension was a prognosticator related to LRC (p = 0.01) in the multivariate analysis. Patients with a bilaterally treated neck showed a trend toward a lower RF rate (p = 0.08). CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients with early stage HPSCC involving the pyriform sinus apex might need a tailored approach to improve LRC. Additionally, our study confirms elective neck treatment might have an efficacious role in regional control.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Neck , Pyriform Sinus , Radiotherapy , Treatment Failure
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61893

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared the treatment results and toxicity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy (CCRT) alone (the CRT arm) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by CCRT (the NCT arm). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multi-institutional retrospective study was conducted to review NPC patterns of care and treatment outcome. Data of 568 NPC patients treated by CCRT alone or by neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by CCRT were collected from 15 institutions. Patients in both treatment arms were matched using the propensity score matching method, and the clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: After matching, 300 patients (150 patients in each group) were selected for analysis. Higher 5-year locoregional failure-free survival was observed in the CRT arm (85% vs. 72%, p=0.014). No significant differences in distant failure-free survival (DFFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival were observed between groups. In subgroup analysis, the NCT arm showed superior DFFS and DFS in stage IV patients younger than 60 years. No significant difference in compliance and toxicity was observed between groups, except the radiation therapy duration was slightly shorter in the CRT arm (50.0 days vs. 53.9 days, p=0.018). CONCLUSION: This study did not show the superiority of NCT followed by CCRT over CCRT alone. Because NCT could increase the risk of locoregional recurrences, it can only be considered in selected young patients with advanced stage IV disease. The role of NCT remains to be defined and should not be viewed as the standard of care.


Subject(s)
Arm , Chemoradiotherapy , Compliance , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Methods , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Propensity Score , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61892

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)-derived parameters as prognostic indices for disease progression and survival in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the effect of high-dose radiotherapy for a subpopulation with PET-based poor prognoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven stage III and Iva-b NPC patients who underwent definitive treatment and PET were reviewed. For each primary, nodal, and whole tumor, maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were evaluated. RESULTS: Based on the C-index (0.666) and incremental area under the curve (0.669), the whole tumor TLGwas the most useful predictorfor progression-free survival (PFS); thewhole tumor TLG cut-off value showing the best predictive performance was 322.7. In multivariate analysis, whole tumor TLG was a significant prognostic factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14 to 0.65; p=0.002) and OS (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.79; p=0.02). Patients with low whole tumor TLG showed the higher 5-year PFS in the subgroup for only patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy (77.4% vs. 53.0%, p=0.01). In the subgroup of patients with high whole tumor TLG, patients receiving an EQD₂≥ 70 Gy showed significantly greater complete remission rates (71.4% vs. 33.3%, p=0.03) and higher 5-year OS (74.7% vs. 19.6%, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that whole tumor TLG could be an independent prognostic factor and high-dose radiotherapy could improve outcomes for NPC showing high whole tumor TLG.


Subject(s)
Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Electrons , Glycolysis , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Tumor Burden
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210749

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic significance of SOX2 gene amplification and expression in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pathological specimens were obtained from 33 patients with stage III lung SCC treated with surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy between 1996 and 2008. SOX2 gene amplification and protein expression were analyzed using fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to their SOX2 gene amplification and protein expression status. Kaplan-Meier estimates and a Cox proportional hazards model were used to identify the prognostic factors affecting patient survival. RESULTS: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 58 months (range, 5 to 102 months). SOX2 gene amplification was observed in 22 patients and protein overexpression in 26 patients. SOX2 overexpression showed significant association with SOX2 gene amplification (p=0.002). In multivariate analysis, SOX2 overexpression was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (hazard ratios [HR], 0.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.002 to 0.5; p=0.005) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.65; p=0.01). Age (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.98; p=0.046) and total radiation dose (HR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.7; p=0.02) were the independent prognostic factors for OS and DFS. Patients with SOX2 amplification did not show a longer OS (p=0.95) and DFS (p=0.48). CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that SOX2 overexpression could be used as a positive prognostic factor in patients with stage III lung SCC receiving adjuvant radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Gene Amplification , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Joints , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Multivariate Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169453

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the treatment outcomes for locally advanced resectable hypopharyngeal cancer between organ-preserving chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and surgery followed by radiotherapy (SRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 91 patients with stage III/IV hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy (RT). In the CRT group (n=34), 18 patients were treated with concurrent CRT and 16 patients with induction chemotherapy plus concurrent CRT. In the SRT group (n=57), six patients were treated with total laryngopharyngectomy, 34 patients with total laryngectomy (TL) and partial pharyngectomy (PP), and 17 patients with PP, which were followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (n=41) or CRT (n=16). The median RT dose was 70 Gy for CRT and 59.4 Gy for SRT. RESULTS: Five-year local control (84.1% vs. 90.9%), and disease-free survival (DFS, 51.0% vs. 52.7%) and overall survival (OS, 58.6% vs. 56.6%) showed no significant difference between the CRT and SRT groups. The functional larynx-preservation rate was higher in the CRT group (88.2% vs. 29.8%). Treatment-related toxicity, requiring surgical intervention, occurred more frequently in the SRT group (37% vs. 12%). In the SRT group, TL resulted in a significantly higher DFS than larynx-sparing surgery (63.9% vs. 26.5%, p=0.027). Treatment outcome of the SRT group improved when only patients with TL were considered (n=40); however, 5-year OS (67.1% vs. 58.6%, p=0.830) and DFS (63.9% vs. 51.0%, p=0.490) did not improve significantly when compared to the CRT group. CONCLUSION: Organ preserving CRT provided a treatment outcome that is comparable to SRT for locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer, while offering an opportunity for functional larynx-preservation and reduced treatment-related toxicity.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Induction Chemotherapy , Laryngectomy , Organ Preservation , Pharyngectomy , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Treatment Outcome
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